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Full text of "The United States biographical dictionary and portrait gallery of eminent and self-made men; Wisconsin volume"

977.5 

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GENEALOGY roi LECTION 



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3 1833 01715 8434 





GOVERNOR OFWISCONSIN 1864-65. 



THE UNITED STATES' * 



BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 



PORTRAIT GALLERY 



Eminent and Self-made Men. 



WISCONSIN VOLUME. 



CHICAGO, CINCINNATI AND NEW YORK: 

AMERICAN BIOGRAPHICAL PUBLISHING COMPANY. j 

1S77. 



15"148,0 
PREFACE 



IN undertaking the publication of the Biographical Dictionary the publishers are guided by two 
business principles : First, the belief that they are supplying a public need ; and second, the con- 
viction that they will be able to supply the best work on the subject. 

The belief that the work is needed is founded on the fact that the world worships success, and 
is glad to learn how it has been brought about. The truth of this is shown in the fact that if a man 
be poor, though he have the learning of a Blackstone, the genius of a Watt, or the patient persever- 
ance of a Goodyear, yet, until he has achieved success, mankind has no interest in his history. His 
aspirations, his anxieties and his heart struggles, may have an interest for beings of higher intelligence, 
but for the mass of mankind these have no charms. But if by some cunning device, by' some daring 
enterprise, or after long struggles and perseverance, he acquire a fortune, then the reluctant world is 
lavish in its admiration, his history is full of interest, and every one is anxious to know how he 
achieved success. To gratify this universal longing, it is proposed to give the history of the lives of 
six hundred successful men of Wisconsin. 

The Publishers found the second business principle on the fact that they are determined to spare 
neither labor nor expense in giving to the world the most authentic information how these men have 
won fortune, how the world has been benefited by their labors, and what has been the turning-point 
of their success. These examples are of great interest, may spread good seed, encourage the weary, 
give new life to the desponding, and energy to the aspiring. In the hearts of the young there are 
ever hopes and yearnings ; and although seldom expressed, and often not even acknowledged to them- 
selves, they want only the inspiration of example to point the way, to accomplish the full fruition of 
their hopes. 

The Publishers believe they are engaged in a laudable enterprise, and trust to a discerning public 
for a liberal response. It is but just to mention that not one cent has been asked or received from 
the parties whose biographies have been given in this work ; nor is it intended to pander to the vanity 
of the weak. Eulogy belongs to the dead, not to the living. A record of a man's life and works 
constitutes his biography; the praise of his virtues is more appropriate in an obituary. It is our 
object to seek out merit, and, by a simple narration of the origin, career, and achievements of indi- 
viduals, show how the country has become great, and who are the men that have helped to do the 
work. To know how to achieve success is a laudable craving of the human heart, and to teach by 
example is the best mode of satisfying that craving. 

The rapid growth of the United States is unparalleled in the world's history. If it has been done 
by human hands, who has done it.' Have the heroes of peace no honor.' If they have, where is 
the record.' Perhaps it may be found in the dusty files of some daily papers, where lie hidden the 
records of the worthiest deeds, while acts of rapine fill the pages of history. These may be sensa- 
tional, but they are not exemplary. 

There may be yet living some few who took part in the War of Independence ; so that it may be 



4 I' RE FACE. 

said that in one life millions of acres of wild lands have been brought under cultivation, cities have 
S]jrung uj) as if by magic, industries have been developed which challenge the world for the vastness, 
utility and beauty of their productions. The arts have made great progress, and the sons and daugh- 
ters of America vie with the most eminent of the Old World. To make a record, in an accessible 
form, of the men who have achieved so much, is a desideratum which has a just claim upon every 
admirer of his country's progress. , 

The publication of this work will contribute to the supply of materials for the future historian. 
The day has arrived when something more than the memories of the ancestry of the titled few shall 
usurp the admiration of mankind. A new era, a new civilization, has sprung up, which furnishes a 
different material for history. There has been enough written of kings, feudal barons, and the turbu- 
lence of unbridled power. It is the social condition of the people that makes the history of the 
United States, which is by far more interesting, by far more useful, and by far more e.\emplary, than 
all the feuds and cabals which crowd the pages of European history. 

The interests of the United States demand that her history should be modeled after her institu- 
tions, and viewed from that standpoint; honor should be given to those who have made the country 
great. A man is a constituent of a community; so is the history of an individual a constituent of 
the history of a country ; and that history which best represents the lives of prominent individuals 
will best represent the social condition of a country. 

The B10GR.A.PHICAL Dictionary will furnish this material. It is purely an American idea, and is 
in the direction of assimilating American literature with American civilization. A sound public 
opinion is essential to the permanency of a stable government. Opinions formed by a literature 
written for a people living under a different civilization, which includes monarchy and prerogative, 
aristocracy and privilege, and an e.xalted idea of birth and station, is wholly in conflict with republican 
simplicity. Therefore, however proud we may be of the names which adorn our language, we cannot 
be blind to the fact that a European literature is not an unalloyed blessing. A national literature 
must represent tlie national sentiment; should be in accordance with the principles, and a support to 
the institutions, of the country. A sound literature is one of the greatest aids to good order, and 
one of the best supports of the permanency and stability of a government. 

In making a selection of names for the Biographical Dictionary, the Publishers have aimed to 
give a view of the representatives of the various interests of the State; the Statesmen, the Preachers, 
the Lawyers, the Merchants, the Manufacturers, the Engineers, and indeed all who take part in the 
intellectual, social and material progress of the people. If all are not represented, it is because our 
efforts have failed to reach them, or because the parties themselves were not familiar with the impor- 
tance of the work, and have failed to furnish the necessary information. There are some who, from 
vain pride, have refused information; they feared that their names might be associated with names 
which did not come up to their standard ; others again, who are worthy citizens, have, from a false 
modesty, refused to give particulars, as they said their lives were not of sufficient importance, thereby 
accepting the humiliating position of being supernumeraries in society, who have no share in the com- 
mon interest — forgetting that in a few years their names, without a record, will be lost in oblivion, 
and their posterity deprived of the gratification and advantage of reference to an honorable ancestry. 

The Biographical Dictionary will present a galaxy of men whose careers will do honor to any 
country, exhibiting a variety of enterprise and the best illustration of social life ever published. The 
portraits have the accuracy of photographic art transferred to steel by the ablest engravers of England 
and America. 



THE UNITED STATES 

BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



IVISCONS/N VOLUME. 



HON. JAMES T. LEWIS, 

COLUMfiUS 



SEARCHING the streets of Athens with a 
lantern, Diogenes illumined a truth of his own 
discovering, namely, that men are a nation's rarest 
as well as most precious jewels; and we have dis- 
covered that of those who shine in the crown of the 
Republic, none have a higher worth than the faith- 
ful administrators of the law. Prominent, on the 
roll of true and good men, we find the name of 
James T. Lewis, a native of Clarendon, New York. 
He was born on the 30th of October, 1819, and is 
the son of Shubael Lewis and Eleanor Robert- 
son. His grandfather, Samuel Lewis, lived in Brim- 
field, Massachusetts. His father, a native of New 
England, was born on the 27th of February, 1783, 
and grew up from a poor boy, with a spirit of self- 
reliance and strong hope, and by his sterling qualities 
commanded universal respect. He was a man of 
sturdy enterprise and acquired large estates both in 
New York and Wisconsin. He was thrice married : 
first on the 29th of January, 1815; and the second 
time on the 15th of April, 1835, to Parna Nichols, 
who was born on the loth of April, 1798. She was 
a lady of the truest womanly qualities, a devoted 
wife, and all that a mother could be to the children 
placed under her care. Her pure life was devoted 
to the welfare of her family, and to the influence of 
her teachings and example the subject of this sketch, 
to-day, feels himself largely indebted for the success 
of his life. 

His third marriage was to Mary Bugbee. He died 
at the advanced age of seventy-eight years. 



The mother of our subject, a lady of Scotch 
descent, died on the 8th of October, 1834. 

Of Mr. Lewis' brothers and sisters, William L. was 
born October 19, 1815, and was married October 7, 
1842, to Miss Eliza Ann Martin, of Clarendon, New 
York. Shubael R. was born November 3, 1817 ; was 
a distinguished soldier in the Mexican war — the 
first to scale the walls of Chepultepec, and for his 
gallant conduct on the field was presented with a 
sword; married August 18, 1839, to Mrs. Sarah Ann 
(Nichols) Brown, widow of Harvey Brown, M.D. ; 
died in August, 1856. Hiram W. was born January 
13, 1823; married September 2, 1847, to. Miss Me- 
lissa P. Tousley. Mary Jane was born September 6, 
1825 ; married Oscar A. Harris. Andrew J. was born 
May 23, 1828; died January 20, 1840. Lydia A. was 
born September 22, 1831 ; died October 12, 1834. 

James T., the third son, after receiving a common- 
school education, completed a course of English 
and classical study in Clarkson Academy and Clin- 
ton Seminary in New York, and in 1842 began the 
study of law with Governor Selden, of Clarkson. 
He afterward removed to Wisconsin, and in 1845 
was admitted to the bar of the United States dis- 
trict court, and subsequently to the supreme court 
of the State. 

Declining the gift of an eligible law office offered 
him by influential friends if he would settle in Clin- 
ton, New York, he decided more wisely, and estab- 
lished himself in Columbus, his present home. At 
the age of twenty-six years he was married to Miss 



THE UNITED STATES HlOGnAPIllC AL DICTIOXART. 



Orlina M. Sturges, daughter of a prominent and 
successful merchant of Clarendon, New York, and 
by her had four children : Henry S., deceased at 
the age of sixteen months ; Selden J., named after 
Governor Selden, of Clarkson, New York ; Charles 
R., named after Hon. Charles D. Robinson, of Green 
Bay, Wisconsin ; and Annie L. 

Mr. Lewis, a man of superior executive ability, 
rapidly rose to the successive positions of district 
attorney, county judge, member of the constitutional 
convention which formed the organic law of the 
State, member of the general assembly, state sen- 
ator, member of the court of impeachment, lieuten- 
ant-governor, secretary of state, and governor. As 
secretary of state it was truly said of him, "he has 
been prompt, methodical and systematic in all the 
departments of his office ; a true man in every sense 
of the word, kind and gentlemanly in his deport- 
ment, and possessing great executive ability." When 
elected to this office he received every vote cast in 
the city of his residence, and when elected gov- 
ernor in 1863, received a majority of twenty-five 
thousand, by far the largest ever accorded any can- 
didate for that office. 

The nation at this time being engaged in civil 
war. Governor Lewis felt that for the time political 
divisions should cease ; that all loyal men, forgetting 
party strifes, should rally around our country's flag 
and save it from dishonor ; that rebellion should be 
crushed by hearty cooperation and earnest sacrifice, 
and that peace should be restored. Sincerely im- 
pressed with this belief, he severed party ties and 
proclaimed, " he who is not a faithful friend to the 
government of his country in this trying hour is no 
friend of mine," and spared neither time, talent nor 
money in sending troops to save the national capi- 
tal. Especially was his attention engaged in caring 
for the needs of the sick. He repeatedly visited 
camps and hospitals, making long and careful tours, 
and finally secured a special order from the surgeon 
general of the United States, for the transfer. of all 
the sick and wounded soldiers from Wisconsin to 
hospitals within their own State, a privilege never 
before granted. 

Under his administration hospitals were estab- 
lished, a soldiers' orphans' home was founded, and 
families of soldiers provided for. 

Through his influence multitudes of suffering 
"boys in blue " were nursed back to life in hospitals 
with comforts ; blessed by the prayers of mothers 
and wives at home, the dying hours of brave men 



were soothed, and men who had risked their lives 
for a great principle, and bereaved families, were 
provided with homes. The unmarked, but not for- 
gotten, graves of our slain heroes dot the hillsides 
of the South ; but had it not been for the noble 
work of Governor Lewis, hundreds who are among 
the living to-day would live only in the desolate, 
sorrowing hearts of those who loved them. By 
personal efforts he obtained credit from the govern- 
ment for soldiers furnished, and reduced the quota 
of Wisconsin at one time from nineteen thousand 
and thirty-two to fifteen thousand three hundred 
and eleven, and was especially successful in secur- 
ing the claims of his State against the government, 
amounting in all to more than half a million dollars. 
In 1865, by his wise adjustment of affairs, the State 
tax was reduced several hundred thousand dollars; 
and during his entire administration he did not use 
one dollar of the military contingent fund. At his 
request the legislature declined to vote the usual 
appropriation of five thousand dollars as a general 
contingent fund for the use of the executive. He 
worked for the good of his State, and was econom- 
ical, systematic and prompt in all his departments 
of duty. His large-heartedness and sympathy went 
out to all; yet in the administration of justice he 
was inexorable. 

In 1865, against the wishes of his State, he de- 
clined a renomination, preferring the retirement 
of private life to public honors and emoluments. 
Finding him firm in his determination, the Union 
nominating convention expressed in resolutions 
their regret at his decision, their cordial approba- 
tion of his administration, and their gratitude for 
his zeal, fidelity and generous work in behalf of 
others. 

As a man and public officer, Governor Lewis 
possessed the unlimited confidence of the people, 
and throughout his varied career has maintained a 
name and character above suspicion or reproach. 
Figuring little in proclamations, orders and tele- 
graphic communications, he performed his duties 
quietly and without ostentation. Unselfish and 
self-denying in all his action, he labored for the 
welfare of his State and nation. Standing upon 
noble principle, he felt that he needed no other 
platform; the ends which he aimed at were "his 
country's, his God's and truth's." A marked fea- 
ture in the character of Governor Lewis, and one 
worthy of imitation, is his generous benevolence. 
Possessed of a liberal competence, he devotes a 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



portion of his annual income to the building and 
support of universities, colleges, academies and 
educational interests; thus exerting a silent but 
lasting influence for good, by developing the minds 
and morals of his country's youth. He has been 
a liberal contributor to churches and benevolent 
enterprises of various kinds, and in all that pertains 
to the welfare of his city, or the good of his fellow- 
men, he is ready to lend a cheerful support. 



In 1864 Lawrence University conferred upon 
him the degree of LL.D., an honor which was 
justly bestowed and has been worthily worn. 

He recently received a dispatch from Washing- 
ton tendering him the ofifice of commissioner of 
internal revenue. He, however, declined the honor, 
owing to other duties which require his constant 
attention. Mr. Lewis has been several times offered 
similar offices, but has uniformly declined. 



JAIRUS H. CARPENTER, 

MADISON. 



JAIRUS H. CARPENTER, a native of Ashford, 
Connecticut, was born on the 14th of February, 
1S22, and is the son of Palmer and Martha Carpen- 
ter. With the exception of three or four terms spent 
in Holliston Academy, he received his education in 
the common schools. After closing his studies he 
engaged for a time in teaching, and later began the 
study of law, and completed his preparatory profes- 
sional studies with Hon. Loren P. Waldo, of Tolland, 
Connecticut. In March, 1847, he was admitted to 
the bar, and the same year engaged in the practice 
of his profession at Willimantic, Connecticut. In 
1857 he removed to Wisconsin, and settled at his 
present home in Madison. 

Politically, Mr. Carpenter is a republican, though 



conservative in his views. He exalts the man above 
the party, and supports for ofifice him whom he 
deems most worthy of the position. He has here- 
tofore, and still takes an active part in educational 
matters. For fourteen years he has been a member 
of the Madison Board of Education, and for ten 
years president of the same. 

In 1868 he was elected professor of law in the 
University of Wisconsin, a capacity in which he still 
continues to act. In 1876 he was made dean of the 
law faculty. The honorary degree of A.M., was 
confered on him by Yale College in 1874. 

Mr. Carpenter was married on the 13th of Feb- 
ruary, 1852, to Miss Martha C. Kendall, of Brook- 
field, Massachusetts. 



THEODORE LYMAN WRIGHT. 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of East 
Hampton, Massachusetts, was born on the 6th 
of October, 1806, the son of Luther Wright and 
Sarah nee Lyman. His ancestors were among the 
early settlers of the American colonies, and some 
of them participated in the revolutionary struggle. 
His parents, farmers by occupation, were highly re- 
spected in their community, and employed every 
means in their power to train their children to 
principles of morality and right. 

Theodore received a good preparatory education, 
and afterward entered Yale College, but owing to 
impaired health, was compelled to abandon his 
studies before completing his course. The degree 
of A.M. was, however, afterward conferred upon 



him as a compliment to his scholarly attainment. 
His natural literary tastes led him to devote his 
attention to teaching, and after closing his studies 
in college, he began fitting young men for college, 
and continued teaching, mainly in Hartford, Con- 
necticut, during a period of seventeen years, finding 
in this employment most agreeable and congenial 
work. 

Removing to the West, in 1846, he settled at 
Beloit, Wisconsin, and during the next twenty years, 
or longer, was engaged in the insurance business, 
and in agricultural pursuits. In the meantime, hav- 
ing accumulated sufficient capital, he erected a 
paper-mill in Rockton, Illinois; and soon after, 
another at Beloit, in company with S. T. Merrill. 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



and began that business, with which he is still con- 
nected, as president of the Northwestern Paper 
Company. He has not, however, confined his at- 
tention to any one branch of business. In com- 
pany with Mr. Newcomb and Mr. Merrill, he estab- 
lished the first book-store in Beloit, under the firm 
name of Wright, Merrill and Newcomb. His course, 
from the first, has been marked by a steady and 
healthful growth, and has been attended with that 
prosperity that inevitably follows honest, earnest 
and continuous effort. As a business man, he is 
known for his conscientious fair dealing, his prompt- 
ness and decision, and firm adherence to the highest 
principles of justice. 

Politically, Mr. Wright is a republican, and aside 
from his regular business, has been honored with 
many public trusts. He has been for a number of 
years superintendent of the public schools of Beloit, 
and president of the Board of Public Schools ; and 
is at the present time (1876) president of the Library 
Association. He visited Europe in 1835, in the 



interests of his business, and has also traveled ex- 
tensively in the United States, and thus acquired a 
wide range of practical knowledge and a most 
valuable experience. 

His religious training was under the influence of 
the Congregational church, and he is now a con- 
sistent member of that body, having united at the 
age of sixteen years. 

Mr. Wright has been thrice married : First, on 
the 23d of September, 1833, to Miss Catherine B. 
Rynolds, who died on the 25th of April, 1852. His 
second marriage was on the 25th of November, 
1853, to Jane Newcomb, who died on the 6th of 
October, 1866. On the 21st of August, 1867, he 
married his present wife, Mrs. Elenor F. Hutchins, 
whose grandfather, Amasa Clark, was a soldier in 
the war of independence. 

Mr. Wright's personal and social qualities are of 
a high order, and he lives now in the enjoyment of 
an ample fortune, surrounded by the comforts of a 
happy home and hosts of true friends. 



LEANDER F. FRISBY, 



WEST BEND. 



LEANDER F. FRISBY was born June 19, 1825, 
_j in Mesopotamia, Trumbull county, Ohio. His 
father, Lucius Frisby, was a native of Vermont, but 
removed with his family to Ohio in 18:7, where he 
settled on a farm, and followed the occupation of a 
farmer for over thirty years. Although of limited 
early education, yet he possessed strong native talent, 
and was well posted on all the topics of the day. j 
His grandfather, on both his father's and mother's 
side, were soldiers in the revolutionary war. His 
mother, whose maiden name was Lavina Gary, was 
also a native of Vermont. She is still living at the 
ripe age of eighty-four years, and is at present, and 
has been for twelve years past, a member of the 
family of the subject of this sketch. She still retains 
those indelible traces of pure and intelligent woman- 
hood which were so characteristic of the American 
mothers of the last generation, and which have done 
so much to mould the best phases of American 
character. 

Leandor, in his early years, worked upon his fa- 
ther's farm during the summer months, and attended 
the neighboring district school for the short space 
of three months during the winter. .\t the age of 



eighteen, with the consent of his parents, he left 
home and learned the trade of a wagonmaker. From 
his boyhood he felt and showed a fixed determina- 
tion to obtain an education, and occupied all of his 
leisure hours, while learning his trade, in reading 
and study. After becoming sufficiently skillful in 
his trade to earn wages, he commenced a course of 
study at Farmington Academy, in his native county, 
in Ohio, a school of considerable local fame, where he 
paid his board and tuition by working at his trade 
for a neighboring wagonmaker, out of school hours. 
He remained there for three terms, and, when he 
left, ranked with the best among some hundred and 
fifty students. 

After leaving the academy he taught school one 
winter, for the purpose of replenishing his wardrobe 
and obtaining money to go west, where he intended 
to teach for a time, and return again to his studies. 
He landed at Sheboygan in September, 1846, and 
went from thence to the city of Fond du Lac. The 
fall of 1846 will be remembered by the old settlers 
of Wisconsin as the " sickly season," and within two 
weeks from his arrival he was taken sick with chill 
fever, which kept him disabled till far into the win- 







oi- Cct>-z^^&^Cc-r- y* . P^V>t--<^ 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



ter. When he had so far recovered as to be able to 
work, the schools were all taken, and, being in des- 
titute circumstances, he sought work at his trade. 
He found, however, upon application to the only 
wagonmakers in his vicinity, that they had not work 
sufificient for their own employment; and rather than 
remain idle or to encroach upon the generosity of 
friends, he entered a cooper shop, as the only place 
where he could obtain employment, and worked two 
months, receiving only the munificent wages of his 
own board (which was the agreement he had made 
with the proprietors at the time he began work) ; 
in the meantime seeking work at his trade by cor- 
respondence with other parts of the surrounding 
country. Receiving a favorable reply from Beaver 
Dam in March, 1847, he borrowed fifty cents from 
a friend and started on foot for that place, paying 
his borrowed money for his supper and lodging, and 
arriving there about noon of the second day, with- 
out having tasted breakfast. Here he commenced 
work at his trade for a Mr. Craig, and continued in 
his employ until the latter part of June. This was 
the first glimmer of sunlight which had dawned upon 
his pathway since he left his native State. The long, 
sad, weary days of sickness, hardships, trials and 
despondency spent during that fall and winter at 
Fond du Lac cannot be portrayed, and it would be 
but a sad failure to attempt it. In the summer of 
1847 he went from Beaver Dam to Janesville, where 
he also worked at his trade in the shop of a Mr. 
Curler. During all of this time he never lost sight 
of his original object, and spent every moment 
which could be spared from his labors in hard, 
earnest study of such books as were at his com- 
mand. 

In the fall of 1847, having relieved himself from 
his embarrassment by hard and incessant toil at the 
bench, the darkness and gloom which had at first 
overshadowed his pathway, in the then far west, had 
been lifted, and the beauties of the prairie-west pre- 
sented themselves to him in a new light, which in- 
duced him to abandon his first intent of returning to 
the East, and he resolved to engage in school teach- 
ing as the best adapted to enable him to pursue his 
studies. He first taught, nine months, at Spring 
Prairie Corners, Walworth county, commencing in 
the fall of that year. In September, 1848, he opened 
an academical school at Burlington, Racine county, 
in what was then known as the old " Burlington 
Academy " building, where he continued to teach 
until the summer of 1850 — in the meantime pursu- 



ing the study of law, and spending the summer va- 
cations of 1849 and 1850 in the law office of Messrs. 
Blair and Lord, at Port Washington, in (now) Ozaukee 
county, where he was admitted to the bar in the fall 
of the latter year. As a teacher, he was eminently 
successful, and built up a school at Burlington which 
was largely patronized, and held in high esteem by 
the people of that place. 

About the first of October, 1850, he removed to 
West Bend — where he has ever since resided — in 
contemplation of its becoming the county seat of the 
old county of Washington, for which it was ' then 
striving. For over two years the county-seat contest 
raged and the little village of West Bend remained 
stationary, and but little business found its way into 
his office. He, however, pursued his studies vigor- 
ously, teaching the village school during the winters 
of 1850-1 and 185 1-2, and attending to his little law 
business evenings and Saturdays. Upon the divi- 
sion of the county in the winter of 1853, and the 
establishment of the county seat of the new county 
of Washington at West Bend, a new era dawned 
upon the young disciple of Blackstone, and from 
that time his course was onward and upward. In 
the fall of 1853 he was elected the first district attor- 
ney of the new county of Washington ; in 1854 was 
one of the secretaries of tlie first republican State 
convention held in this State, at Madison; in 1856 
was appointed county judge of Washington county, 
by Governor Bashford ; in i860 was a delegate to the 
national republican convention, held at Chicago, 
which nominated Abraham Lincoln, and was one of 
its acting secretaries; in the fall of i860 was elected 
to the State legislature in an intensely democratic 
district, and was a member of that body at the 
breaking out of the late civil war, and was chairman 
of the judiciary committee at its special session in 
June, 1861 ; in i868 was the republican nominee for 
congress in the fourth district, against Charles A. 
Eldridge, and, though defeated, he polled an unusu- 
ally large vote ; the same year was one of the repub- 
lican presidential electors; in 1872 was a delegate 
to the republican national convention, at Philadel- 
phia, which renominated General Grant; the same 
year was chosen president of the Wisconsin State 
convention of Universalists, and was reelected to 
the same position in 1873; in 1873 he received the 
republican nomination upon the State ticket for the 
office of attorney-general, and though he went down 
in the general disaster which that year overwhelmed 
the republican party, he made perhaps the most 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



remarkable run in the political annals of this State. 
His home county, Washington, which gave Taylor, 
the democratic candidate for governor, little less 
than two thousand majority, and the balance of that 
ticket, except the candidate for attorney-general, 
about the same, gave Mr. Frisby something over six 
hundred majority, which placed him largely ahead 
of his ticket in the State. 

In politics, Mr. Frisby has been an ardent, active 
and steadfast republican ever since the organization 
of that party. Previous to that time he was a free- 
soiler, and cast his first vote for President, in 1848, 
for Martin VanBuren, the candidate of that party. 
From the day when he first began to take an interest 
in national affairs, he was an earnest and uncom- 
promising opponent of human slavery. It has been, 
however, as a lawyer, that Mr. Frisby has made 
himself prominent in the history of Wisconsin. 

In 1854 he formed a law partnership with John 
E. Mann, the present county judge of Milwaukee 
county, which continued till Mr. Mann was elected 
judge of the third judicial circuit in 1859. He soon 
thereafter formed a copartnership with Hon. Paul 
A. Weil, and S. S. Barney, Esq., was taken into the 
firm May i, 1874, so that he is now the senior mem- 
ber of the present law firm of Frisby, Weil and Barney. 
He has now been in the active practice of his pro- 
fession for a quarter of a century, and for the last 
twenty years has enjoyed an extensive and lucrative 
practice. Industry, energy and hard study, coupled 
with unimpeachable integrity toward his clients, has 
ranked him among the lawyers of Wisconsin. 



He was married to Mrs. Francis E. Rooker, of 
Burlington, Wisconsin, in 1854. They are comfort- 
ably situated in a pleasant home in West Bend, sur- 
rounded by a large and interesting family of children, 
and the fruits of an industrious and well spent life. .' 

Mr. Frisby is just in the prime of manhood, and .j 
is remarkably well preserved for his years, owing \ 
undoubtedly to his constant temperate habits — tall 
and commanding in figure, and pleasing and sociable \ 
in his manners and address. Many years of useful- i 
ness are evidently before him, full of promise of \ 
honor and profit to himself, and the large circle of • 
friends and acquaintances with whom he is sur- 1 
sounded. j 

The Madison "State Journal." August 29, 1873, j 
says : I 

L. F. Frisby, of Washington, nominated for attorney i 
general, we have known for a great manv years as a lead- 
ing lawyer and solid citizen of Washington county. He , 
has fought the good fight of republicanism in that strong- ' 
hold of democracy, year after year, with unshaken courage. 
He helped to organize the republican party, and no man I 
has more zealously upheld its banner and advocated its 
principles. He has had the hearty good wishes of the party 
for years, but none of its honors. It was not surprising, 
therefore, that the convention regarded his claims to recog- ] 
nition for past services as very strong; and when to this I 
was added his high character as a man, his great ability as ! 
a lawyer, and his popularity with the people, the case was 1 
irresistible. We most heartily indorse this nomination, as 
one eminently fit to be made. The judge is a polished 
gentleman, and a clear-headed, competent, honest man. He 
will add great strength to the ticket in that section of the '■ 
State, where we want more votes, and he will bring to the 
discharge of the duties of his office a cultivated and vigor- 
ous mind. We are sure that the republicans of Wisconsin 
will vote for L. F. Frisby for attorney -general with a feeling 
of genuine satisfaction that this most deserving republican 1 
is to be honored at last. \ 



JAMES CODY, M.D., 



'WATER-TOWN. 



JAMES CODY, a gentleman who is practicing 
the profession of medicine in Watertown, Wis- 
consin, is the subject of our present brief biograph- 
ical history. He was born on the 2 2d day of August, 
1820, at St. John's, the capital of Newfoundland, and 
was the son of Patrick and Susan Cody. The maiden 
name of Mrs. Cody was McDonnell. Patrick Cody 
was engaged as a merchant in the fisheries of New- 
foundland. 

When James had reached an age which rendered 
it practicable and judicious, he was sent from his 
home to Montreal, in Canada, for the purpose of 



commencing and laying the foundation of his ed- 
ucation. Here he stayed for some time at the Jesuit 
College, giving his attention faithfully to his stud- 
ies. He then removed to Harvard University, and, 
by the exercise of diligence, and the fact of his pos- 
sessing a strong liking to the profession he had cho- 
sen, graduated in the medical department of the 
same on the 4th of March, 1844. In 1846 he came 
to Watertown and commenced the practice of medi- 
cine, which he has continued with great success 
until the present time. 

Mr. Cody is a believer in the Roman Catholic 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



iaith, of which church he is an acknowledged and 
faithful member. Politically, he has always been a 
supporter of the democratic party. Although Mr. 
Cody's time and attention has been almost entirely 
occupied and absorbed by the practice and study of 
the profession for which he has such a strong regard, 
he allowed himself to be nominated for the office of 
school superintendent in the city of Watertown, and 
the voters displayed their appreciation of his many 
good qualities and his adaptability for the position. 



by electing him to it. He is also the health officer 
of the city, and discharges his duties in a conscien- 
tious and efficient manner. 

On the 1 2th of November, 1848, he was united 
in marriage with Miss Adeline Rogan, by whom he 
has had f6ur children. James Marion, born July 
22, 1850, and died at the age of fifteen; Edward 
Dwayne, born June 2, 1853, and died June 13, 1869 ; 
Adaline, born July 28, 1855, and William Gordon, 
born July 20, 1861. Both the latter are living. 



EDWARD AND MICHAEL FORRESTER McKEY, 



yANESVILLE. 



EDWARD AND MICHAEL F. McKEV, of 
Janesville, Wisconsin, were twin brothers, and 
were born in Crossmolina, county of Mayo, Ireland, 
on the i8th of September, 1821; their parents being 
Thomas McKey and Maria (Forrester) McKey. 

The brothers received their education mainly at 
home, and at a private school in the neighborhood, 
where they obtained a good English education. At 
school they showed great precocity, and, while ex- 
celling in their studies generally, evinced a marked 
aptitude and partiality for history and literature. 
They left school at the early age of fifteen, and 
were apprenticed to the dry-goods business, and 
entered the establishment of the leading merchant 
in that line of their native town. Although mere 
boys, they displayed unmistakable business (]ualifica- 
tions, and after four years of their apprenticeship 
had expired, they prevailed upon their employer to 
release them from their indentures, still, however, 
remaining in his employment. 

In 1840 Edward visited the United States, and 
remained there about six months. At the age of 
twenty-two they commenced business on their own 
account, and soon developed a flourishing and ex- 
tensive trade, which they carried on successfully 
until 1846, when they were overtaken by the great 
famine of that year, which involved nearly the 
whole business community of the island in ruin, 
and from which they, in common witli every one 
else, suffered very heavy losses. The young brotli- 
ers, however, were full of energy and well directed 
ambition, and they determined at once to retrieve 
their fortunes in another land. In the early part 
of 1847 they carried out this intention, and immi- 
grated to America, and located themselves at Little 



Falls, in New York State ; and in the autumn of 
the same year they bought out the business of Mr. 
N. H. Wood, who removed to Chicago, and who 
now resides at Portage, Wisconsin. While at Little 
Falls, the rumors of the wonderful resources and 
capacities of the great West reached their ears, 
and, like many others, these marvelous reports at- 
tracted their serious attention. They resolved to 
make another change, and accordingly, in 1849, 
they removed to Wisconsin, opening a mercantile 
house, first at Racine, and shortly afterward another 
at Janesville. They continued to conduct both these 
establishments simultaneously for about three years, 
when they finally closed the one at Racine, and 
gave their whole attention to the Janesville house, 
making it their headquarters. They subsequently 
established branch houses at several other places, 
such as Madison, Oshkosh, Beloit and Mineral 
Point. They were invariably successful in all their 
undertakings, as a natural consequence of their 
innate shrewdness and business sagacity, their un- 
wearied industry and strict integrity; and for a 
quarter of a century there has been no firm in the 
State of Wisconsin more widely known to its people 
than that of the McKey Brothers. 

In September, 1868, Mr. Michael F. McKey died, 
and the estate, which had been accumulated by 
their industry, remained wisely undivided under 
the direction and control of the surviving brother, 
Mr. Edward McKey, until his death, which oc- 
curred somewhat suddenly from paralysis of the 
vital organs on the 14th of August, 1875. He had 
about a year previously retired from active partici- 
pation in the mercantile business, giving his atten- 
tion solely to his real-estate affairs. 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



Both the brothers were men of unusual capacity 
and foresight. For many years the surplus profits 
of the home business had been invested, with rare 
sagacity, in real estate, when property was low, in 
nearly every important town from Chicago to Lake 
Superior; and thus were laid the foundations of a 
fortune, which, with the development of the country, 
grew to extremely large proportions. 

In religious affairs tliey were attached to the com- 
munion of the Episcopal church, and in youth took 
great interest in Sunday-school affairs in connection 
with that denomination. 

Politically, they were supporters of the demo- 
cratic party, but voted for the reelection of Abra- 
ham Lincoln. Both were often solicited to accept 
political positions, but neither would ever consent 
to become a candidate for any office. Mr. Edward 
McKey was commissioned, in February, 1856, by 
Governor Barstow, as aid to the commander-in-chief, 
with the rank of colonel. 



In addition to his other multifarious interests 
Edward McKey, in connection with his son-in- 
law. Major F. F. Stevens, organized the Wisconsin 
Savings Bank of the city of Janesville, which was 
opened for business June 4, 1873, Major Stevens 
being appointed cashier. This bank was wound up 
at Mr. Edward McKey's death, by the administra- 
tion, every depositor being paid in full on demand, 
"without defalcation or discount." 

Mr. Edward McKey was twice married : First, 
in 1843, to Miss Mary Ann Tole, of Crossmolina. 
She died on the ist of December, 185 1, and he was 
subsequently united to Miss Harriett Folds, then of 
Beloit and formerly of Dublin. He left a family of 
eight children. 

Mr. M. F. McKey was married on the 12th of 
July, 1851, to Miss Elizabeth Folds, whose sister 
was afterward married to his brother. This lady 
died October 30, 1863, leaving a family of four 
children. 



HON. ANDREW G. MILLER, 



MIL WA UK'EE. 



ANDREW GALBRAITH MILLER, a native 
. of Carlisle, Cumberland county, Pennsylvania) 
was born on the i8th of September, 1801, and is 
the son of John Matthew Miller and Jane Miller ne'e 
Galbraith. His maternal grandfather, whose name 
he bears, was a major in the Revolutionary war. 
Andrew, in early life, enjoyed good educational 
advantages, and later pursued a course of study in 
Washington College, Pennsylvania, graduating on the 
19th of September, 1819. On the 7th of the ensuing 
October he began the study of law in the office of 
Mr. Andrew Carruthers, of Carlisle, and three years 
later (in November, 1822) was admitted to the bar. 
At once entering upon his profession, he continued 
to practice in the courts of his native and adjoining 
counties, and in the supreme court of the State, until 
the 8th of November, 1838, when he was appointed 
by President Van Buren associate justice of the su- 
preme court of Wisconsin, in place of Hon. William 
C. Frazer, then lately deceased, an office wjiich he 
continued to fill during the e.xistence of the terri- 
torial government. 

Upon the admission of Wisconsin into the LTiiion 
he was appointed, on the 12th of June, 1S48, judge 
of the district court of the United States for the 



district of Wisconsin, and continued to perform the 
duties of that office until the western district of 
Wisconsin was created in 1870, whereupon he exer- 
cised the duties of judge of the eastern district until 
January i, 1874, when he resigned, having attained 
the age of seventy-three years, and having been on 
the bench for thirty-five years. Few men have been 
longer on the bench, or had a more extensive and 
varied experience in judicial affairs, than Judge 
Miller. During a period of ten years he partici- 
pated in all the cases heard and decided in the 
supreme court, besides performing a vast amount 
of labor in the trial of cases in the first district, of 
which there were a great number in territorial times. 
But the most important part of his judicial life 
was during his services as judge of the federal court 
of Wisconsin. Since the organization of this court 
it has been burdened with litigations of a diverse 
and complicated character, involving immense inter- 
ests, and presenting for solution new and difficult 
questions, requiring a high order of talent and legal 
learning, and the most extensive research and care- 
ful discrimination. In 1S54, when the country had 
become thoroughly excited on the subject of slavery, 
occurred the noted " Rescue case," in which Booth 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 



was indicted in the federal court nnder the fugitive 
slave law of 1850, for forcibly rescuing one Glover, a 
fugitive slave, from the custody of the United States 
marshal, to whom he had been delivered for return 
to his master. It was contended that the act of 
1852 was unconstitutional and void; so that the case 
attracted remarkable popular attention, and involved 
principles which entered largely into the politics of 
the State. Upon Judge Miller's decision that the 
act was valid, Booth was convicted and sentenced, 
but subsequently discharged from custody when the 
supreme court of the State held that the act was 
unconstitutional. A direct conflict thus arising 
between the state and federal courts, the course of 
Judge Miller was bitterly and unjustly denounced; 
but subsequently, the correctness of his decision in 
the different phases of the case was emphatically 
and fully sustained and vindicated by the decisions 
of both the state and federal courts. The result, 
however, e.xcited, and for a long time kept alive, a 
violent and unjust state of ill feeling and prejudice 
toward the judge, and that, too, simply because, in 
all fidelity and obedience to his oath and duty as 
judge, he declared the validity and enforced the 
provisions of an odious and unhappy law. The act 
was but characteristic of the man. He knew full 
well the storm of popular indignation that his de- 
cision would bring upon him; but a sense of duty 
impelled him, and in doing as he did he only evi- 
denced a loyalty to principle and right. In other 
cases, involving railroad litigations, and those in- 



volving the validity of town and county bonds issued 
in aid of railroad and other enterprises, his decisions 
became the subject of many complaints, but were 
in nearly every instance fully affirmed when appealed 
to the supreme court of the United States. 

As a judge, he was studious and conscientious, 
thoroughly conversant with legal principles, prompt 
in the discharge of duty, quick to detect fraud, and 
possessed of courage and firmness to expose and 
rebuke it. Of him it is said: "He is methodical in 
his habits of study, as in every duty in life. He 
excelled in the admiralty and equity branches of 
the law; in the former he acquired great distinction 
in the region of the great lakes, for his thorough 
knowledge of that branch of the law, and the equi- 
table principles upon which he applied it to the 
difficult cases arising from collisions, and growing 
out of maritime contracts." 

In great equity cases he was faithful in master- 
ing the mass of detail, and quick to grasp the strong 
points of the case. He would tolerate no fraud to 
escape the payment of honest debt, and was not 
slow to discover and expose the specious mask so 
often assumed to cloak dishonest design. 

Politically, Judge Miller was identified with the 
democratic party. In his religious views he was an 
Episcopalian, of low-church tendencies. He was 
married, February, 7, 1827, to Miss Caroline Eliza- 
beth Kurtz, of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, by whom 
he had four children. 

He died at Milwaukee, September 30, 1874. 



GEORGE R. COOKE, 



GREEN BAT. 



PROMINENT among the influential and self- 
made men of Green Bay stands he whose 
name heads this sketch. Though in the study of his 
life history, we find many phases in common with 
the lives of ordinary men, there is at the same time 
an undercurrent of enterprise and an individualism 
peculiarly its own. A native of Drummondsville, 
Lower Canada, he was born on the loth of July, 
1834, and is the son of John and Mary Cooke. His 
parents, well-to-do farmers, were upright and enter- 
prising, and enjoyed the high regard of many true 
friends. George received a common English edu- 
cation, and during his early life divided his time 
between study and farm work. In 1854, at the age 
3 



of twenty years, he took a contract for cutting cord- 
wood in Vermont, and during the summer of the 
following year worked on a farm in Lancaster, New 
Hampshire. With something of a fondness for ad- 
venture, and a desire to better his condition, he re- 
moved to the West during the latter part of this 
same year, and settled at Fond du Lac, Wisconsin. 
Remaining here till 1856, he removed to Green Bay, 
and during the next nine years was employed, on a 
salary, in a saw-mill. During this time, by indus- 
trious and frugal habits, he succeeded in accumu- 
lating a handsome capital, and in 1865 erecting a saw- 
mill, began the manufacture of lumber. Since that 
time he has been actively engaged in the lumber 



H 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DlCTIONMiV. 



trade, doing an extensive and influential business, 
having been fortunate in possessing the happy fac- 
ulty of seizing opportunities and turning them to 
the interests of his enterprise. He has not, however, 
confined himself exclusively to this line of business, 
but has employed parts of his capital in a manner 
that has displayed a most worthy public-spirited- 
ness. In 1873 he erected one of the finest build- 
ings in his city, known as " Cook's Hotel," which 
has contributed not only to his own private interests, 
but also has been a valuable acquisition to the city. 
His political sentiments are republican, and al- 
though his county has a democratic majority, he was, 
in 1874, elected county treasurer, and is also one of 
the school board of Green Bay. His aspirations, 



however, have not been for political honors ; his 
legitimate business furnishing for him more congen- 
ial and satisfactory employment. He is in the truest 
sense a business man ; coming to Green Bay as he 
did, with but twenty-five dollars in his pocket, he 
has gradually risen by his own efforts, to his present 
business and social standing. Naturally of a gen- 
erous disposition, he has contributed liberally to the 
support of benevolent and charitable objects, and 
by his manly deportment, suave manners and open, 
fair-dealing, has drawn around himself a host of true 
and substantial friends. 

Mr. Cooke was married on the 29th of September, 
1S57, to Miss Juliette Stearns, and by her has one 
daughter and one son. 



SAMUEL J. MARTIN, M.D., 



THE subject of this biographical sketch, a native 
of Weston, Windham county, Vermont, was 
born on the 6th of September, 1830, and is the 
son of Jefferson and Rhoda Martin ; the former was 
born at Dublin, Cheshire county, New Hampshire, 
on the 28th of February, 1805, and the latter, a 
native of Boston, Massachusetts, born in 1804. His 
maternal grandfather was a prominent merchant 
and shipowner; and previous to the embargo of 
1807, conducted a large importing business. This 
act of congress, however, so crippled him, that he 
retired to private life. When three years of age, 
Samuel's parents removed to Mount Holly, Rutland 
county, Vermont, where he received his early edu- 
cation, dividing his time between study and farm 
work. Previous to his seventeenth year his help 
was much needed at home, and he consequently 
had limited advantages for study ; at this time, 
however, he entered Black River Academy, at Lud- 
low, Vermont, and spent two terms each year 
during two years, and for the next four years 
studied at the same place, during one term of 
each. His studies during this time were confined 
to the English branches; but he afterward spent 
two terms at the Chester Academy, and there pur- 
sued the study of Latin, with other higher branches, 
earning money to defray his expenses by teaching 
penmanship and day school. After leaving school 
he engaged in teaching, and continued, with the 
exception of one year, when he was in poor health. 



until his twenty-eighth year. He early developed 
a taste for the medical profession, but in his desire 
to enter it was opposed by his father, who preferred 
that he should become a farmer. Accordingly, at 
the age of twenty-eight, he yielded to his father's 
wishes and purchased a farm, with money, a part 
of which he had earned by teaching. At the end 
of one year, becoming dissatisfied with farming, 
he began the study of medicine at home under 
the direction of A. E. Horton, M.D., of Mount 
Holly. One year later he sold his farm, and gave 
his entire attention to his studies, and after taking 
two full courses of lectures, graduated from the 
Elective Medical College of Philadelphia, now the 
University of Philadelphia. He began his practice 
in 1863, at Marlboro, New Hampshire, and remained 
there till 1866, doing a successful business, and at 
this time removed to Walpole, New Hampshire, 
and there, in addition to his practice, opened a 
drug store with another gentleman, who managed 
the latter business while he devoted himself chiefly 
to his profession. At the end of eighteen months, 
his partner having lost everything, he closed out 
his interest in the drug st^re and gave himself 
unremittingly to his studies and practice. The 
force of circumstances induced him to examine 
the subject of homoeopathy, and at the end of 
one year's observation and careful thought, he 
embraced the principles of that school. Not hav- 
ing recovered from his failure in the drug business. 





fp/^-^^pp-ue/T^ 



THE Uy/TED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTION ART. 



15 



and desiring a larger field of action, he resolved 
to remove to the West; and accordingly, in 1869, 
after spending four months looking for a place to 
settle, established himself at Racine, Wisconsin, 
where he has since resided, building up an exten- 
sive practice, and making for himself a most worthy 
reputation as a skillful and successful practitioner. 

In his political views, he was formerly a whig, 
but is now identified with the republican party. 
While living at Marlboro, New Hampshire, in 1865, 
he was elected sujierintendent of public schools. 
He is now filling his second term of office as vice- 
president of the Homoeopathic Society of the State 
of Wisconsin, and is also a member of the Illinois 
HouKBopathic Medical Association. Dr. Martin 



has given much attention to self-culture, and by 
extensive reading and observation has acquired 
that knowledge of men and things which, with his 
excellent conversational powers, renders him a most 
agreeable social companion. Prompt and decided 
in action, he is yet generous, liberal and courteous. 
His parents were Methodists, but he holds to the 
faith of the Presbyterian church. He was married 
on the nth of May, 1859, to Miss Helen A. Albee, 
by whom he has one daughter living. Such is a 
brief outline of the life-history of one who, though 
having many experiences in common with others, 
has yet given an example of continued effort and 
will-power that entitles him to most honorable 
mention among our prominent self-made men. 



HENRY PALMER, M.D., 



yANESVILLE. 



HENRY PALMER was born in New Hartford, 
Oneida county. New York, July 30, 1827. 
He is the son of Ephraim Palmer, a substantial 
farmer, who is still living at Edgerton, Wisconsin ; 
a prominent and public-spirited citizen, ever held 
in high repute, and honored by election to several 
important offices, both in his native State of New 
York and also in that of Wisconsin. His mother's 
maiden name was Abigail Brown. 

When the lad was quite young, his father's health 
failed, and in consequence of this Henry was early 
compelled to undertake the management of the 
farm, which duty — -very arduous for a youth — he 
faithfully and ably discharged. 

His elementary education was obtained by at- 
tending the district school during the winters; the 
summer being occupied in working on the farm. 
He continued thus until he was nineteen years 
old, when he commenced a regular academical 
course, which was carried out partly at Whites- 
town and partly at Cazenovia Seminaries. 

From early boyhood he had shown a strong 
predilection for the medical profession, stimu- 
lated by associating with several relatives who 
were physicians. In consequence, however, of 
limited resources, he was unable to ' gratify this 
preference, and several years were spent by him 
in teaching schools, in order to procure sufficient 
means to prosecute the study. His close applica- 
tion to teaching and his studious habits impaired 



his health, and in 1849 he made a trip to the 
Arctic regions, as a means of its restoration. 

In 1 85 1 he entered the office of Drs. March and 
Armsby, at Albany, New York, both of whom were 
distinguished physicians, and jirofessors in the 
medical college at that place. He applied him- 
self with intense assiduity to study, and graduated 
in 1854. Immediately after graduation he was 
appointed resident surgeon at the Marshall Infirm- 
ary at Troy, which position he resigned after two 
years' occupancy. 

Finding the ranks of the profession in the East 
well filled, he determined at length to try his for- 
tunes in the West, and removed to Janesville, Wis- 
consin, and established himself in practice there. 
He found the most able competitors in the city, 
but succeeded, nevertheless, in securing a large 
practice, which he has ever since retained and 
extended. 

On the outbreak of the war, in 1861, Dr. Pal- 
mer offered his services, and was commissioned as 
surgeon of the 7th Wisconsin regiment. Shortly 
afterward he was assigned to the position of sur- 
geon of the " Iron Brigade," and discharged the 
duties of this place so faithfully and well that in 
the spring of 1862 he was commissioned as surgeon 
of United States Volunteers, and assigned to the 
highly important duty of building hospitals at Bal- 
timore. After getting several hospitals into suc- 
cessful operation at that place, he was transferred 



i6 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



to York, Pennsylvania, where he superintended 
the construction of what was at that time the 
largest hospital in the United States, with a ca- 
pacity of twenty-five hundred beds. Here he 
remained in conmiand of the military forces and 
in charge of the hospital for two years and a half, 
during which time he treated, with marked success, 
more than eighteen thousand sick and wounded, 
many of whom were from the battle-fields of South 
Mountain, Antietam and Gettysburg. 

A few days before the battle of Gettysburg, the 
rebels planned the capture of York, and attacked 
the place with a large force. Surgeon Palmer, with 
only seven hundred convalescent men in the hos- 
pital, succeeded in holding the post until all the 
sick and wounded and government stores were 
removed beyond their reach. At this time he was 
taken prisoner, but escaped during the battle of 
Gettysburg, four days afterward, and immediately 
reoccupied the hospital, and filled it with the 
wounded from the battle-field. 

Dr. Palmer is enthusiastic in the practice of his 
profession, and especially in the department of 
surgery, which he has made a specialty. While 
in the army he held high rank as one of the best 
operators in the service ; the leading principle of 
his practice being what may be called conservative 
surgery — the never having recourse to amputation 
when it can by any possibility be avoided. 

During Gilmore's raid into Maryland and Penn- 
sylvania, Surgeon Palmer organized a force of con- 
valescents and citizens, and effectually defeated 
the rebels in their efforts to destroy the railroads 
and government property, and was afterward (June 
IS, 1865) commissioned brevet lieutenant-colonel 
for faithful and meritorious service. In March, 
1864, he was assigned to duty as medical inspector 
of the eighth army corps, and was engaged in the 
inspection of hospitals and in the exchange of pris- 



oners until July, 1865, when he was ordered to 
Chicago, Illinois, with instructions to close up the 
medical department of Camp Douglas. This ser- 
vice finished, he retired from the army, having 
earned honorable reputation as a soldier, and by 
his medical skill and ability, a place in the front 
rank of the profession. On leaving the army, he 
returned to his practice at Janesville, where he is 
still (1875) actively engaged, doing a large and 
lucrative business. 

In politics, he is a republican, but is too much 
absorbed in the duties of his profession to engage 
much in public affairs. The citizens, however, 
have twice elected him mayor of Janesville, as an 
evidence of their appreciation of his ability and 
worth. In religious matters, he is a member of the 
Baptist denomination. The Doctor takes a deep 
interest in every enterprise that tends to the pros- 
perity of the city where he resides, and is a stock- 
holder and director in several of the largest cor- 
porations in Janesville. 

Dr. Palmer has been eminently successful ; but 
his professional career may be said to have but 
fairly commenced. He is a man of strong frame, 
e-xcellent and perfectly temperate habits, and of a 
good constitution ; with indomitable energy, and 
naturally a close student and careful observer. He 
has not always escaped detraction, but he has ever 
so borne himself that malice and jealousy have 
fallen harmlessly at his feet. 

He was married in 1851 to Edna A. Hoyt, a lady 
of highly respectable parentage. They have had 
issue six children, four of whom, one son and 
three daughters, are still living. 

But few men have risen so rapidly to a position 
of prominence and usefulness as Dr. Palmer. His 
life has been busy and eventful, and justifies the 
confidence that his future career will develop still 
greater value to the communitv. 



GEORGE McWILLIAMS, 

FOND DU LAC. 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of Mercer 
county, Pennsylvania, was born on the nth 
of December, 1800; and is the son of George Mc- 
Williams, a farmer, and Naomi nee Mitchell. He 
passed his early life in his native place, attending 
school during winters, and spending the summers 



in farm work, and at the age of sixteen years 
entered upon an apprenticeship of four and a half 
years, to learn the carpenter's trade. At the ex- 
piration of this time he began work as journeyman, 
and soon removed to Painesville, Ohio, and there 
spent eight years working at his trade. In 1830, 




^ 




yJn '^/n:-^ ^ma^ 



THE UNITED STATES BIOaiiAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



going to Wisconsin, he settled at Green Bay, then 
in Michigan Territory. During the next thirteen 
years he was actively engaged at his trade, and 
during that time had the contract for many im- 
portant buildings in his section of country. He 
built the first Protestant mission buildings of Green 
Bay, for the education of half-breed Indians. He 
also was superintendent or architect for rebuild- 
ing Fort Howard, and was there engaged for four 
years. Having become largely interested in the 
Fond du Lac Land Company, he removed thither 
in 1843, and took charge of the business of the 
company. He has been a large dealer in real 
estate, and at one time owned a large part of the 
land where the city of Fond du Lac now stands. 
He has been very successful in all his operations, 
and by judicious investments and careful manage- 
ment has accumulated a large fortune. He has 
not, however, confined himself to his private af- 
fairs, but, in all matters pertaining to the growth 
and welfare of his city and State, has taken an 



active part. He was a member of the first terri- 
torial legislature in 1836, and during a period of 
several years served as justice of the peace, at 
Green Bay, under an appointment by Governor 
Dodge. After removing to his present home, he 
was elected mayor of his city, two years after its 
incorporation. Mr. McWilliams has traveled ex- 
tensively over the United States, and being a man 
of close observation, he has gained, in this manner, 
a most valuable experience and practical knowl- 
edge of men and things. 

Politically, he has been identified with the re- 
publican party since its organization. 

Mr. McWilliams has never been identified with 
any church organization, and has never married; he 
is, however_, a worthy member of the Masonic order. 

Such is a brief outline of the life-history of one 
who, beginning life without means, has worked his 
way up step by step, and stands now a worthy 
example of that success which may be attained 
by constant, persevering and honorable effort. 



GEORGE W. CHITTENDEN, M.D., 

JANESVILLE. 



GEORGE W. CHITTENDEN, physician, of 
Janesville, Wisconsin, was born in the town 
of Westmoreland, Oneida county. New York, on the 
3d of February, 1820. His father, Jared Chittenden, 
was an extensive farmer, and, for many years, justice 
of the peace. He served in the Colonial army dur- 
ing the greater part of the war of the Revolution, as 
sergeant of artillery, having enlisted in 1775, and at 
the close of the war settled in Westmoreland about 
1790, where he died in 1828. The mother of Dr. 
Chittenden was Asena Douglas, sister of Professor J. 
S. Douglas, of Milwaukee. She removed to Oneida 
county about 1790, when all that district was in its 
primitive, uncultivated condition, and almost a wil- 
derness. She was a woman of rare Christian virtues, 
and her wise and noble life, aided by careful teach- 
ing, exerted a powerful influence in moulding the 
characters of her children, of whom there were ten. 
She died in 1851. 

The lad George worked on the farm until he was 
nineteen years of age, his education being obtained 
at the district school, and being as good as the 
circumstances allowed. He had always shown de- 
cidedly literary tastes, and at about this age began 



an academic course, with a view of preparing for 
college. He continued so studying until the sum- 
mer of 1842, when he was fully prepared to enter 
college ; but the limited means at his command 
compelled him to relinquish that design. He there- 
fore entered at once upon a course of professional 
study at the Albany Medical College, where he 
graduated in January, 1846. Later in the same year 
he removed to Chicago, where he practiced for a 
few months, and devoted considerable attention to 
the principles of the homoeopathic school of medi- 
cine. In November, 1846, he settled in Janesville, 
Wisconsin, where he very rapidly acquired an ex- 
tensive practice. The next year he was elected 
vice-president of the Rock River Medical Associa- 
tion, embracing Wisconsin and northern Illinois, 
and in this capacity delivered the semi-annual ad- 
dress. On this occasion he reviewed the various 
medical systems, urging upon the profession the 
duty of investigating all systems, and adopting all 
truth. 

About this time he commenced a series of prac- 
tical tests on the subject of homoeopathy, which 
extended over several months, and at length became 



i8 



THE UNITED STATES BIOdRAI'l I IC.\L DICTION Mi V. 



fully convinced of the value of the homrKopathic 
system, and felt constrained to adopt the practice 
of it. This involved a conflict between duty and 
interest. He enjoyed the confidence of the allo- 
pathic profession, and through their cooperation 
had acquired a goodly reputation as a surgeon. 
Thus, to adopt the practice of homoeopathy was to 
invite ostracism from the association and alienation 
from the profession. It included also, as a necessary 
consequence, a severe struggle in order to establish 
it in the public mind, and to overcome the prevail- 
ing ignorance of its merits, and the prejudice then 
existing against it in the community. Notwith- 
standing this, the doctor, feeling confident of the 
ultimate success of the system, announced himself 
as a homoeopatic physician, and entered upon 
homoeopathic practice, laboring zealously for its 
propagation. His practice of the new principles 
was as successful as it had been while a member 
of the " old school," and soon became firmly estab- 
lished. As a means of still more completely pre- 
paring himself for the responsibilities of the prac- 
tice, he. attended a course of lectures during the 
winter of 1849-50 at Philadelphia, and graduated 
in March, 1850, at the Homoeopathic Medical Col- 
lege of Pennsylvania. 

The Doctor has been a member of the American 
Institute of Homoeopathy since 1857, with the ex- 



ception of two years, during which his membership 
unavoidably lapsed. He has contributed quite a 
number of valuable articles to the medical journals. 
And he is as able in the department of surgery as 
in that of medicine, and has performed several 
capital operations, among them being amputation at 
the hip-joint and at the shoulder-joint. 

In political matters. Dr. Chittenden takes sides 
with the republican party, though being in no sense 
a politician, and ever avoiding anything like polit- 
ical preferment. His religious views are liberal and 
practical, and he has throughout his career main- 
tained the highest reputation for strict honor and 
integrity. In his professional capacity he is one of 
the oldest and ablest exponents of the science of 
homoeopathic medicine in southern Wisconsin, and 
is justly entitled to a prominent place among the 
best American physicians. Socially, also, he is 
highly esteemed, and in every relation of life he has 
well earned the sincere respect and perfect con- 
fidence of all good men. 

In 1846 Dr. Chittenden was married to Miss 
Charlotte A. Wellman, of New York Mills. This 
estimable lady died at Janesville in 1847. In 1852 
he espoused Miss Melissa J. Gillett, of Cordand, 
New York, a lady of a high order of attainments. 
He has issue two daughters and a son, the latter 
of whom is pursuing a course of medical studies. 



RICHARD MERTZ, 



W'HILE there are few phases in the lives of 
self-made men, of an emotional or sensa- 
tional character, there is yet a motive power, of en- 
ergy, enterprise, continuity and determination, wor- 
thy of careful study ; and often, if we shall look for 
the secret of men's success, we find it only in their 
continuity in following out a cherished purpose. 
The life-history of Richard Mertz, though present- 
ing many phases in common with the lives of other 
men, is yet marked by a rigid firmness and deter- 
mination to succeed so essential in the accomplish- 
ment of any i)urpose. A native of the city of Fulda, 
Prussia, he was born on the 7th of March, 1833, and 
is the son of Maxmillian Mertz, and Margret me 
Kircher. His father, a lawyer, was a prominent and 
influential man, and the recipient of many public 
honors. Richard received his education in the 



schools of his native city, and after completing his 
studies, immigrated to America in 1849, and settled 
in the town of Shields, Dodge county, Wisconsin. 

During the first year after his arrival, he employed 
his time in farm work, and for the next three years 
was engaged in a saw-mill. In 1854, he made the 
Dodge county abstract, and for eight years thereaf- 
ter was employed as clerk in different county offices. 
In 1862 he was elected register of deeds for Dodge 
county, and held that office during three successive 
terms, performing its duties in a most satisfactory 
manner. By strict economy and untiring industry he 
accumulated a small capital, and in 1869 established 
himself in the real-estate and insurance business. He 
continued in this till January i, 1873, having in the 
meantime been again elected register of deeds. In 
1875, forming a copartnership with Mr. William T. 




<^^ r^^^^^f^^^-^ 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



Ranibiish, he opened an abstract and real-estate 
office, conducting the business under the firm name 
of Rambush and Mertz. 

Beginning Hfe without money, Mr. Mertz has 
gradually worked his way up to a position of high 
public regard and social standing, and his honorable 



invariably follow noble effort. His political views 
are democratic. 

In religion, he holds to liberal opinions, and is 
not identified with any church. 

Mr. Mertz was married September 20, 1855, to 
Miss Josephine Hebyen, by whom he has three sons 



and fair dealing has attained that success that must and two daughters. 



MAX FUEGER, 



MILWAUKEE. 



LAWRENCE AND MARGRET FUEGER were 
^ the parents of Max Fueger; he was born at 
Kuehleheim on the Tauber, Baden, Germany. He 
received a thorough common-school education. He 
had a wish, from boyhood, to become a brewer, 
and his father assisted him in his inclination. After 
leaving school he remained at home for nearly two 
years, working in his father's shop as cooper. 

He then went to learn the brewing trade, with Mr. 
Max Faeth, with whom he remained two years. He 
then traveled and worked in different breweries 
for four and a half years, in the various towns of 
Wertheim, Heidelberg, Miltenburg, Wuerzburg and 
Bischofsheim. This was in accordance with the Ger- 
man law requiring three years' travel and journey- 
work before beginning any business as proprietor. 

In July, 1847, Mr. Fueger came to New York, 
where he found work, and for a year and a half was 
employed in what was then the largest brewery in 
the country, on Washington street, in the old State's 
Prison building. In August, 1849, he came to Wis- 
consin and settled in Milwaukee, where he has since 
resided. He has been engaged in brewing all the 
time, and has worked in nearly all the large brew- 
eries in the city. He worked for Best and Co. for 
eleven years, eight years of which he was foreman. 
He has a thorough practical knowledge of his trade. 



careful and watchful of the process. He succeeded 
in producing a very superior beer, that has given 
to Best and Co. a more than national name and 
reputation. They feel and generously acknowledge 
this fact, and have often expressed their indebted- 
ness to him. 

Mr. Fueger left Best and Co. to purchase the in- 
terest of Benedict Caspari, in Obermann's brewery, 
and entered into partnership with Jacob Obermann, 
with whom he is still associated. The business 
has increased steadily, and their progress has been 
great and constant. When Mr. Fueger entered the 
business, they were occupying a small frame build- 
ing; they now have a large brick building, eighty 
feet long and forty feet wide, besides a large malt- 
house. Their business has become great and their 
capital has grown with the business. 

Mr. Fueger was married in 185 1, and has had 
three children — two sons and one daughter. The 
latter is married to Mr. William Heitmann, of this 
city; the eldest son died in 1873, at the age of 
fifteen. 

Mr. Fueger was brought up a Catholic, but has 
since become more liberal in his religious views. 

He attributes his success to his thorough knowl- 
edge of his trade, to an ever watchful attention, and 
the cooperation of an excellent wife. 



JOSEPH A. CLARKE, M.D., 

WHITEWATER. 



JOSEPH AMES CLARKE, a native of Stowe, 
"Vermont, was born on the 23d of September, 
1S14, and was the son of Jonas Clarke, a farmer, 
and Sarah lu'e Fuller. His boyhood, differing little 
from that of ordinary farmer boys, was passed in his 



native town, where he received a good English 
education and assisted his father in his farm work. 
The narrow routine of farm life, however, was ill 
adapted to his tastes, and he early decided to de- 
vote his life to the medical profession. Removing 



iO 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 



to Townsend, Sandusky county, Ohio, at the age 
of seventeen, he soon afterward began the study 
of medicine with Dr. Lathrop, of Bellevue, Ohio, 
where he remained three years. At the expiration 
of that time, in 1839, drawn by the superior induce- 
ments which it offered to young men, he removed 
to the West and settled at Whitewater, Wisconsin, 
and at once engaged in that practice which gained 
for him an extended influence and a most honor- 
able and worthy reputation, and which continued 
up to within a short time of his death. In 1848, 
after pursuing the regular course of study, he 
graduated from Rush Medical College, of Chicago. 

As a physician, he was eminently fitted for his 
calling, both by his native endowments and liberal 
acquirements. Devoted to his work, he thought of 
it only as a means of helping his fellow-men, and 
of developing his own noble self. He gave much 
attention to self-culture; and, by his wide range of 
reading and close observation of current events, he 
gained a fund of knowledge which, combined with 
his excellent personal qualities, rendered him a 
most agreeable social companion. 

Dr. Clarke was a man of clear mind, sound judg- 
ment, and remarkably successful in his profession. 
He was proverbial for his integrity, and during all 



the years of his practice retained the confidence 
and esteem of his patrons and of the profession. 
Confining his attention strictly to his professional 
work, he found no time, nor had he the desire, to 
engage in political or other outside matters, except 
to perform his duties as a true citizen. In his polit- 
ical sentiments he was identified with the republican 
party. Though not a member of any church organi- 
zation, he was a firm believer in Christianity, and 
had the highest appreciation of Christian integrity 
and true practical godliness. In conversation with 
a friend one week previous to his death he said : 
" I have done many things in my life to regret, but 
my trust is in Christ, who is 'the resurrection and 
the life.' " After a long and useful life he quietly 
and sweetly fell asleep on the morning of May 3, 
1873, mourned by many warm personal friends and 
a large circle of accjuaintances. 

Dr. Clarke was married on the 2d of July, 1840, 
to Miss Mary Jane Steadman, daughter of Willis 
and Sarah C. Steadman, of Courtlandville, New 
York. Mrs. Clarke is a woman of most excellent 
(lualities, and cheerfully endured with her husband 
the toils and self-denials that attended their pioneer 
life. Their union was blessed with four affectionate 
children — one son and three dauafhters. 



SANGER MARSH, 



WHITEWATER. 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of Alexan- 
der, New York, was born on the 27th of Au- 
gust, 1815, and was the son of Wolcott Marsh, a 
farmer by occupation, and Lucy Hart. He passed 
his boyhood and youth on his father's farm, receiv- 
ing a thorough English education in the common 
schools, and in Wyoming Seminary, at Alexander. 
After attaining his majority, Mr. Marsh found the 
occupation of farming ill suited to his tastes, and 
resolved to turn his attention to mercantile pursuits. 
He accordingly started for Boston, his father fur- 
nishing him funds for defraying his expenses. On his 
way an incident occurred which was always a source 
of pleasure to him, and is well worthy of record. In 
settling his bill at' the first hotel where he stopped, 
he gave the landlord, as he supposed, a five-dollar 
note, but did not discover his mistake until he ar- 
rived at the next town. He then wrote to the hotel 
keeper, who answered refusing to refund the money. 



Twenty-one years afterward, while Mr. Marsh was 
residing in Whitewater, Wisconsin, he received a 
letter from an attorney notifying him that he had, by 
will, come into possession of a piece of land in Chica- 
go, Illinois ; the reason given was, that it was an act of 
restitution, the party making the will being the land- 
lord above mentioned. After spending a short time 
in Boston, finding that his health was becoming im- 
paired by close confinement, he removed to New 
York and established himself at Nunda, in the dry- 
goods and grocery trade. Here he conducted a 
successful business till 1845, when he removed to 
Attica, Wyoming county, and there spent one year 
in the same line of business. At the expiration of 
this time, closing up his affairs, he removed to the 
West, and settled at Whitewater, Wisconsin. He at 
once opened a mercantile business, and during the 
next ten years conducted a prosperous and widely 
influential trade ; and at the end of that time, having 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHIC AE DICTION ARV. 



21 



decided to invest his money in other enteqjrises, 
spent seven years in settling up his outstanding 
accounts and in making loans. 

In 1863, with others, he organized the First Na- 
tional Bank of Whitewater, of which he remained 
president until his death, which occurred on the 
29th of October, 1872. Mr. Marsh was thorough- 
ly qualified as a business man and financial man- 
ager. A life-long friend says of him : " He was a 
man of the strictest integrity ; kind and liberal to 
the poor; very plain and democratic in his mode of 
living, and died beloved and respected by the entire 
community, his loss being felt alike by the rich and 
poor." 

In his religious communion he was associated 
with the Universalist church, and took an active 



part m all matters pertaining to its interests, and 
liberally contributed to all worthy benevolent enter- 
prises. 

Politically, he was formerly a democrat, but be- 
came identified with the republican party upon its 
organization in 1856. He had, however, little po- 
litical ambition, finding in his regular business ample 
scope for the exercise of all his powers. 

Mr. Marsh was married in January, 1841, to Miss 
Harriet N. Horton, of Nunda, New York. By her 
had one son, George S. Marsh, cashier of the First 
National Bank of Whitewater. Mrs. Marsh died on 
the 22d day of January, 1843. 

His second marriage was in January, 1851, to 
Chelsea Pratt, by whom he had three daughters, all 
of whom are now residing at Whitewater. 



EDWARD Y. WHITON, 



■yANESVILEE. 



EDWARD VERNON WHITON was the son of 
General Joseph Whiton, of Massachusetts, a 
soldier of the revolution and of the war of 1812, 
and was born at South Lee, Berkshire county, Mas- 
sachusetts, on the 2d of June, 1805. During the 
first thirty years of his life he continued to reside 
in his native town, whence he at length removed to 
the then Territory of Wisconsin, to take part in the 
great and glorious battle of life in that new field of 
development — the great West. He settled there 
when the present site of Janesville and its neighbor- 
hood was almost a wilderness, and lived for some 
time the life of a pioneer in a cabin on the broad 
prairie. 

He was elected a member of the house of repre- 
sentatives for the first session of the legislative 
assembly at Madison. At the next subsequent ses- 
sion he was elected speaker of the house. During 
those sessions he was a frequent participant in de- 
bate, and took an active part in enacting the first 
territorial code. Up to that time the laws of Wis- 
consin consisted of the territorial statutes of Michi- 
gan, and the laws of the Wisconsin legislature, 
passed at the sessions at Belmont and Burlington. 
The revised statutes, which became of force on the 
4th of July, 1839, w'trt published under his super- 
vision. In 1847 he was a member of the consti- 
tutional convention which framed the constitution 
of the State. On the organization of the State 



government in 1849 he was elected a circuit judge, 
and, under the then system, became a judge of the 
supreme court. He occupied this position until 
1853, when the "separate supreme court" was es- 
tablished, when he was elected chief justice, and 
reelected in 1857; and continued to hold the office 
until he was compelled to leave it by the disease of 
which he died. 

Chief Justice Whiton was thoroughly identified 
with almost every prominent event in the history of 
Wisconsin, both as a Territory and as a State. 
Throughout the whole period of his residence in 
Wisconsin his life was a public life, and he filled 
political and judicial stations successively with such 
ability and integrity, that the people exalted him 
from place to place, until he had received the high- 
est honors in their gift : and the positions with 
which he was honored were ennobled by the lustre 
of his conduct and character. Amid all the con- 
flicts of party — both in the means by which he 
attained and the manner in which he discharged 
the duties of office — the purity of his character 
was ever unsullied by the slightest breath of re- 
proach or even suspicion. 

In the early part of the year 1859 his health 
began to fail, and it became manifest to his asso- 
ciates upon the bench that his system was suffering 
from some malady which it was hoped would be 
but temporary in its effects, and would yield to the 



THE VXITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 



invigorating influences of relaxation and home ex- 
ercises, where the cares and anxieties of official 
responsibility would not intrude. Accordingly, his 
associates upon the bench, after much persuasion, 
induced him to retire, as all hoped, for a short 
season only, in order to recruit his energies for the 
approaching term, as well as tp complete the un- 
finished former business still remaining. He left 
the bench, as was supposed, in the confident expec- 
tation of returning to it again after a short respite 
at home. Insidious disease, however, had obtained 
too strong and deep a hold in his system, and about 
noon on the 12th of April, 1859, he died at his res- 
idence in Janesville, in the house of his own con- 
struction, loved and mourned as to few men it has 
been vouchsafed to be loved and mourned. 

Among those officially and professionally con- 
nected with him, as well as among his private circle, 
his death called forth the deepest expressions of 
sincere regret and sorrow. At meetings of the bar 
of the supreme court, and of the Milvvaukee bar, 
as well as at those held at the county seats of the 
several counties of the State, resolutions were 
adopted indicative of the great general loss felt 
by the people, as well as the exalted estimation in 
which the deceased judge was most deservedly held 
by bench and bar. The president of the Milwaukee 
bar, in the course of a touching tribute to his virtues 
and ability, said of him : " Were I to name any one 



sphere of action in his life in which he was most 
eminently distinguished, and for which he had a 
peculiar adaptation, I should say that it was as a 
legislator. His varied information, strict integrity, 
eminent conservatism and finely balanced mind, all 
combined to make him a ready debater and a high- 
minded and patriotic legislator. But it is useless to 
name any one sphere, when all the positions he ever 
occupied were filled so ably and perfectly." And 
another of his intimate associates said: "On this 
melancholy occasion I can hardly trust myself to 
speak. For years Judge Whiton has been to me 
as it were an elder brother. Our relations have 
been so harmonious, so uniformly genial, so entirely 
fraternal, that we have scarcely thought of official 
relation. During our long association, in delibera- 
tion upon matters of the gravest concernment, while 
discussion has been most free and unrestrained, 
never an unkind word, nay, not even a petulant 
expression, has been uttered. All through his of- 
ficial career he preserved a strictness of propriety 
which can scarcely be equaled, a conscientiousness 
which never wavered, a depth of thought and com- 
prehensiveness of the subject-matter ever present; 
commanding without force, controlling without in- 
trusion ; clear and unassuming in his high office ; 
great when he least thought of greatness, but great 
only wherein man can be truly great — because he 
was wise and good." 



RICHARD C. RUSSELL, 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of Sunder- 
land, Massachusetts, was born on the 21st o^ 
April, 1829, and is the son of Alvin Russell and 
Sarah n^e Marsh. His father, a wagon-maker by 
occupation, was a man of moderate means, much 
respected by all who knew him. Richard's early 
life i)resented few marked phases, he receiving a 
good education at Amherst, and after closing his 
studies, spent four years in mercantile pursuits at 
that place. His health, however, becoming impaired, 
he removed to the West in 1856, and established 
himself at Oslikosh, Wisconsin, in the grain busi- 
ness. Remaining thus engaged until 1865, he con- 
ducted a good business, shipping both East and ! 
South, and made it financially successful. In 1865, j 
having accumulated sufficient ca|)ital, under the 1 



firm name of Russell, Leach and Co., he erected a 
saw-mill at Manistee, Michigan, and for three years 
engaged in manufacturing and shipping lumber. 
Closing out his milling interest, he, in 1870, estab- 
lished a private bank in Oshkosh, and the following 
March, with a capital of one hundred thousand dol- 
lars, organized the Union National Bank, with D. S. 
Libbie as president, and himself as cashier and gen- 
eral manager. In the destructive fire of 1873 their 
building was burned, but all the assets having been 
saved, the bank opened for business the next day 
and was again conducting a prosperous and substan- 
tial business. Aside from his banking interests, Mr. 
Russell is still concerned in mercantile pursuits, and 
also largely connected with real-estate operations. 
Politically, he is identified with the republican 




Ur^^^^-,t=^ 



THE UNITED STATES BIOdRAPIlICAL DICTIOXARV. 



23 



party, and has been honored by his fellow-citizens 
with trustworthy positions. In 1863 he was elected 
superintendent of public instruction, and reelected 
in the following year, and in this capacity rendered 
most efficient service in organizing the public schools 
of bis city. In 1864-65 he represented his district 
in the State legislature. 

In his religious communion, he is associated with 
the Congregational church. 

He has traveled somewhat extensively over the 
United States, and the practical -knowledge of men 
and things thus gained, combined with his fine 
executive and financial abilities, have enabled him 



to turn circumstances to the interests of his business, 
and to make it in every way successful. 

He was married in July, 1858, to Miss Maggie F. 
Reardon, and by her has two daughters and one 
son. 

His present business and social standing is wholly 
due to his own effort, and he may most appropriately 
be called a self-made man. While he has been 
deeply engrossed in his business affairs, he has yet 
given much time to reading and self-culture, and by 
constant effort has developed a noble character that 
does not fail to impress all with whom he has to do 
with a sense of his merit and genuine worth. 



[OSEPH B. WHITING, M.D., 



JAXESVILLE. 



EMERSON says: "It is the privilege of any 
human work which is well done, to invest the 
doer with a certain haughtiness. He can well afford 
not to conciliate whose faithful work will answer for 
him." This utterance may be taken as the key to 
the life of Joseph Bellamy Whiting, whose name 
stands at the head of this sketch. There is more 
of romance in every life than the casual observer is 
apt to note. Much that would be thought striking 
is simply unnoticed amid the hurrying throng. The 
little things that form a pivotal ppint upon which 
turns the destiny of a life are often lost sight of in 
the grand results which follow. 

Dr. Whiting comes of good New England stock, 
both parents having been born in New Haven 
county, Connecticut, whence, after marriage, they 
removed to Barkhamstead, Litchfield county, Con- 
necticut, at which place he was born, December 16, 
1822. His literary and professional tastes are hon- 
estly derived, his father, Mr. John Whiting, junior, 
having been a school teacher, and his mother, Mrs. 
Mary Warren Whiting, having been an intellectual 
and high toned woman of the old style. The for- 
mer died in 1825, aged thirty-nine, and the latter in 
1867, aged seventy-one; hence the early training 
and subsetiuent development of the son was wholly 
in the hands of the mother, whose watchful care and 
beautiful life guarded his every step, and laid good 
and strong foundations for a true and noble life. 
The following extract from a private letter shows 
the estimation in which her memory is held by her 
worthy son : " It is not too much to say that what- 



ever of good I have attained to has been largely due 
to her daily prayers and admonitions, which fol- 
lowed me wherever I went, this labor of love and 
duty ceasing only when her life itself was done." 

The cornmon school and home instruction brought 
the boy to the beginning of an academic course, at 
the age of thirteen years. At seventeen he began 
teaching, and continued in that work for five years, 
without special thought regarding his life work. 
Academic study was then resumed for a year, until 
in 1845 he began the study of medicine and surgery 
in the office of Dr. Vincent Holcombe, a distin- 
guished physician of the regular school of medicine, 
residing at Granville, Hampden county, Massachu- 
setts. The motives to this step are not easily de- 
fined, perhaps not very definite. The unconscious 
influence of Dr. Holcombe's noble mien won the 
heart and delighted the mind of the young student, 
until such a life and the profession which it adorned 
became the object of his ambition. Two years of 
thorough study followed. In 1847 he matriculated 
at the ^-kshire Medical College, Pittsfield, Massa- 
chusetts, and attended his first course of medical 
lectures. His second course was at the Vermont 
Medical College, Woodstock, Vermont, at the close 
of which he entered the office of Drs. H. H. and T. 
Childs, both of whom were professors in Berkshire 
Medical College, where he remained until his grad- 
uation at the latter in 1848. 

Soon after leaving college he located in Wolcott- 
ville, a thriving manufacturing village in Litchfield 
county, Connecticut, where, in the autumn of 1850 



24 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARV 



he married Frances A. Hungerford, daughter of 
John A. and Charlotte Hinigerford. In 1852 he 
removed to Brooklyn, New York, where a career of 
unusual promise seemed to open to him, but he was 
compelled to relinquish it on account of the declin- 
ing health of his wife, who died in 1854. After this 
sad event he went to Lee, Berkshire count)', Massa- 
chusetts, where his marked abilities quickly secured 
him ample patronage, and made him prominent as 
a leader. The Berkshire District Medical Society, 
noted for the character and high standing of its 
members, made him its secretary and retained him 
in that honorable position during six years, until his 
removal from the State. 

A new era in his life occurred in i860, when he 
married the widow of the late chief-justice Whiton, 
and removed from the scenes of his early life, where 
success, joy and sorrow had so freely mingled in his 
cup, to become a citizen of Janesville, Wisconsin. 
Scarcely had the new home become a fixed fact 
before the tocsin of war sounded through our land, 
and every brave heart felt impelled to respond to 
our country's call. Dr. Whiting was a war demo- 
crat, and when the summons came he was ready to 
obey. After the battle of Fort Donelson his ser- 
vices were offered gratuitously, and Governor Har- 
vey sent him to the front to care for our wounded 
soldiers. Returning soon afterward with the sick 
and wounded, he remained on duty in the wards of 
Mound City Hospital during six months. The 33d 
Regiment of Wisconsin Volunteers was now about 
to be raised, and Dr. Whiting received a commission 
as its surgeon, and immediately entered upon the 
work of perfecting its organization. The writer of 
this sketch was associated with him on the medical 
staff, and therefore has reason to know the thor- 
oughness which marked every step in the progress 
of that work. The experience gained in previous 
hospital service was put to practical use, and such 
examinations of the men were made as proved such 
of them as were accepted to be able to endure the 
fatigues and hardships of active military life. Six 
weeks were thus occupied while the new regiment 
was being gathered in camp at Racine, Wisconsin. 
Then it was ordered to Memphis, to form part of 
the great expedition which was intended to take 
Vicksburg, via Grenada and Jackson. The hard- 
ships of that campaign are, in part, matters of his- 
tory. No one pen will i)robably ever record them. 
To add to these hardships, unfortunate differences 
arose among the staff officers, in the midst of which 



Surgeon Whiting was detailed for special service 
near army headquarters. Meanwhile great changes 
had occurred in the military programme. The army 
had returned to Memphis, whence a portion was 
sent by transports down the Mississippi, and active 
operations were in progress about Vicksburg, nearly 
opposite which, at Milliken's Bend, Louisiana, a 
large hospital was established by order of General 
(irant, Surgeon Franklin put in charge, and Surgeon 
Whiting was made his chief executive officer. At 
the end of three weeks Surgeon Franklin was or- 
dered to rejoin his division, and Dr. Whiting suc- 
ceeded him as surgeon-in-chief. The importance 
of this position may be understood in view of the 
fact that it was the largest general hospital in the 
Mississippi valley below Cairo. It contained about 
three thousand persons, and was a model for good 
order, discipline, and thorough attention to, and 
care for, the wants of its inmates. The executive 
ability there displayed was noticeable in many ways 
other tlian maintaining good order and thorough 
discipline, which are the foundation of success. Its 
supplies for daily use were obtained from every 
available point, a work in itself of no mean magni- 
tude. Not only the quantity but the quality was 
scrupulously regarded, and an abundance was pro- 
vided for all ; yet when the hospital was closed, in 
September, 1863, after an existence of seven months, 
there stood to its credit in the commissary depart- 
ment, as an unexpended balance, the handsome sum 
of ten thousand dollars, which had been saved to 
the government by economy in the hospital admin- 
istration, and which afforded proof, also, of the lib- 
erality of the government in providing for its hos- 
pital department. When the books were closed, 
and returns made to Washington, the accounts were 
found clear and correct. 

The next post of duty was as surgeon-in-chief of 
the military district of Natchez, Mississippi, having 
that city as headquarters. This was in November, 
1863. The hospitals were found to be in a demor- 
alized condition, but in a short time order was 
restored, when the district became infected with 
small-jjox, which spread with alarming rapidity 
among the citizens and colored troops. Special 
hospital accommodations were at once provided, 
and further [jrogress of the disease was averted. 
The necessities of the case required his appoint- 
ment by the military authorities as mayor of the 
city, the duties of which office he ably filled for 
some three months, when health gave way, and a 




^L^^'^^ 



TUB UNITED STATES HIOdRATlIICAL D/CT/OXA/n: 



25 



return home became inevitable, and lie was honor- 
ably discharged from the service in July 1S64. 
Through special favor his discharge was forwarded 
direct, instead of passing through the ordinary 
channels, a compliment not often paid to any retir- 
ing officer. 

Dr. Whiting's military record is one of which any 
man might well be proud. Peculiarities of charac- 
ter which intensify the statement with which this 
sketch begins made him enemies, but only among 
those who would not understand, and could not 
appreciate him. His perceptions were clear, his 
professional knowledge accurate, his hand firm in 
action ; and though easily and too often disturbed 
by minor annoyances, he was ever calm, clear and 
determined in every emergency. And the strict 
honesty of his administration is worthy of all praise. 
With a discipline verging close upon severity at 
times, he was at heart, to those who knew him best, 
really simple as a child, and kind and gentle as a 
woman ; satisfied if his work was well done, and 
without care of its being approved by those who 
could not understand it. 

A year of quiet rest at home prepared the way 
for the resumption of active professional life, in 
which Dr. Whiting has been engaged since 1865, 
enjoying the confidence and respect of the people 
to a remarkable degree, and honored, as at the 
East, by his medical brethren, having been unani- 
mously chosen president of the Wisconsin State 
Medical Society in 1875-6. 

Dr. Whiting is a member of Christ Episcopal 
Church in Janesville, of which he has for many 
years been a warden. His sympathies and efforts 
have been largely given to the reformation of the 
inebriate, a cause which he has boldly and ably 
championed on every occasion when there was 



need. The cause of education has found in him 
a warm friend and earnest supporter. The public 
schools of Janesville and State institutions of Wis- 
consin have in various ways, either indirectly or 
officially, shared his interest and efforts for their 
improvement. During five years he has held the 
office of secretary of the Wisconsin Institution for 
the Education of the Blind. In various ways he 
has proven that the duties of an able physician, a 
true philanthropist and a good citizen, are not at 
all incompatible. 

In literary taste and culture Dr. Whiting would 
excel, if an intensely practical life did not interfere. 
His life-long regret is that he did not receive a col- 
legiate education. This regret has doubtless stim- 
ulated his activity in this direction in behalf of 
others. Yet his paper read before the State Med- 
ical Society, printed in the "Transactions" of 1874. 
entitled, "A higher standard of literary attainment, 
and a broader culture, necessary for young men 
who purpose to enter the profession," shows a 
breadth of thought and power of expression which 
are worthy of the man. Few men excel in many 
things. Happy should he be who excels in one, 
and the subject of this sketch excels in more than 
one. 

Dr. Whiting has three children, all of whom are 
living, and give promise of being worthy of their 

In personal appearance he is tall, erect and com- 
manding, with a fine presence, somewhat resembling 
General Sherman. With an honest desire to be 
exactly right ; a readiness to acknowledge error, as 
well as to forgive ; a keen sense of justice ; an exec- 
utive ability that is marked, and a personal char- 
acter free of stain, Wisconsin can be proud of him 
as one of her representati\-e citizens. 



FRANZ FALK, 



.)///, ]\A C'KEE. 



IN studying the life-history of him whose name 
heads this sketch we find underlying, and run- 
ning throughout the whole, an unswerving purpose, 
untiring enterprise and a firm adherence to principle. 
A native of Miltenberg, Bavaria, he was born on the 
loth of August, 1824, of Michael Falk and Margaret 
nt'e Haeckler; and was early trained to those habits 
of industry and economy that have so signally 



marked his career. His father, a cooper by occu- 
pation, was a man of considerable influence in his 
community, and received for life the appointment of 
wood-measurer for his city. With such an educa- 
tion as could be derived from the common school, 
Franz closed his studies when he was twelve and a 
half years of age, and spent the next six years work- 
ing at the cooper's trade. The business not being 



26 



THE rXITEI) STATES lilOdliM'lllCAL DICTIUXARV. 



adapted to his tastes, and. having arrived at that 
age when it was necessary for him to choose a life 
occupation, he decided to become a brewer. Ac- 
cordingly he relinquished his former occupation, and 
after spending three years in the brewery business, 
in Miltenberg, left his native land and immigrated 
to America, landing in New York in June, 1848. 
Going thence to Cincinnati, he was there employed 
in a brewery three months, and in October of the 
same year settled in Milwaukee, which he has 
since made his home. During the first six months 
after his arrival he was in the employ of Mr. Au- 
gust Krug, doing general work in his brewery, and 
then became foreman in the brewery of C. T. Melms, 
a position which he held during a period of seven 
years. Having now accumulated a sufficient capital, 
he associated himself with Mr. Frederick Goes, and 
began business on his own account; and was also, 
for five years, interested in the malt-houses of a Mr. 
Williams. Although actively employed in his busi- 
ness, Mr. Falk has always shown a worthy public- 
spiritedness, and has taken a deep interest in all 
matters pertaining to the interests of his city. He 



is at the present time (1876) a director of the Brew- 
ers Insurance Company of .America. His success 
is wholly the product of his own effort. Beginning 
without capital, he has made his way slowly and 
steadily to his present standing, and presented in 
his career an example of sturdy toil and honest 
enterprise well worthy of emulation. Though 
democratic in his political views, he is far from 
being a partisan, and always esteems the man above 
the party. His religious culture has been under 
the influence of the Catholic church. 

While Mr. Falk has been constantly engaged in 
his business affairs, he has found much time for 
social culture, and has developed those traits of 
personal character that always mark the true man, 
and that never fail to secure substantial friends. 

He was married in June, 1850, to Miss Louisa 
Wahl, and by her has seven sons and one daughter. 
The eldest son, Lewis W. Falk, manages the finan- 
ces in the Bavarian Brewery. The second, Frank 
R. Falk, is corresponding clerk in the Second Ward 
Savings Bank, of Milwaukee ; and the daughter is at- 
tending school in Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany. 



REV. DEXTER CLARY 



DEXTER CI.ARW a native of Conway, Massa- 
chusetts, was born on the ist of February, 
1798. His father, a careful, conscientious man, 
removed to Jefferson county. New York, when the 
son was about five years old, and with his family 
became a pioneer of tiie then western wilderness. He 
was a good man, a deacon of tried excellence, and 
active in all matters of reform, and whatever tended 
to the welfare of his fellow-men. Dexter inherited 
many of the characteristics of his father, and in his 
boyhood learned by the force of circumstances to 
endure hardship and to look upon life as a struggle 
with difficulties, and yet as presenting ends worth 
struggling for. He acquired a good common-school 
education, and under home training developed a 
sound moral character and a knowledge of religious 
truth. When of suitable age he became a clerk in 
a store in Watertown, and by fidelity and ability 
soon rose to a position of responsibility and trust. 

He was converted to a religious life when about 
twenty-three years of age, his mind having first been 
awakened under the preaching of Dr. Thomas Mc- 



.•\uley, the eloipient Irish preacher. Soon afterward 
he was placed in charge of a store in Sackett's Har- 
bor, but having soon to leave the position by reason 
of impaired health, his thoughts were much turned 
upon the ministry. When satisfied that the path of 
duty lay in this direction, he entered at once upon a 
course of study ; but in consideration of his preca- 
j rious health, his mature age, and especially of his 
ability in dealing with men on the subject of reli- 
gion already developed, he was advised to take a 
short course. Accordingly after spending a year or 
two in an academy he placed himself under the care 
of the i)resbytery, studied and worked with pastors as 
he had opportunity, and in February, 1828, at the age 
of thirty years, was licensed to preach by the St. Law- 
rence Presbytery. His first sermon after receiving 
his license was on the text, " What shall it profit a 
man if he gain the whole world and lose his own 
soul.'" 

From the beginning, iiis great object was to save 
men, and to this end he studied to impress upon his 
hearers what were to iiim eternal verities. During 



Wft iw^i 




^^; 






THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARV. 



27 



the first year he laljored as an evangelist with great 
success, under a commission from the Western Do- 
mestic Missionary Society, and in February, 1829, 
was ordained. In 1832 he received an invitation to 
go to the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia, and with his 
brother Abel started thither. Arriving at Wilkes- 
barre, Pennsylvania, his purposes were changed by 
the death of his brother, and he returned to his 
home. In 1834, in order to prepare himself more 
thoroughly for his work, he spent several months 
under the instructions of Dr. Taylor, in New Haven, 
Connecticut, and on returning home resumed his 
work as an evangelist. 

On the 24th of March, 1835, he was married to 
Mrs. Sarah M. Beardsley, nee Williams, in whom he 
found a loving companion and faithful helper, and 
one who cheerfully shared with him in all the joys 
and trials of his long and varied life. Soon after his 
marriage he was called to the city of Montreal, 
where he labored till the political revolution two 
years later. In 1838 he visited the West, and in 
1840 removed his family to Beloit, Wisconsin, and 
for a year divided his labors between the church at 
that place and that at Rockton. At the expiration 
of this time he gave his attention wholly to the 
Beloit church, and in February, 1844, after the com- 
pletion of the first church edifice, was duly installed 
pastor. The success which attended his work during 
the next seven years is best attested by results. The 
church grew till it became almost the strongest in 
the State, and the whole community became distin- 
guished for its intelligence and moral and religious 
character, a fact which, more than anything else, 
determined the location of Beloit College. In Sep- 
tember, 1850, resigning his pastorate, he entered the 
service of the American Home Missionary Society, 
as agent or secretary for Wisconsin, a position for 
whose duties his former experience most eminently 
fitted him. For twenty-two years he carefully looked 
after the interests of the needy churches of his de- 
nomination in the State, never shrinking from duty, 
never reckless, but in faith,' running risks as neces- 
sity required, trusting always in divine guidance 
and help, and so blending the wisdom, authority, 
dignity and kindness of a father, that spontaneously 
the title "Father Clary" was everywhere bestowed 
upon him. The spirit with which he began and 
prosecuted and closed his labors in this depart- 
ment is happily expressed in his own words, as 
in the presence of the gathered churches in Octo- 
ber, 1872, he laid down his commission. He says: 



I cheerfully left a beloved parish lor the agency under a 
clear conviction that I was doing the Master's will. ... It 
was plain to my mind that there was a shady as well as 
sunny side. ... I Iiave labored, going in and out among 
the brethren, their churches and people lor these twenty- 
two years. I have purchased no land, built no house, en- 
gaged in no speculation, and devoted little time, perhaps 
too little, to study. My official duties have been my one 
idea, kept so steadily Ix-tnrc my mind that I have been able, 
through grace, to sav haliituallv, ' This one thing I do.' I 
have traveled about one hundred thousand miles, to a con- 
siderable extent by private conveyance. The number of 
sermons preached fully equals tlie number of Sabbaths 
that have passed. Donations received and distributed have 
been more than one thousand dollars a year, and work done 
in other departments is in about the same proportion. 

During the first year of Mr Clary's pastorate 
the consultations were begun which resulted in the 
founding of Beloit College. . Into this enterprise he 
entered most heartily. At the outset he was elected 
a trustee, and at the first meeting in 1845 was ap- 
pointed secretary of the board, and member and sec- 
retary of the executive committee, positions which 
he faithfully filled till the day of his death. Prompt 
in attendance, patient in deliberation, sound in judg- 
ment, clear and positive, he was yet courteous and 
kind in expressing his convictions, precise in the 
transaction of business and accurate in keeping the 
records. He was especially interested in the faculty 
and students; and it was a peculiar joy of his latter 
years to bring in, as pastors of the churches under 
his care, not a few of those who had begun their 
education for the ministry under his eyes, and to 
help them in their work by his sympathy and coun- 
sel. Thus for nearly thirty years his life was identi- 
fied with the entire life of the institution, and out 
along all the lines of influence which radiate from 
this seat of learning his faithful labors and fervent 
prayers will go on yielding precious fruits, more and 
more to the end of time. 

Mr. Clary's religion was his life. It was within 
him an all-pervading presence and purpose, and 
shone out in all his actions, beaming from his face 
in smiles of contentment, flashing from his eyes in 
looks of love, dropping from the lips in words of 
sympathy, moving the hands to deeds of charity, 
and, by its"*silent workings within, pushing him up- 
ward and outward into the full stature of a true 
manhood. A marked feature of Mr. Clary's char- 
acter was his generous liberality. It was his delight 
to give, and up to his last hour he was ready to con- 
tribute cheerfully for the support of any worthy 
cause. 

His social qualities were of a very high order. 
As a husband, he was tender and thoughtful ; as a 
father, fond and faithful ; as a friend, true ; and all 



28 



THE r.V/TED STATES HI<U,RAI'H IC AL DICTIOXARV. 



who knew him as a neighbor or fellow-citizen re- 
member him as a man of singularly courteous and 
gentlemanly bearing, of strictest integrity, ready 
sympathy and large public-spiritedness. 



While we mourn for our loss, we are cheered with 
the thought that his work and influence live after 
him. He died at two o'clock in the afternoon on 
the iSth of June, 1874, in his seventy-seventh year. 



[OHN DEICHMAN, M.D., 



WHITEWATER. 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of Moore ! 
township, Northampton county, Pennsylvania, i 
was born on the 12th of December, 1806, the son i 
of Abraham Deichman and Sarah me Deshler. The 1 
family has been somewhat noted for longevity, many ' 
of its members having attained the ages of seventy I 
and eighty years. The grandfather of our subject, 
John Deichman, was a native of Grebenstein on j 
the Rhine, in Germany, and immigrated to America 
about the year 1765 ; and married Elizabeth Simon, j 
a lady of English descent, born in Germantown, I 
near Philadelphia. His maternal grandfather, Adam I 
Deshler, was a prominent man, and his name is 
associated with many important events connected 
with the early history of our country, as we learn 
from the " History of Lehigh Valley," by Mathew 
Henry. He was of German descent, and settled in 
Whitehall township, Lehigh county, Pennsylvania, 
about the year 1730. During the revolutionary war 
he acted as commissary of supplies for the army, 
and in 1770, when the Ignited States treasury, as 
well as that of the State of Pennsylvania, had no 
funds, advanced and paid money out of his own 
private resources, an act which in itself must endear 
his memory to every true American. In the peti- 
tion of the 17th of October, 1763, the time of the 
threatened Indian massacre, his name appears as 
one of the defenders of his town. He was the 
wealthiest inhabitant of the place, and possessed 
the only gun fit for service. We learn from the 
report of Colonel Bird to Governor Hamilton, that 
there were but three guns in the town, and two of 
them were unfit for use. His house was a large, 
two-storied stone structure, the only one of the kind 
in the place; and at the time of the Indian depreda- 
tions in 1763, became the refuge and headquarters 
of all the inhabitants, and was called the Fort. 

John received a good common-school education 
in his native place, and later, in March, 1827, 
graduated from the medical deiJartment of the 
University of Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia, with 



the degree of M.D. His early desire was to enter 
the ministry, and he began his studies with this 
purpose in view. He was, however, prevailed upon 
by his parents, especially his mother, to abandon 
his purpose, and finally turned his attention to the 
study of medicine. Immediately after graduating 
he began the practice of his profession at Lower 
Mount Bethel, Northampton county, Pennsylvania, 
and continued it in that State with good success 
during a period of twenty-two years; performing, 
in that time, some most difficult surgical operations. 
Removing to the West in 1849, he established him- 
self in the drug business at Whitewater, ^Visconsin, 
and occasionally engaged in his profession. Among 
the many difficult operations performed by him was 
the removal of a polypus .from both nostrils of 
William Babcock, of Delavan, Wisconsin, in 1851. 
Dr. Deichman, now seventy years of age, is in 
vigorous health, and having relinquished both his 
mercantile and professional duties, now finds most 
agreeable employment in his interesting museum. 
His collection is the work of forty-five years, and 
contains relics of Julius Caesar's time, robes from 
Burmah, and a collection of Indian curiosities, rarely 
equaled in this country. He has a library of over 
two thousand volumes, comprising works of history, 
theology, politics, medicine and science ; also classi- 
cal works in various languages; the "Congressional 
Globe," eight quarto volumes ; the census of 1850, 
i860 and 1870, complete in six volumes quarto. His 
life-career has been one of varied and interesting 
experiences, and presents a record of which he may 
justly be proud. While residing in Pennsylvania he 
was, for six years, surgeon in ^he T4oth Regiment of 
the State militia. 

Politically, he was formerly a whig, but since the 
organization of the republican party has been one of 
its hearty supporters. 

He was educated and baptized in the German 
Reformed church, but is now unsectarian in his 
religious views; though firmly believing in a Su- 



The United states b/ognap///cal dictionakt. 



29 



preme Being and a future existence, that rests en- 
tirely with God. 

Dr. Deichman was married on the 4th of June, 
1830, to Miss Catherine Stocker, of Lower Mount 
Bethel, Pennsylvania, and by her has had four 
children : of whom one son and two daughters. 
Elizabeth, Emma D. and Abraham S., are now 
living. Mary, the second daughter, died in 1849, at 



the age of thirteen years. The son is a graduate of 
Eastman's Business College of Poughkeepsie, New 
Vork, aud is now in business at Easton, Pennsyl- 
vania. Miss Virginia Deichman, a granddaughter, 
now twenty-five years of age, has been a member of 
the State Normal School, located at Whitewater, 
since its organization in 1869, and is now teacher of 
instrumental music. 



LIEUT.-GOV. MILTON H. PETTIT, 



KENOSHA. 



MILTON HOWARD PETTLP,. a native of 
Fabius, Onondago county, New York, was i 
born on the 22d of October, 1825, and was the son 
of George and Jane Upfold Pettit. His ancestors 
in his father's line were from the French Huguenots, 
who were obliged to flee from their native country 
on the revocation of the " Edict of Nantes," in the 
reign of Louis XIV, embarked for America in the 
fall of 1685, and arrived in New York after a peril- 
ous voyage of two months' duration. Settling on a | 
beautiful tract of land a few miles above the city, on 
the banks of ihe East river, they named the place ; 
New Rochelle, in honor of their old home in France. 1 
Here John Pettit, great-great-grandfather of our sub- 
ject, died about the year 1765, leaving two children, 
John and Jonathan. Of these, Jonathan removed 
to Sharon, Connecticut, and there married Miss 
Agnes Riddell, daughter of a Scotch-Irish gentleman. 
He soon afterward removed to Stillwater, New York, 
and during the revolutionary war left his young 
wife in Albany and entered the continental service. 1 
His son, George Pettit, the father of Milton H., was 
born in Albany, and was a young man when his 
fathers' family of six sons and one daughter — James, 
George, Jonathan, David, Melancthon, John and 
Agnes — removed to Sherburn, Chenango county, 
and thence to Fabius, New York, where he died, a 
few years since, a most highly esteemed citizen, hav- 
ing been judge of the county court for a number of 
years, and twice a member of the State legislature. 
Milton passed his boyhood and youth in his native 
place, on his father's farm, and received his educa- 
tion in the public schools and Pompey Academy. 

In 1846 he removed to Wisconsin, and settled on 
a farm about three miles from Kenosha. Leaving 
his farm in 1854, he removed to Kenosha and en- 
gaged in grain buying, and soon afterward in malt- 



ing. His business prospered from the first, and he 
soon became an extensive grain dealer and owner 
of one of the largest malt establishments in his 
State. His entire career was marked by honorable 
and fair dealing, and he became widely known as a 
thoroughly qualified business man, and succeeded 
in accumulating an ample fortune. 

Mr. Pettit was a man of decided political views, 
and was identified with the republican party, being 
a true lover of freedom and equality. In the years 
1854 and 1859 he was a member of the city council, 
\ and was elected mayor in 1861, 1865, 1867 and 
1 1870, and discharged the duties of his office with 
ability and fidelity. In 1869 he was elected to the 
State senate for a term of two years, and as a legis- 
lator manifested his belief in just actions, rather than 
much speaking. During his term of office he was 
chosen as one to visit the charitable and benevolent 
institutions of the State, and as chairman discharged 
his duties with efficiency, to the advantage of the 
I institutions and the satisfaction of the governor and 
people. During the last session of his senatorial 
term he served as chairman of the committee on 
finance. State's prison, and the joint committee on 
charitable and benevolent institutions, and was a 
member of the committee on engrossed bills. As a 
j senator he commanded the respect of all, and was 
j often called upon to preside over the deliberations 
of the senate, and by his aptness, ability and impar- 
tiality as a presiding officer showed his fitness for 
the office of lieutenant-governor, to which he was 
elected in the State election of 1871. As president 
of the senate he maintained tl?e esteem and confi- 
dence of all, and as acting governor, in the absence 
of Governor Washburn, discharged the duties of that 
office with marked ability and credit. 

During thelatter part of his service as lieutenant- 



30 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGKAPHICAL DICTION Ain. 



governor, his health became much impaired, but not 
knowing his danger, he continued his labors till the 
close of the legislature, occupying the chair up to 
within three days of his death. He was in his place 
on Monday in both forenoon and evening sessions, 
and at the afternoon session of the following day 
the senate passed the following resolution: 

licsnlvni. That the most sincere thanks of the senate are 
due, and are hereby tendered, Hon. M. H. Pettit, lieutenant- 
governor, lor the eminent ability, impartiality and courtesy 
with wliich he has presided over the deliberations of this 
Ixidy during the present session. 

To whicli Mr. Pettit responded in the following 
words : 

Skn.\tok.s : I desire to say, in response to the resolution 
so kindly oflTered and unanimously adopted by you, I sin- 
cerely thank you! 

My aim has been, as my promise was at the commence- 
ment of the session, to deal faiiiv with you all, and if at anv 
time I have seemed to do oihi r« i~c, ii lia> been the result 
of inattciUion to my duties dwiiiL; Id llio -tate of mv healtli. 
To nic the session has been very pleasant. Acquaintances 
have been made which to me have been desirable, and have 
grown into an affection and esteem which I shall fondly 
cherish through subsequent life. 

At the close of the legislature he returned to his 
home, expecting to regain his health. His days, 
however, were numbered. On Sunday evening, 
March 2_^, 1873, he died, aged forty-seven years, 
five months and one dav. The suddenness of his 



death was a surprise to all. The State showed its 
sorrow by placing the flag at half-mast and draping 
the capitol, and the State offices were closed on the 
day of the funeral ; obituaries, speaking of him in 
the highest terms as a legislator and presiding officer, 
were published throughout the State, while the com- 
mon council of his own home paid their respect to 
his ability, virtue and social worth in the most highly 
complimentary resolutions. In his death the State 
lost an honest and faithful officer, the business pub- 
lic a loyal citizen, the social community a genial and 
courteous member, and his own family an affection- 
ate husband and fond father. His family alone 
could duly appreciate his loss ; but in the midst of 
their sorrow they were cheered by the thought, " he 
still lives," and bowing 'neath the rod could say, 
" He doeth all things well." 

Mr. Pettit was reared under Baptist influences, 
though he himself was exceedingly liberal in his 
religious sentiments. 

He was married in 1847 to Miss Caroline D. 
Marsh, a farmer's daughter, of Kenosha county. 
Their married life was one of constant happiness, 
and their union was blest with seven children, of 
whom one son and two daughters still survive. 



ROWLEY MORRIS, M.D., 



Ii ROD HE AD. 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of Warsaw, 
New York, was born on the 30th of December, 
1811, and is the son' of Solomon Morris and Olive 
m'e Knapp, the latter being the widow of Mr. Dwight 
Noble. The early ancestors of the family were 
among the Puritans of New England, and the family 
itself is among the oldest in the United States. The 
father of our subject, a farmer by occupation, had 
also been engaged as a surveyor in western New 
York when it was a wilderness. 

Moth i)arents took great care in the training of 
their son to habits of industry, integrity and moral- 
ity, and the influence of their teaching has marked 
his entire life. He received his early education in 
the common schools, and early in life developed a 
love for study, and became an extensive reader, but 
was, however, undecided as to what business he 
would devote his life. At the age of twenty, paying 
his father one hundred dollars for his time, he be- 
( ame a i)artncr in a store in Warsaw. 



After following merchandising about two years, 
he closed his business and went to Cincinnati, Ohio, 
whence he returned during the sanje season, and 
spent two years in study. He next engaged in west- 
ern land speculation, but soon abandoned it on 
account of the financial depression of 1836. In the 
fall of 1837 he went to New York, and pursued a 
course of commercial study, intending to go to New 
Orleans ; but, failing to receive money from his 
lands, as he had expected, he was obliged to relin- 
quish his purpose, and opened a school in New York 
and spent a few months in teaching. Thence re- 
turning home, he staid a short time and then went 
to Detroit, Michigan, where he passed the winter, 
spending much of his time in study. In the winter 
of 1838 he taught school near Akron, Ohio, and in 
the following spring made an extended tour through 
the West. During his exposures he contracted the 
ague, and on his way home in an open conveyance 
he had chills and fever seven days in succession. 




'=^^^^^^^ 



LIEUTENANr-GOVERNOR OF WISCONSIN 



THE UNITED STATES BIOdRAPIUCAL DlCTlONARr 



Upon arriving at Chicago his funds became ex- 
hausted, and, borrowing twenty-five dollars of a 
friend, he took passage on a boat for Buffalo, and 
reached that city with enough money to pay his 
stage fare to Warsaw, and twenty-five cents- over. 
With this he tried to get his dinner at the hotel, but 
the price being thirty cents, and the landlord being 
unrelenting, he left without his dinner. 

Having decided to enter the medical profession, 
he in 1840 began his studies with Dr. Peter Caner, 
of Warsaw. At the end of one year he entered the 
office of Messrs. Baldwin and Patter, and remained 
with them until his graduation from Albany Medical 
College in 1844. After practicing his profession for 
one year in his native place, he removed to Wiscon- 
sin; but not meeting with success, he became some- 
what discouraged, and soon returned to his home, 
and there resumed his practice, continuing it with 
varied success, in company with Dr. Baldwin, his 
tbrmer preceptor, till 1848, when he again came to 
Wisconsin, and settled at his present home. By 
close application to his work he soon established 
a worthy reputation; and now, though retired from 



actual practice, and engaged to some extent in 
agricultural pursuits, enjoys a wide reputation as a 
skillful and successful physician. His success may 
be attributed to the fact that he turned his powers 
into that channel of life for which they were best 
adapted, and in which he could take delight, and 
having once found his work, he has applied himself 
to it with unremitting vigor and zeal. 

In his political sentiments. Dr. Morris was for- 
merly a democrat, but is now identified with the 
republican party, and has been honored by his 
fellow-citizens with many positions of public trust. 
His religious views are rationalistic, though he is 
not connected with any church organization. 

Naturally of a generous and genial disposition, he 
! makes friends wherever he goes; and with the large 
fund of practical knowledge gained from his varied 
experiences, observation and study, combined with 
his excellent social and conversational powers, is a 
most agreeable companion. He was married in 
1844, to Miss Harriet J. Foster, who died in 1857. 
In 1863 he was married a second time, to Mrs. Ann 
Mitchell, and bv her has two children. 



WILLIAM H. DeMOTTE, A.M. 



DEL A I '.4^', 



WILLIAM H. DeMOTTE, a native of Ken- 
tucky, was born near Danville on the 17th 
of July, 1830, the son of Rev. Daniel and Mary, lu'e 
Brewer, DeMotte. His parents removed to Indiana 
soon after his birth, and there he passed his boyhood 
under such influences as are usually thrown around | 
the family of an itinerant preacher in a new country. 

Completing the regular course of study, he grad- 
uated with honor from the literary and scientific 
department of Asbury University, at Green Castle, 
Indiana, in 1849. He soon afterward became a 
teacher in the Indiana Institute for the Deaf and 
Dumb at Indianapolis, and in that capacity continued 
during a period of fourteen years. His natural fit- 
ness, earnest devotion and zealous industry enabled 
him to acquire exceptional expertness in that most 
difficult branch of instruction, and a number of 
prominent, successful teachers of mutes received 
their first lessons from him. 

During the war of the rebellion he served with 
satisfaction, under a commission from Gov. Morton, 
as State military and sanitary agent at Washington, 



District of Columbia, affording relief to returning 
prisoners and to sick, disabled and destitute soldiers 
in hospitals. 

At the close of the war he was elected president 
of the Indiana Female College at Indianapolis, in 
which capacity he served until 1868, when he ac- 
cepted an invitation to the presidency of Illinois 
Female College at Jacksonville. His labors in this 
institution continued, with marked success, until the 
loth of June, 1875, when he was elected superin- 
tendent of the Wisconsin Deaf and Dumb Institute, 
a position for which he was most eminently fitted, 
botli by his early experience in teaching mutes, and 
his later life, in charge of a large boarding school. 
Mr. DeMotte's success as a teacher is due not only 
to his superior scholarship and conscientious devo- 
tion to his chosen profession, but quite as much to 
his remarkable skill as a disciplinarian. He has 
always been noted for his promptness and regularity, 
and knowing thoroughly all the details of his work, 
has been able to apply his means and resources to, 
the best possible advantage. No railway time-table 



32 



THE UNITED STATES BJOGRAPHICAL DICTIONAKV 



is more carefully arranged or promptly followed than 
his usual programme of school duties. As a speaker, 
lie possesses a fluency and an ease, coupled with apt- 
ness in illustration and earnestness in appeal, which 
render him very effective, especially with the young. 
As a teacher, he excels in mental and moral sciences. 
In his religious communion he is connected with 



the Methodist Episcopal church, and is an active, 
zealous and efficient worker. 

His personal qualities are of a high order, and the 
upright, frank and manly demeanor that has charac- 
terized his life has gained for him the universal con- 
fidence of business men, and won for him a high 
standing in all social interests and local enterprises. 



JUDGE LEVI B. VILAS, 

MADISOX. 



LEVI B. VILAS was born in Sterling, Lamoille 
^ county, Vermont, on the 25th of February, 
181 1, and is the fourth son of Moses Vilas, whose 
character for sound practical sense, strict integrity, 
firmness of purpose and energy in the accomplish- 
ment of all laudable pursuits, gave him a command- 
ing position in the community in which he lived. 
His mother's maiden name was Mercy Flint, dis- 
tinguished for all those womanly qualities which 
adorn the daughter, wife and mother, the counter- 
part of those manly cjualities which adorn her liege 
lord. Levi received an academic education and 
pursued a partial collegiate course, but was prevent- 
ed by ill health from graduating. He is by profes- 
sion a lawyer, having been admitted to the bar in 
St. Albans, Vermont, in 1833, but has retired from 
practice. During his residence in Vermont he was 
the first postmaster at Morrisville, in 1834, which 
position he resigned in the fall of that year, on 
removing to Johnson. He was elected to the State 
constitutional convention from Johnson in 1835, and 
represented the town in the legislature in 1836 and 
1837, and was elected by it, in the latter year, one 
of the State commissioners of the- deaf and dumb 
and blind. During the same period he held the 
office of register of probate. He removed to Chel- 
sea in 1838, and represented that town in the legis- 
lature in 1840, 1841, 1842 and 1843. During these 
four years he served on the judiciary committee, and 
the last year he was its chairman. He was elected 
State senator from Orange county in 1845 and re- 
elected in 1846. He held the office of judge of 
probate for three years in Orange county. He was 
a delegate to the Baltimore convention ; was a mem- 
ber of the State constitutional convention in 1850, 
from Chelsea. He came to Wisconsin in 185 1, and 
•settled at Madison; represented the Madison district 
in the assembly in the years 1855, 1868, and 1873. 



He was mayor of the city of Madison from April, 
1861, to .'Vpril, 1862; was appointed by Governor 
Solomon and served as draft commissioner during 
the war for the LTnion in 1 862 ; was a regent of the 
Wisconsin State LIniversity for twelve years previous 
to its reorganization. 

In stature, Judge N'ilas is about five feet eleven 
inches high, has gray hair and beard, bluish gray 
eyes, florid complexion, and weighs about one hun- 
dred and ninety pounds. His decided mental abil- 
ity, his sanguine, bilious temperament, in conjunc- 
tion with his robust health, strong convictions, iron 
will and unwavering perseverance in the accomplish- 
ment of his objects, enabled him, in very early life, 
to attain remarkable distinction in his profession, 
and in the various legislative assemblies of which he 
was a member. The leading principle of his polit- 
ical life has been and is, that infidelity to public trust 
was moral treason to the government, and hence his 
political record is without stain. As the presiding 
officer of a legislative body he was distinguished for 
his intimate knowledge of parliamentary rule, for the 
firmness with which he enforced its observance, and 
the strict impartiality of his decisions. The same 
qualities which gave him distinction in legislative 
halls enabled hiin to attain, in the prime of manhood, 
unparalleled success at the bar. Having thus early 
in the prime of manhood ac(|uired fame and wealth, 
his first wish was to find a partner who would share 
his fame and, with him, enjoy his wealth. Such an 
one he found in Miss Esther (i. Smilie, a lady of 
rare intelligence and accomiilishments, scrupulously 
exact in the performance of all her domestic duties, 
and yet with such amiable sweetness of temper and 
gentleness of manner as to diffuse a cheerful air 
throughout the household. It is not wonderful that 
' he should retire from the vexatious disputes at the 
I bar, and the bitter contests in the political field. 




^Ai^' (^^^'^7'^^c4_J 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARV. 



i:-, 



He lias not been idle in his retirement from the 
busy scenes of public life. He has superintended 
the education of five sons, graduates of the Wiscon- 
sin University, four of whom are now valuable mem- 
bers of society, and are acquiring remarkable dis- 
tinction in their professions. A shadow has passed 
over this bright picture by the death of the second 
son, who illustrated the axiom that death loves a 



shuiing mark. According to the Roman law a citi- 
zen who reared five sons to manliood was supposed 
to have contributed so largely to the wealth of the 
empire that he was never afterward' allowed to pay 
any portion of its expenses. 

This family is peculiarly fortunate in having a 
daughter to perpetuate the feminine qualities which 
at present adorn it. 



CHARLES U. PARKER, 



PLEASANT VALLEl 



CHARLES D. PARKER, lieutenant-governor of 
Wisconsin, was born on the 27th of December, 
1827, near Connecticut lake, Coos county. New 
Hampshire. His father was an early settler, a prom- 
inent man, on the border between Canada and New 
Hampshire, a farmer and merchant. In the spring 
of 1836 moved to Wisconsin and settled in Mus- 
kego, Waukesha county, making a claim where the 
village of Muskego Centre now is. There were no 
white settlers within three miles. An Indian trail 
was the only passway to Milwaukee. His father 
came by land with a two-horse team; his family came 
by water; all poor financially. He was even then 
a prominent politician ; was a member of tlie ter- 
ritorial legislature in 1846; was active and efficient 
in organizing Waukesha county. Charles worked 
on the farm in summers and attended the district 
school in the winter until he was twenty years of 
age, and then attended the academy at Waukesha; 
afterward the academy at New Ipswich, New Hamp- 
shire. Taught school in New Hampshire and Wis- 
consin. Married Angeline F. Southwortii and went 
to farming. He was town clerk in Muskego in 1852. 



In 1856 he was elected chairman of the town board 
and member of the county board of supervisors of 
Waukesha county. In 1859 he moved to Pleasant 
Valley, St. Croix county; was elected town clerk 
three years, member of the county board five years, 
one year of which he was chairman of the county 
board. He was elected a member of the legislative 
assembly in 1869 and 1870; was elected lieutenant- 
governor in 1873, which office he still holds. He 
has five sons and two daughters. In politics was 
a free-soiler until the organization of the republi- 
can party ; he is now a reformer. He is liberal and 
tolerant in his religious views, and believes the prin- 
ciples of the Christian religion necessary to good 
government. Oovernor Parker is a plain, practical, 
common sense man, with sufficient capacity and 
learning to discharge the duties of any state office 
with advantage to the State and honor to himself. 
His integrity is incorruptible, his conduct beyond 
reproach. Moral dignity and gentleness are most 
happily blended in him, which, together with his 
kind heart and affable manner, render him respected 
liv all, beloved by his friends. 



ANDREW PROLIDEIT, 



ANDREW PROIIDKIT was born in Argyle, 
New York, on the 3d of August, 1820. His 
father's name was James Proudfit, and his mother's, 
Maria J. Proudfit. His father was a merchant in 
Troy, and afterward in Washington county. New 
York. He was a strict disciplinarian. 

Andrew was educated at Argyle, in a common 
school. At the age of fourteen he became a clerk 



m a store at Argyle, and was de[)en(lenl on his own 
exertions for a living. He came to Wisconsin in 
June, 1842, and settled in Milwaukee county on a 
farm at Brookfield with his mother and the children 
younger than himself. He cleared up a large timber 
farm, hired men to work the farm, and engaged in 
keeping books for Shepard and Bonnell in Milwaukee 
during two years. He then went to Delafield, Wau- 



34 



IIIE rXITEP STATES lilUiUiAI'll ICAf. DfCTIOXARr. 



kesha county, and built ii mill and run it for five 
years. He came to Madison in 1855, and has lived 
there ever since. He was chairman of the town 
board of Delafield, Wisconsin, for two years, and 
was then elected commissioner of the Fox and Wis- 
consin river improvement, and served two years. 
He was in the State senate during 1856 and 1859; 
was mayor of the city of Madison in 1869 and 1870. 
He built the south wing of the State prison in 1854. 
He built the north wing of the State capital in 1864. j 
He built the two wings of the insane asylum in t866 | 
and 1867. ! 

He has always attended the Episcopal church. j 
He has always been a democrat. He is vice-pres- j 
ident of the First National Bank, and has held the 
position since 1871. He is one of the directors of 
the Park Hotel. 

He was married in September, 1840, to Elizabeth 
Ford, and has had seven children. The eldest 
daughter died at the age of twenty. He has five 
children now living. The eldest son is living in 
Milwaukee, and is discount clerk in the Milwaukee 
National Bank. 



His grandmother was the first white woman born 
in the town of Salem, Washington county. New 
York. She went with two horses during the revolu- 
tionary war out si.x miles with si.x bushels of wheat 
and fed the army. His grandmother's name was 
Mary Lytle. 

Mr. Proudfit's mental and moral characteristics 
are those of practical common sense, a clear dis- 
criminating judgment, a thorough knowledge of men, 
and indomitable perseverance in the accomplish- 
ment of the oljjects of his pursuit. He is patriotic 
and public-spirited ; is willing at all times to contrib- 
ute his services and his pecuniary means to pro- 
mote the general welfare. He is charitable to the 
poor, generous to his friends, and kindly in his sen- 
timents to all. He has a high sense of the honor- 
able feelings which characterize the intercourse of 
gentlemen, and in his pecuniary transactions is a 
man of the strictest integrity. If all men resembled 
him the jails would contain no criminals,'and the 
penitentiaries no convicts. He discharges the du- 
ties of husband, father and neighbor with scrupulous 
particularity and affectionate fidelity. 



ALEXANDER McMILLAN, 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of Finch, 
Stormont county, Ontario, was born on the 
23d of October, 1825, and is the son of Duncan B. 
and Mary McMillan, both of whom were natives 
of Inverness-shire, Scotland, whence they immigrated 
to Canada in 1815. His father, who was a ruling 
elder of the Presbyterian church at Finch, trained 
his children strictly in the d()< trines of that faith. 
.\lexander passed his boyhood and youth in his 
native place, dividing his time Ijetween study in tlie 
common schools and farm work, and at the age of 
twenty-one removed to the State of New York, where 
he spent some time, and in the spring of 1850 settled 
in Madison, Wisconsin. Here he spent one year 
clerking, and at the e.xpiration of that time went to 
Portage, at which place, also, he passed one year. 
In 1852, in partnershii) with his brother John, who 
died in 1865, he established himself in the lumber 
trade at La Crosse, which place he has since made 
his home. The business is more properly what is 
known as logging, the timber and logs being cut on 
the Black river and sold to manufacturers on the 



Mississippi. The business is a very extensive one 
throughout Wisconsin, and especially in this section 
of the State, and Mr. McMillan is one of its most 
prominent representatives, being the oldest logger on 
the Black river. He is still extensively engaged in 
this business, although largely interested in other 
enterprises. 

He has always held decided views on the political 
and municipal affairs of his State and city, and been 
honored by his fellow-citizens with many positions 
of public trust. He was for three years a member 
of the city council, for several years county super- 
visor, and for two years chairman of the county 
board, a position to which he was reelected in 1875. 
He was mayor of La Crosse in 187 1, and is now 
(1876) chairman of the directors of the Board of 
Trade. In 1873, he was elected to the State Legis- 
lature on the republican ticket, receiving twenty-one 
hundred and forty-five votes; and during the same 
year, it being the year of the great financial crisis, 
he was president of the First National Bank of La 
Crosse. 




15:21480 



I 



THE UNITED STATE.S HIOGHAPIUCAL DICTro.WMir. 



Aside from his activity in political matters he has 
always shown a public-spiritedness and been deeply 
interested in the public enterprises of his city. In 
1869 the McMillan brothers became chief owners of 
the La Crosse Gas Works, which were incorporated 
in 1863. Alexander McMillan is now president of [ 
the same, and Duncan D. McMillan vice-president. 
Mr. McMillan is also engaged in the temperance | 
movement ; has always been an earnest supporter of j 
the cause, and in 1873 was president of the I.a Crosse [ 
Temperance League. 

He was married in 1858 to Miss Sarah L. Parker, 
daughter of Mr. Herrick Parker, of La Crosse, for- 



merly a prominent citizen of Elyria, Ohio. Mrs. 
McMillan is a lady of fine native endowments, high- 
ly accomplished, and has attained local celebrity for 
her skill in oil painting, many of her pieces having 
taken premiums at various county and city exposi- 
tions. 

Mr. McMillan possesses excellent [lersonal quali- 
ties, social and genial. He is a most agreeable com- 
panion. By promptness and industry he has gained 
the reputation of being a thorough business man, and 
as a reward of his honorable and fair dealing has the 
respect and esteem of all who know him, and lives 
in the enjoyment of an ample fortune. 



NAPOLEON B. VANSLYKE, 



NAPOLEON B. VANSLYKE was born in 
Saratoga county, New York, December 21, 
1822. His father's name was Daniel Vanslyke, a 
civil engineer, and his mother's name was Laura 
Mears; both of them born, lived, died and were 
buried in Onondaga county. New York. 

He was an orphan in very early life, without 
brother or sister, and dependent solely upon his 
own exertions for the means of living. He received 
an academic education at irregular periods and 
places; was married to Laura Sheldon, of Cayuga 
county. New York, daughter of E. W. Sheldon, 
judge of that county. He was twenty-one years of 
age at the time of his marriage, and commenced 
farming, in which occupation h.e continued seven 
years, in the meantime acting as superintendent of 
common schools. 

Abandoning the farm, he engaged in the manu- 
facture of salt at Syracuse, whence he removed to 
Madison, Wisconsin, in the spring of 1853, where he 
formed a partnership with James Richardson in the 
business of banking and of buying and selling real 
estate. In 1854 he organized the Dane County 
Bank under the State law; was the first cashier, and 
afterward president during five years. 

The city of Madison organized under its charter 
in 1856, and he was a member of the first common 
council; was largely instrumental in making the 
first substantial improvements in the city, in erect- 
ing the city hall, in selecting and improving Forest 
Hill Cemetery, in procuring all of the then fire 
engine apparatus, and during the same period built 



several of the best residences now remaining in the 
city. 

In 1859, desiring a change of occupation, he 
abandoned banking, and engaged in the more active 
pursuit of manufacturing lumber in northern Wis- 
consin, and continued it until the outbreak of the 
rebellion in 1861. He then entered the State 
service as assistant quartermaster-general. In 1862, 
when the general government was prepared to fur- 
nish the troops with the necessary materials for 
active service, he was placed in charge of the quar- 
termaster's department for the United States, and 
commissioned by the President as assistant quarter- 
master with the rank of captain, subsequently to 
that of major, and afterward to that of lieutenant- 
colonel. During the war till its close he acted 
chiefly under orders direct from the quartermaster- 
general of the ITnited States army. He had un- 
usual discretionary powers, and from the beginning 
of 1862 to 1865, the close of the war, he furnished 
all the soldiers that went from Wisconsin with 
everything pertaining to the quartermaster's depart- 
ment. He resigned his position in 1865, and re- 
turned to his former business of banking. In the 
summer of that year he became president of the 
First National Bank of Madison. His business has 
always been moderately but steadily successful. 

In religion and politics he is neither a sectarian 
nor a partisan; he has no extreme vi^ws in any- 
thing, but is conservative in all things. He is 
naturally averse to public notoriety. 

Without having held any very distinguished posi- 



36 



THE UNITED STATES PIOdliAnH ICAI. DrCTlONARV. 



tion, he has during the last nine years been chair- 
man of the executive committee of the board of 
regents of the University of Wisconsin, and has 
manifested a deep interest in all educational mat- 
ters. He is earnest and active in all enterprises 
calculated to promote the general welfare, works 
from ten to twelve hours a day, seldom taking recre- 
ation. He is methodical in his habits, and finishes 
whatever lie undertakes. He arrives iiuickly at 



conclusions, and is very determined in their accom- 
jjlishment. He has traveled much in his own coun- 
try, and especially from ocean to ocean, as business 
or pleasure dictated. In all his relations to men 
he is always willing and ready to say yes or no, an 
evidence of the very highest order of moral courage, 
the rarest (|uality in man. He is a lover of the fine 
arts, although his opportunities have not allowed 
him to gratify his taste. 



SAMUEL 1). HASTINGS. Junior, 



GREEN PA r. 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of Philadel- 
phia, Pennsylvania, was born on the 19th of 
June, 1841, and is the son of Samuel D. Hastings 
and Margretta lu'e -Shubert. His father, a promi- 
nent and influential man, was formerly engaged in 
mercantile pursuits in Philadelphia, and in 1844 
removed to Wisconsin and settled in Walworth 
county. In 1857 he was elected State treasurer, and 
held that office during a period of eight years. He 
has been engaged in the interests of the temperance 
cause for several years, and has been during the past 
eighteen months traveling in foreign lands advocat- 
ing the cause which he has espoused. 

Samuel, the subject of this sketch, was educated 
at Beloit College, and after his graduation began the 
study of law in the Albany Law School, from which 
he graduated in 1865. Returning to Wisconsin, he 
was admitted to the bar at Madison, to practice in 
all the courts of the State, and there began his prac- 
tice, continuing it for two years. .\t the expiration 
of this time he removed to Green Bay, his present 
home, and entering into partnership with Judge 



Ellis conducted a successful practice till 187 1, when 
the firm was dissolved and he associated himself 
with his present partner, Mr. Green. Their practice 
has been general, and they have become well known 

! as careful and successful in the management of their 
cases. 

Mr. Hastings has always been republican in his 
political views, though he has never found time to 
mingle in political matters. He has found in his 
professional work ample scope for the e,\ercise of 
his best talents, and being eminently fitted for it, 

', both by his native inclination and thorough prep- 
aration, is contented and happy in it. He is charac- 
terized by a spirit of enterprise, energy and perse- 

I verance; and though still a young man, has attained 
to a high degree of success, and gives every promise 

I of a bright and prosperous career. 

Mr. Hastings has been twice married : first, on 
the 9th of July, 1863, to Miss Mary C. Kendell, who 
died November 24, 1868, leaving two daughters; 
and secondly, on the 25th of December, 1872, to 
Miss Hetta Sue Clapp, by whom he has one son. 



DUNCAN D. McMillan, 



/..I CROSSE. 



DUNC.'VN I). McMlLL.VN, anative of Finch, 
Ontario, was born on the 20th of June, 1837, 
and is the son of Duncan 1!. McMillan and Mary 
m'e McMillan, .■\fter receiving an ordinary English 
education in the connnon schools of his native place, 
he engaged for a time in lumbering, in Canada West. 
His natural tastes inclined him toward mechanics, 
but his circumstances were not such as to allow him 



to gratify his desire. In 1859, being then twenty- 
two years of age, he removed to the West and made 
a permanent settlement in La Crosse, Wisconsin, 
where his two elder brothers had previously estab- 
lished themselves in the lumbering and logging 
trade. .\l once entering their employ, he continued 
with them until 1861. Finding the business ill suited 
to his taste, he abandoned it at this time, and enter- 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARV. 



37 



ing the office of another brother, E. H. McMillan, 
a lawyer of La Crosse, he began the study of law, 
and applied himself with "diligence till his admission 
to the bar, in the following year. He did not, how- 
ever, enter upon the practice of his profession, but 
a few months later accepted a clerkship in the quar- 
termaster's department at Memphis, Tennessee, un- 
der Colonel A. R. Eddy, a position which he held 
during portions of 1863 and 1864. Returning to 
his home, he purchased an interest in the lumber- 
ing business of his brothers, and has continued in 
the same up to the present time, 1S76. Upon the 
death of his brother Joho, in 1865, the firm name 
changed to A. and D. D. McMillan. His attention, 
however, has not been wholly confined to the lum- 
bering trade, but being a man of enterprise and 
thorough business qualifications, he has employed 
his capital in other enterprises, not only remunera- 
tive to himself, but also tending to, and directly 
connected with, the welfare of his city. He is vice- 
president and, with his brother, one of the largest 
stockholders in the La Crosse Gas Light Company. 
His political sentiments have always been repub- 
lican. When he first began to be interested in 



I political affairs, slavery was the great issue between 
[ the different political parties, and naturally a lover 
of freedom and equal rights he, from the first, cast 
his influence on the side of liberty. His first presi- 
dential ballot was cast for Abraham Lincoln. He 
is not, however, a partisan, but independent in his 
habits of thinking, always e.xalts the man above the 
party, and supports for office him whom he con- 
siders most worthy and best qualified. In 1872 he 
became identified with the reform party, and has 
continued with it to the present time. His ambition 
has not been for political honors, finding in his reg- 
ular business ample scope for the exercise of his 
best talents. The only official capacity in which he 
has served was as member of the board of supervi- 
sors, during 1873 and 1874. Mr. McMillan's parents 
were devoted members of the Presbyterian church ; 
and the principles and doctrines which they instilled 
in his early life have been strengthened and con- 
firmed as he has grown older, and he is now an 
active and worthy member of that body. 

He was married in 1866, to Miss Mary J. McCrea, 
daughter of Stephen McCrea, Esq., of Huntingdon 
county, in the province of Quebec. 



JAMES B. HEMENWAY, M.D., 

DELAY AN. 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of Shrews- 
bury, Rutland county, Vermont, was born on 
the 7th of March, 1820, and is the son of Sewel 
Hemenway and Polly nee Bullard. His father, a 
farmer, was killed by the kick of an ox, and left his 
family in poor circumstances. He was a good pro- 
vider, but had always been very liberal with his 
money. His ancestors were among the early settlers 
of the United States, and his grandfatlier, John 
Bullard, served in the war of 1812. 

James lived with his grandfather until he was 
thirteen years of age, at which time he went to an 
uncle's, where he received thirty dollars per year 
and two months' schooling. He continued thus 
employed, dividing his time between study and 
farm work, until he attained his twentieth year, 
when he engaged in teaching. Closing his school 
at the age of twenty-one, he spent the next two 
years in work and study, and at the expiration of 
that time, made an agreement to take care of his 
grandfather and mother, working their farm, and to 



receive the same as his own after their decease. 
At the end of four years he sold his interest in the 
farm to his youngest uncle, for one thousand five 
hundred dollars, and purchased a farm at Mount 
Holly, Vermont, where he spent four years. During 
this time he turned his attention to the study of 
medicine, and afterward, renting his farm, accepted 
a clerkship in the store of his uncle, A. B. Bullard, 
and employed his spare time in his studies. Later 
he sold his farm, and moving to Plymouth, Ver- 
mont, there continued his studies and began the 
practice of his profession. After three years he 
removed to Middleton, Vermont, and there opened 
his practice, and at the same time pursued three 
courses of lectures under Dr. Middleton Goldsmith, 
and graduated from the medical college in 1855, 
with the degree of M.D. Mr. Hemenway was led 
into the study of medicine by the fact that his 
family was predisposed to consumption, and he, him- 
self, had been obliged on several occasions to 
abandon work on account of ill health. The year 



38 



TUB UNITED STATES HfOG/iAP/IICAL DICTIONARY 



following his graduation, lie removed to Delavan, 
Wisconsin, and established himself in the practice 
of his profession, in partnership with Dr. O. W. 
Blanchard. At the end of one year the partnership 
was dissolved, and since that time Dr. Hemenway 
has built up a large and remunerative practice, and 
gained a wide reputation as a skillful practitioner. 
Although he has had a very extensive practice, he is 
not wealthy, from the fact that he has been a poor 
collector, making it a rule never to press any one for 
money. 

He was brought up under Baptist influences, and 
is a worthy member of that church. 

In politics, he was formerly a whig, but is now 
identified with the republican party. He is one of 
the township board, though he has never aspired to 
office, i>referrmg the peace and ijuiet of his pro- 



fessional and domestic life to political honors and 
emoluments. 

Dr. Hemenway was married on the 26th of Janu- 
ary, 1843, to Miss .Mary Harrington, of Ira, Ver- 
mont, daughter of Joshua Harrington. Of their 
two children, the eldest died when two years of age. 
The other is the wife of Samuel M. Parish, general 
agent of the Chicago Life Insurance Company. 

The doctor has given special study to lung diffi- 
culties, and is known for his skillful management of 
such cases. 

Physically, he is five feet seven inches in height, 
has a light complexion and blue eyes, and weighs 
one hundred and thirty-eight pounds. He possesses 
excellent personal and social qualities, and by his 
generous, upright life has endeared himself to a large 
circle of warm and true friends. 



SILUS U. PINNEY, 



SILUS U. PINNEY, present mayor of Madison, 
was born in Rockdale, Crawford county, Penn- 
sylvania, March 3, 1833. His father, Justin C. Pin- 
ney, was a native of Becket, Berkshire county, Mas- 
sachusetts, and came from there to Crawford county, 
Pennsylvania, in 1815. His mother's maiden name 
was Polly Ann Miller, and a native of Crawford 
county, Pennsylvania, and of (ierman descent. His 
father, with his family, removed to Wisconsin in 
1846, and settled in what is now the town of Wind- 
sor, Dane county, but which was then a part of the 
town of Madison. The country was then new and 
sparsely settled, and the subject of this sketch, hav- 
ing received a good common-school education, found 
it necessary to give his attention to other subjects 
than books for a considerable time. He had, how- 
ever, the advantages which some private instruction 
could give, and such self-instruction as only leisure 
moments could afford. He was, however, princi- 
pally occupied in improving and cultivating his 
father's farm. He was pretty well supplied with 
books, and a great reader, and had a very excellent 
memory, so that whatever he gained, even in the 
most general or imperfect manner, he was able to 
retain and utilize. He taught a district school three 
winters. When about seventeen years of age, hav- 
ing acquired a predilection for the legal profession, 
he began the study of the first text-books, and kept 



it up, as well as his occupation on the farm and in : 

teaching school would permit, until April of 1853, i 

when he entered the law office of Vilas and Rem- j 
ington, in this city, as a student. From that time 

to the present he has devoted his time and attention ; 

almost exclusively to the law. In February, 1854, \ 

he was admitted to practice in both the circuit and ' 
supreme courts of the State, and afterward in the 

federal courts; and in May, 1854, he entered upon • 

the active duties of his profession in the city of ; 

Madison, where he has been so engaged ever since. j 

He has ever been and still is- a democrat, and ' 

has avoided rather than sought political preferment. ■ 

In religion he has 'no sectarian views, but has for ] 

many years attended and contributed to the support j 
of the Presbyterian church in this city. 

He began his career in life single-handed and I 

alone, with no capital but his own industry and such ' 
qualifications in point of learning as he had acquired 
for engaging in the profession of his choice, and 

hence he very early learned to depend upon himself '■. 

Self-reliance has been the source of his success. 1 

In 185S he was city attorney for the city of Mad- ; 

ison, and an unsuccessful candidate for district attor- ] 

ney of the county. In 1865 he was a member of \ 

the common council, and in 1869 an unsuccessful j 

candidate for attorney-general of the State on the 1 

democratic ticket. ' 




^^^y/uu-^^-A^ /^Z^V^^L^i^ l^yo-^ 



^ 



THE UNITED STATES BIOdRAPH [CM. DICTION ARV. 



39 



In April, 1874, he was elected mayor of the city 
of Madison, and in November of that year was 
elected a member of the legislative assembly from 
the Madison district, and in April, 1875, was re- 
elected mayor of Madison without opposition. In 
1865 he prepared and attended to the publication of 
the sixteenth volume of Wisconsin " Reports," and in 
1870 was appointed special reporter by the supreme 
court to report and publish the decisions of the ter- 
ritorial supreme court and the first supreme court of 
the State, extending over a period from 1836 to 
June, 1853, and which are embraced in three vol- 
umes, known as "Finney's Wisconsin Reports," the 
last of which is now in press. 

In March, 1856, he was married to Mary M. Mul- 
likin. 

Mr. Finney, although scarcely arrived at mature 
manhood, is in some respects a remarkable man, and 
has acijuired distinction in his profession. He has 
quick perceptions, a subtle power of discrimination, 
a sound, practical judgment, and a wonderful mem- 
ory. He is destitute of that power of oratory which 



appeals to the passions and electrifies the masses. 
In the discussions of legal principles in the presence 
of the court he is lucid in his statements, logical in 
his arguments, and forcible in his conclusions. He 
speaks without apparent effort, in plain, simple lan- 
guage, without ornament to divert the mind from 
the subject matter, and without obscurity to conceal 
it. It has been his good fortune to be employed in 
some important cases, involving large amounts of 
money and property, among them the case of the 
Amory will, involving about one million of dollars. 
This case was tried in the United States circuit court 
in Chicago, in 1874, before Judge Davis, of the su- 
preme court of the United States, and Judge Drum- 
mond, of the circuit court of the United States for 
the seventh circuit, in which Mr. Finney displayed 
such a thorough knowledge of the law, the evidence 
and the facts as to elicit from the court and the bar 
very high terms of commendation. He has a bright 
future before him, and if he continues to be true to 
himself he will reach a high eminence at the bar 
and on the bench. 



CHARLES A. WEISBROD, 



CHARLES A. WEISBROD, a native of Frussia, 
was born at Simmern, in the Department of 
Coblentz, on the 5th of April, 1824, and is the son of 
Fhillip W. Weisbrod and Catherine nee Mayer. His 
father, a baker by trade, was an energetic and enter- 
prising man, and became a well-to-do land-owner. 

After completing his primary education, Charles 
attended the Gymnasium at Treves, and afterward 
the Folytechnic School and University at Berlin for 
three years and six months. 

He early developed a taste for professional life, 
and during the first three years after leaving school 
employed his time in civil engineering, and also 
spent three years as lieutenant of engineers in the 
reserve. 

In 1849, being then twenty-five years of age, he 
immigrated to the United States and settled at liis 
present home in Oshkosh, Wisconsin. Having de- 
cided to enter the legal profession, he at once began 
the study of law, giving himself with vigor to his 
work till 1852, when he was admitted to the bar. 
He at once began the practice of his profession, and 
laid the foundations of his present extensive and 



influential business. .Aside from his professional 
duties, he has held many positions of responsibility 
and public trust. In 1854 he was elected clerk of 
the circuit court for a term of two years. He was 
also alderman during a period of five years, begin- 
ning with 1853. In 1867 he was elected school 
commissioner; was a member of the Baltimore con- 
vention in 1872, and participated in the nomination 
of Horace Greeley for president; in 1874 was ap- 
pointed, and in J876 reappointed, one of the board 
of regents of the State Normal Schools. 

The present firm of Felker and Weisbrod was 
formed in 1866, and by prompt and energetic action 
its business has become one of the largest in north- 
ern Wisconsin, and each year adds largely to its 
increase. While they do a general law business, 
they have given special attention to bankrupt cases, 
in which they have been very successful, and in 
several instances have paid the creditors in full, with 
interest. 

In his religious views Mr. Weisbrod is liberal, and 
not connected with any church organization. In 
politics he is identified with the democratic party. 



40 



THE UNITED STATES BlOdRAl'llICAL DICTIONARV. 



but is liberal in his views, and always exalts the man 
above the party. 

He was married on the i8th of April, 1849, 'o 
Miss Elizabeth F. Goetz, by whom he has three sons 
and four daughters. His son Albert W. Weisbrod 
graduated from Michigan University in 1870, and 
afterward spent two years in Europe in the study 
of law, and upon his return home was admitted to 
the bar at Oshkosh in 1874. On the ist of January, 
1875 he took an interest in his father's business, and 
is at present a member of that successful firm. 



Mr. Weisbrod, beginning life with little means, has 
gradually worked his way from comparative obscu- 
rity to a position of high social standing and public 
regard; and in the success that has attended him 
presents an example of integrity, energy and enter- 
prise well worthy of emulation. He possesses excel- 
lent personal and social qualities; and while he is 
highly respected by all who know him, he is most 
esteemed by those who know him best. He is sur- 
rounded with all the comforts of a happy home, and 
lives in the enjoyment of an ample competence. 



JOHN WESLEY PIXLEY, 

MimAUKEE. 



HOW a man uses money — makes it, saves it, 
and spends it — is perhaps one of the best 
tests of his practical wisdom and character. The 
record of John Wesley Pixley's life, which has been 
passed in attaining wealth by industry and prudence, 
and expending the most part of it in secret acts of 
benevolence and charity, is a truly noble one. Al- 
though money ought by no means to be regarded as 
the chief end of man's life, neither is it a trifling 
matter, to be held in philosophic contempt, repre- 
senting as it does to so large an extent the means of 
physical comfort and social well-being. Indeed, 
some of the finest qualities of human nature are 
intimately associated with the right use of money, 
such as happiness, generosity, honestv, justice and 
self-sacrifice. 

John W. Pixley was born on the 19th of Janu- 
ary, 181 1, at Hillsdale, Columbia county. New 
York. He was one of the early pioneers of Mil- 
waukee, having arrived, with his brother Maurice, 
in May, 1836. Maurice was born on the 15th of 
October, 1800, and was, therefore, about eleven years 
older than John. They were the sons of John 
Pixley, who had held the office of high sheriff of 
Columbia county, and was a gentleman much re- 
spected and esteemed in that section of tlie .State 
for the probity of his character. 

On arriving at Milwaukee in 1836, the brothers, 
who possessed sufficient capital for the purpose, at 
once entered into copartnership and engaged in a 
mercantile business, under the firm name of M. and 
J. W. Pixley. Their building v.as near the corner 
of East Water and Wisconsin streets, adjoining the 
old trading-post of Solomon Juneau. Tliey con- 



tinued thus for some few years, when their father 
died and John was required at Hillsdale to settle 
his estate. He did not, however, remain longer than 
was necessary to transact the business, and then re- 
turned to Milwaukee. Shortly afterward Maurice 
removed to his former home in Hillsdale, withdraw- 
ing from partnership with his brother. In about a 
year after, John Wesley Pixley closed his mercan- 
tile business and turned his attention to real-estate 
speculations and advancing money. By his fore- 
sight and business capabilities he managed to amass 
a handsome fortune. 

He was in many respects a very peculiar man. 
Although holding very firm political views, he would 
not allow himself to become a prominent politician, 
and would accept no office. In his habits he was 
particularly unassuming and quiet, strongly dislik- 
ing ostentation or assumption in any form whatever. 
Although his heart overflowed with charity and 
compassion, in the broadest sense, the world knew 
\ery little of it. Only a few very intimate friends 
became aware of the large amounts he was yearly 
expending in helping the truly needy and distressed. 
His gifts did not take the form that would bring his 
name before the public, but it has been since com- 
puted that for the last twenty years of his life, he 
has expended in his unobtrusive manner as much as 
seventy-five thousand dollars ; but it never will be 
known to any one the large numbers of heavy 
hearts that have been lightened and the dismal 
homes that have been made bright and happy by 
the true benevolence of this one man. Although 
he rarely gave through the agency of any charitable 
institution or solicitor, liis time and money were ex- 



THE UNITED STATES lUOdRM'UICAL lllCTlONAUr. 



41 



pcnded in finding out proper objects on which to 
shower his bounty. 

■■ He had a tear for pity, and a hand 
Open as the day for meltnig charity." 

In all business transactions Mr. Pixley was the 
soul of honor, and his word was always " as good as 
a bond." 

His death, which occurred on the iSth of August, 



1874, was keenly felt by his many friends whom his 
good qualities had made for him, and also by those 
who had been relieved by his kindness. He died 
unmarried, and his remains were followed to the 
Forest Home by a great number of the old settlers, 
who loved him for the good deeds he had done, 
and admired his quaint, old-fashioned, sterling 
integrity. 



JOHN A. BENTLEY, 

SHEBOrGAN. 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of Kings- 
bury, Washington county, New York, was 
born on the 27th of January, 1836, and is the son of 
Cornelius Bentley and Mary ne'e Brayton. His 
parents, well-to-do farmers, were highly respected in 
their community, and took special care in training 
their children to habits of industry and morality. 
He passed his boyhood and youth in his native 
place, dividing his time between farm work and 
attending the common school. At the close of his 
preparatory studies he began the study of law with 
Judges Rosencrans and Ferris, of Glens Falls, teach- 
ing during a part of the time to defray his expenses. 
After his admission to the bar, in 1857, he estab- 
lished himself in his profession at Glens Falls, and 
conducted a practice with varied success until 
March, 1859, when he removed to Wisconsin. 

Settling in Manitowoc, Wisconsin, he remained 
one year, and at the end of that time removed to 
his present home in Sheboygan. Here, forming a 
copartnership with Judge William K. Gordon, he con- 
ducted a successful practice during ten months, at 
the expiration of which time the firm was dissolved 
and Mr. Bentley began a practice on his own ac- 
count, which he continued with good success until 



1869. At this time associating himself with Mr. 
William H. Seaman, under the firm name of Bentley 
and Seaman, he began that practice which has grown 
in influence and extent year by year up to the pres- 
ent time (1876), since which time he has given most 
of his attention to the interests of the Sheboygan 
and Fond du Lac Railroad, of which he was president 
for upward of two years. 

Aside from his regular business, he has shown 
a public-spiritedness, and been interested in many 
enterprises tending to the welfare of his State and 
city, and been honored by his fellow-citizens with 
positions of public trust. In 1864 he was elected 
to the State senate on the republican ticket. In 
1876 he was appointed commissioner of pensions, in 
place of Colonel Gill, of Madison, resigned. 

He was married on the 5th of September, 1861, 
to Isabella J. Peat, by whom he has one son. 

Mr. Bentley is eminently a self-made man, begin- 
ning life without money. His career has been 
marked by a gradual growth, and at the present time 
he is widely known as a thorough business man and 
financial manager, and is a gentleman of high social 
standing, respected by all, and most highly esteemed 
bv those who know him best. 



THOMAS 

MIL W. 

THE subject of this sketch, a native of Milwau- 
kee, Wisconsin, was born on the 3d of x'^pril, 
1839, and is the son of Samuel and Clarissa Brown, 
both of whom were consistent church members, 
and descended from early settlers of New England. 
The father, a builder by occupation, erected the 



H. BROWN, 

\UKEE. 

first church in Milwaukee, and the mother was the 
first wliite woman who came to that place. Thomas' 
early life was surrounded by good influences, and 
he then imbibed those habits of industry that have 
characterized his subsequent career. He received 
his education mostly at Beloit College, and, although 



rriE UNITED STATES BIQCIiAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



his native tastes inclined him toward mechanical 
pursuits, at the close of his studies he spent eight 
months in the study of law. At the expiration of 
that time, in 1861, going to the oil regions in Penn- 
sylvania, he at first engaged as a common laborer, 
working for his board. His employers, however, soon 
saw that he was qualified for a higher position, made 
him superintendent of their operations, placing in 
him the most implicit confidence, and authorizing 
him to draw upon them for thirty thousand dollars 
at a time. At the end of six years he had accumu- 
lated a large fortune, but lost it in an unfortunate 
investment. Returning to his home in Milwaukee, 
he became a member of the firm of Salsman, Brown 
and Fowler, wholesale hatters, a position which he 
held for three years. Withdrawing from the busi- 
ness at the end of that time, he associated himself 
with his present partners, Messrs. J. P. and Julius 
Wechselberg, under the firm name of Wechselberg, 
Brown and Co., and organized the present Novelty 
Carriage Works. The business was begun by the 
Wechselberg brothers, on the corner of Milwaukee 
and Michigan streets, in i860, their only capital 
being their reputation as thoroughly qualified busi- 
ness men. Doing most of their work themselves, in 
a small frame building, their first year's products 
amounted only to a good livelihood. In 1864 they 
removed to Second street, where their trade gradu- 
ally increased till September, 1871; at that time a 
new impetus was added to the business by the ad- 
mission to the firm of Thomas H. Brown, the sub- 
ject of this sketch. On the ist of January, 1875, 



they removed to their present quarters. No. 182 and 
184 Third street, where they occupy a four-storied 
building, fifty by a hundred feet, with a two-storied 
store room, twenty by forty feet. The business 
at the present time employs thirty hands, involves a 
capital of thirty thousand dollars, and has an annual 
product of fifty thousand dollars. The reputation 
of the Novelty Carriage Works, although wide, is 
rapidly growing — a fact which is attributable wholly 
to the enterprise and careful manaigement of its pro- 
prietors, combined with the excellent quality of work 
produced. To their light work, of buggies and 
sleighs, they have given special attention, and by 
the superior quality of their goods in this line have 
made for themselves an enviable reputation. Mr. 
Brown's practical experience with business men, 
united with his native mechanical tastes, has ren- 
dered him a most valuable acquisition to the firm, 
and much of its present high standing is due to his 
enterprise and business ability. 

Politically, he is identified with the republican 
party, though he has never found time for, nor has 
his ambition led him to desire, political distinctions. 

His religious training was under Congregational 
influences, and although he is still attached to that 
denomination he is not a member of any church 
organization. 

Mr. Brown has been twice married ; first, on the 
26th of December, 1866, to Miss Emma J. Fowler, 
who died in August, 1868; on the 12th of Novem- 
ber, 1872, he married Miss Alice L. Davis, and by 
her has one daughter. 



EDWARD G. RYAN, 



EDWARD G, RYAN, present chief-justice of 
the supreme court of Wisconsin, was born at 
New Castle House, in the county of Meath, Ireland, 
November 13, 1810, the son of Edward Ryan, Esq., 
of New Castle House, and Abby, his wife, daughter 
of John Keogh, Esq., of Mount Jerome, near Dub- 
lin. He was the second son of a second son, born 
and educated in the full sight of wealth, but inherit- 
ing no share of it beyond its refining influenc'es and 
an instinctive pride of character more honorable 
than rank and more valuable than gold. He was 
educated at Ciongone's Wood College, where he 
went in 1820, and where he remained until the com- 



pletion of the full course, in 1827. Having made 
some attempt to study law before leaving his native 
country, he came to the United States in 1830 and 
resumed his studies in New York, supporting him- 
self, meantime, by giving lessons in private schools. 
He was admitted to the bar in that city in 1836; 
came to Chicago in the fall of the same year; prac- 
ticed law there until 1842, when, suffering from mi- 
asmatic disease, he felt compelled to change his 
residence for the sake of his health; accordingly, 
in the latter year, on the occasion of his marriage 
with the daughter of Captain Hugh Graham, he 
removed to the city of Racine, in this State. He 



TItE UNITED STATES B[0(Ui.\PUrC AT. DTCTIOXAin'. 



43 



continued in tiie practice of his profession at Racine 
until the fall of 1848, when he removed to Milwau- 
kee, where he now resides. 

Mr. Ryan was prosecuting attorney for the Chi- 
cago circuit, in Illinois, in 1840 and 1S41 ; was a 
member of the first constitutional convention in 
Wisconsin, in 1846; was city attorney of Milwaukee 
in 1870, 1871 and 1872, and was appointed to his 
present position in June, 1874. Praise and censure 
founded upon personal opinion have no place in 
these pages. Biography is not only a written history 
of individual life, it is also a record of human char- 
acter. Therefore, while I would not flatter Neptune 
for his trident, nor Jove for his power to thunder, I 
should be unfaithful to my trust if any record I 
might make of Mr. Ryan failed to concede to him 
the rank he holds as one of the most remarkable 
men of his time. His person is not remarkable; he 
is five feet ten inches in height, weighs one hundred 
and eighty pounds, neither of robust nor delicate 
frame, but muscular, sinewy and capable of long 
continued labor. His movements are quick and his 
step elastic; his head projects forward beyond his 
body, this gives him the appearance of stooping — 
only the appearance, however, as his body is erect. 
His complexion is florid, indicating health ; his hair 
is light, slightly tinged with red; his eyes combine 
the mingled hues of blue, gray and black, they are 
large, brilliant and expressive, which, together with 
his complexion, indicate a sanguine, bilious temper- 
ament, verging upon the atrabilious. When seen 
at the bar, prosecuting a lawless libertine for the 
violation of female virtue, you would deem his eyes 
those of a Basilisk; when seen, however, in the quiet 
of a Sabbath afternoon, leading his little daughter 
by the hand to the Episcopal Church, where he 
worships, you would deem his eyes blue, beaming 
with pity and with love. 

He may not possess the highest order of intuitive 
genius: he may never have been able to write " Pil- 
grim's Progress," nor "Paradise Lost," nor "Ham- 
let." Whatever of intellectual excellence he pos- 
sesses arises from the deep earnestness of his moral 
nature, which leads to concentrated thought and to 
that discipline of his mental faculties to which he 
has subjected them through long years of laborious 
study — labor necesse at excellentiie. No truly great 
man was ever flattered by flattery, and Mr. Ryan 
has no trait of character more positive than his in- 
stinctive aversion to the language of panegyric as 
applied to himself. No person ever praised him 



generously without risking his contempt. With a 
profound reverence for ability in others, endowed 
with a clear perception of the just claims of real 
merit, but abhorring the arts which secure a mere- 
tricious reputation, he owes his position at the bar 
and on the bench to none of those adventitious cir- 
cumstances which usually attend public promotion. 
But Mr. Ryan, as a whole, is remarkable for no sin- 
gle peculiarity, but rather for a combination of pe- 
culiarities. His mind is an aggregation of superior 
powers, harmonious, and yet diverse. He is a ready 
and impressive orator, and yet a writer of remarka- 
ble accuracy and beauty of diction. His prepared 
lectures are finished models of literary composition, 
but scarcely less so than his addresses extempor- 
aneously spoken. At the bar, in the lecture-room 
and on the bench his speech is always affluent, ex- 
pressive and precise; while he never hesitates for a 
phrase, no phrase escapes him which is not of strik- 
ing import, by reason of the compactness and grace 
of its structure. In logical strength and in that 
mental power of quick and searching discrimination 
which is the highest manifestation of a purely intel- 
lectual ability, he is without a superior. In the 
rhetoric of invective, in the recitation of prosaic 
fact, or in the analysis of dry details, and in rapid, 
terse and impressive argument, he possesses a power 
of apparently exhaustless resources. In the ordinary 
practice of his profession no flaw of the law, no per- 
version of the truth, no weakness of the judge es- 
capes his observation, or evades discovery and expo- 
sure. With mental faculties thus comprehensive, 
disciplined and critical is combined a physical tem- 
perament naturally sensitive, which inspires every 
mental act with electrical ene^gy. Thus constituted, 
no question, whether of law or politics, is subject to 
his investigation which is not illuminated by the light 
of his genius or solved in the fire of his criticism. 
Tetigit nihil noii ornavit. It has been said that qual- 
ities like those which distinguish Mr. Ryan rarely 
comport with the conservative character of the judge; 
that he is better fitted for the contests at the bar than 
for the deliberations of the council chamber. This 
would be true of many men of equal or greater ce- 
lebrity, but of less varied and comprehensive genius. 
It might have been partially true of Mr. Ryan before 
the softening influences of mature age had endued 
him with that intellectual calmness which best befits 
and adorns the exercise of strictly judicial duties. 
But it cannot be truly said of any man that, simply 
because of his great ability in all departments of 



44 



THE UXITED STATES BIOdRAPHICAI. DICTIONARY. 



mental labor to which he has been called, he is un- 
fitted for the particular department to which fortune 
or his own convictions of duty may summon him. 
Julius C?esar was the most distinguished warrior of 
his age. He was an orator of so high an order that 
many thought him the rival of Cicero. He was 
one of the wisest of the senators. He conversed 
with the magi of the east concerning the sources 
of the Nile and the mountains of the moon. He 
was the best historian of his day, and his "Commen- 
taries" is the te.xt-book of our day. He was withal 
a passionate lover. No man was ever great without 
strong passions. They are the winds that drive the 
vessel ahead. This delineation of Mr. Ryan's char- 
acter would be imjjerfect, and a gross injustice to 
truth would be done, were I to omit to mention 



another prominent and most creditable characteris- 
tic of the man, a quality which has been the guar- 
dian of his youth, the crown of his manhood and 
the consolation of his mature years. I refer to his 
profound reverence for the Deity, and that spirit of 
humility and devotion to religious duty which have 
ever characterized the lives of the truly great. 

In view of Mr. Ryan's forensic efforts at the bar, 
the brilliant flashes of his genius and the pitiless 
sarcasm of his wit; in view of his luminous opinions 
as a judge, in which he reasons with the force of 
logic and the certainty of demonstration ; in view of 
his varied learning and classic taste, as exhibited in 
his lectures, and in view of the purity of his personal 
character, he may say with as much truth as any 
man can, Excgi monumentum cere perennius. 



JAMES B. MARTIN, 



MILUWUKEE. 



.AMES BAYNARD MARTIN, a native of Bal 



J timore, Maryland, was born on the loth of 
August, 1 8 14, and is the son of John and Maria 
Martin. His ancestors settled in Maryland at an 
early day and both his parents were natives of the 
eastern part of that State. James' early ambition 
was to become a merchant, and he never ceased to 
foster the desire until he saw its realization He 
was educated at St. Mary's College, Baltimore, and 
after closing his studies accepted a position in the 
commission house of Messrs. Matthews & Hojikins. 
The following incident, which has had a wonderful 
effect in molding his character as a business man, 
occurred a few days after entering upon his work, 
and is worthy of record. Calling him into the 
counting-room, Mr. Matthews said, "James, how 
does thee like the place } " He replied, " I am 
pleased that I came." " Then, come here to me," 
and looking him steadily in the face, he said: "I 
want thee to remember two or three things, without 
which thee can never be successful. Always give 
good weight — good measure — and never deceive 
or take advantage of a customer. I noticed that 
thee had gloves on yesterday when delivering 
goods — did thee ever know a muzzled cat to catch 
a rat.'" "No, sir; but I do not understand what 
you mean." " I would advise thee," said the wise 
Quaker merchant, '' when at business never to wear 
gloves." To these lessons then learned, to the in- 



structions and advice then received, Mr. Martin at- 
tributes the success of his life. In 1845, removing to 
Wisconsin, he settled at Milwaukee, and at once en- 
gaged in merchandizing and in real estate opera- 
tions. Later he engaged in the milling business, 
and during a period of thirty-nine years conducted 
his various business enterprises with success, and 
has accumulated an ample fortune. In buying and 
shipping wheat he has taken the lead. In 1873 he 
shipped on his own account over four million bush- 
els, and over five million five hundred thousand in 
the following year. During all these years of active 
business he showed a most worthy public-spirited- 
ness, and his name has been associated witii many 
of the most important interests of his city. By the 
erection of many fine buildings he has contributed 
a lasting benefit, both by increasing the beauty of 
Milwaukee and enhancing the value of real estate. 
Mr. Martin is preeminently a business man, and if 
we were to seek for the secret of his remarkable 
success, we should find it in the manner in which he 
has always conducted his affairs. He has always 
given his business his personal supervision, and by 
his thorough knowledge of all its minor details has 
been able to grasp opportunities and turn them to 
his interest. When asked by one, inquisitive to 
learn the secret of his success, how much he was 
worth and how he had made his money, to the first 
iniiuirv he rcijlied, " None of vour business; " to the 



HIE VNITED STATES lUOGNAl'HICAL DICTIONART. 



45 



second, "I made one-lialf of what I am worth by 
minding my own business, and the other half by 
letting other people attend to theirs." Eccentric 
as it may seem, the incident unfolds the true secret 
of business success and is worthy of remembrance. 

In political matters, Mr. Martin holds very de- 
cided views, and though a democrat from early life, 
has never been a partisan, but always supports for 



office him whom he regards most worthy and best 
fitted, regardless of party distinctions or prejudices. 
He has never, however, taken any official positions, 
his business having wholly engaged his attention. 

In his religious communion, he is connected with 
the Episcopal church. He was married on the 
23d of December, 1835, to Miss Eliza Yates, of 
Utica, New York. 



MATT H. CARPENTER, 

MILWAVKEE. 



MATT H. CARPENTER was born at More- 
town, Washington county, Vermont, on the 
2 2d of December, 1824, the very day Daniel Web- 
ster delivered his great oration on Plymouth Rock 
in conmiemoration of the landing of the Pilgrims. 
It is not certain that he received any inspiration at 
his birth from the fact that Webster's intellect was, 
at that moment, in full play, but it is certain that his 
having been born on that day did not inspire him 
with Puritanism, for no man enjoys a more painful 
freedom from that gloomy bent. 

His mother died when he was eleven years of age, 
and he went to live in the family of Hon. Paul Dil- 
lingham, at Waterbury, Vermont, and this was his 
home while he remained in Vermont. In 1843 he 
was appointed a cadet at West Point, on the recom- 
mendation of Hon. John Mattocks, then member of 
congress from that district. In 1845 he went on 
furlough with his class, and, in consequence of ill 
health, resigned and resumed his studies in the office 
of Mr. Dillingham. He was admitted to the bar in 
Montpelier, Vermont, in the spring of 1847, and went 
immediately to Boston and entered the office of Hon. 
Rufus Choate, as student, and was admitted to the 
bar of the supreme judicial court of Massachusetts, 
in the spring of 1848. No man ever enjoyed a 
better opportunity to round out a legal education 
than he enjoyed while with Mr. Choate, who became 
very fond of him, always treated him as a son, and 
took great pains to instruct him in the intricate mat- 
ters of the law. During a part of the time Mr. 
Choate 's eyes failed him, and Mr. Carpenter acted 
as amanuensis, and thus enjoyed a rare opportunity 
not only for legal but literary culture. When Car- 
penter was admitted Mr. Choate aided him in pro- 
curing a law library, and gave him money to start 
West. He removed to Beloit, Wisconsin, and com- 



menced the practice of his profession with three 
dollars and fifty cents in his pocket. He claims to 
have held his own well financially, though he says 
he has more frequently had less than more. He had 
been in Beloit about four weeks when he was at- 
tacked by inflammation of the eyes, and was under 
medical treatment for three years, the last year in 
the Eye Infirmary in New York, a patient of Dr. 
Kearney Rogers, and for about one year of this 
time he was very nearly totally blind. During all 
this time Mr. Choate loaned him the money to pay 
his bills, and on recovery of his eyesight he returned 
and resumed practice at Beloit. On one occa- 
sion while in the asylum he had no money to pay 
his board, and wrote to Mr. Choate to that effect, as 
he had been invited to do. But, to his dismay, he 
received no answer. Some ten days elapsed, and 
still no answer. The boarding part of the asylum 
was then kept by an excellent lady, Mrs. Green, who 
was poor herself and unable to give credit, though 
her kind heart would have led her to feed all man- 
kind if she had been able. Receiving no reply from 
Mr. Choate he frankly stated to his landlady his sit- 
uation, and advised with Dr. Rogers as to what 
could be done. The doctor said to him if he had 
no false pride in the matter, the best thing was to 
go over to the Bellevue Poor House; that he, the 
doctor would go with him and commend him to the 
superintendent, and would come there and continue 
to treat him. Mr. Carpenter said he would go. 
This was Saturday ; and Monda}' morning Doctor 
Rogers was to call and take him in his carriage over 
to the poor house. But Sunday morning Mr. Car- 
penter received a letter from Mr. Choate sending 
him a plenty of money, saying he had nearly worked 
himself to death, and his physician had packed him 
tiokiis volcns on a steamer and sent him to England; 



46 



THE UNITED STATES S/OGRAPTf/CAL DICTIONARi'. 



that in the hurry of his departure he had entirely 
forgotten to make provision for Mr. Carpenter, and 
concluded as follows : " I sincerely hope my thought- 
lessness has not subjected you to any inconvenience, 
and I beg you will consider my purse absolutely at 
your disposal until you are healed. We all live for 
the future, and I have the utmost confidence both in 
your future and in your integrity, so draw upon me 
for whatever you want, and repay when you can." 
Such generosity could not be forgotten, and Mr. 
Carpenter has, since his more prosperous days be- 
gan, continued to practice it toward the needy within 
his reach and ability. In 1852 Mr. Carpenter was 
elected district attorney for Rock county. This in- 
troduced him into practice, and from that time his 
practice has continued to increase. In 1858 he 
removed to Milwaukee, where he has resided ever 
since. He made his first public speech at Beloit 
in the fall of 1848, in reply to a free-soil speech 
made there at that time by Hon. Charles A. Eldridge, 
since so distinguished as a democratic member of 
congress. 

Carpenter remained a democrat until the firing on 
Fort Sumter, in April, 1861. The night before the 
election of Lincoln he made a speech at Watertown 
in favor of the election of Douglas, and predicted 
that should Lincoln be elected, the recruiting drum 
beat would be heard in the streets of that city within 
one year. Lincoln was elected, and the predicted 
drum beat was heard in half that time. In the fall 
of 1861, after a draft had been ordered, there was a 
great effort made to raise a company in Watertown, 
but with not very great success. The utmost excite- 
ment prevailed there, and some of the foreign born 
citizens residing near the town had packed up their 
traps and actually started for their native country. 
Several families on their way were stopped at Water- 
town by Secretary Stanton's famous " stay at home" 
order. The people telegraphed Carpenter to go 
there and make a speech. He went ; arriving there 
in the evening they put him upon a dry-goods box 
in the street, and he spoke for two hours to a crowd 
of from three to five thousand. Before daylight the 
enlistments had nearly filled the roll of the company, 
and about half were foreign born, some of those who j 
had started for Europe being among the number. 
Mr. Carpenter made the first speech in the North- 
west after the attack upon Fort Sumter. He con- 
tinued speaking all over the Northwest until the 
termination of the war; made more war speeches 
than any other man. .At the conclusion of the war 



when the constitutionality of the congressional plan 
of reconstruction was brought before the supreme 
court of the LTnited States, he was selected by the 
government as counsel. He argued the case, but it 
never was decided. Reconstruction went on, on the 
plan Mr. Carpenter attempted to show to be consti- 
tutional. Mr. Carpenter is a man of distinguished 
ability, of logical mind, of extensive learning, of 
fervid eloquence, withal of genius, a quality rarely 
combined with logical power and statistical research, 
and these qualties have received the sanction of 
success. He has been successful in his eloquent 
appeals to the masses of his countrymen in support 
of his political views ; he has been successful at 
the bar in the exhibition of his legal lore; he has 
been successful in the halls of legislation in com- 
manding respect for his statesmanship, as evidenced 
by his elevation to the presidency of the Senate of 
the United States, an honor under the circumstances 
unparalleled in the annals of that august body. 

That a legislature of ^V^isconsin, which he mate- 
rially aided in creating, could have repudiated her 
favorite son is an evidence of ignorance so gross as 
to excite pity rather than contempt, or of ingratitude 
so base as to affix a lasting stigma upon its deliber- 
ations. The abiding sense of justice in the public 
mind is as well the incentive to the noblest actions 
as their ultimate reward. The days of trial and of 
trouble may come to Wisconsin, as they have come 
to other peoples, when she, like Athens of old, will 
find that she also had a Timon, and that her prayers 
may prove as fruitless in the latter case as in the 
former. 

Mr. Carpenter's mother died when he was but 
eleven years of age. She was a devout Christian ; 
he was her first-born, and until the day of her death 
her favorite. She held him on her lap as he came 
to years capable of receiving mental impressions, 
and instilled into his mind and his heart a love of 
the Bible, and a woman's conception of the divinity 
and loveliness of our Saviour's character. She read 
and explained to him the striking events in the gos- 
pel narrative with eloquent feeling, and then, with 
the boy, on bended knees, prayed to God that the 
boy she loved so well might never forget the lessons 
she had taught him, nor fail to walk in the paths 
they pointed out. One half of her prayer was an- 
swered. No one can read the letters, speeches and 
arguments, or listen to the conversation, of Mr. Car- 
penter, without observing that the Bible is his classic 
and that he has studied it thoroughly. The other 



rHE UNITED SJ-ATES lUOiiRM'H ICAL DICTIOXAlir 



47 



half of that mother's prayer has not been so thor- 
oughly answered. Sensitive, impressible and of 
poetic temperament, the beauties of scripture taught 
by a pious and eloquent mother could not fail to 
make a deep impression on his mind and to color 
his thoughts and speech. The theory of religion is 
merely intellectual, and may be correctly compre- 
hended; the beauties of the gospels may move the 
emotions, soften the heart and refine the sentiments, 
and yet the continuous daily walk, the earnest and 
solemn devotion of Christianity, may not be realized. 
It is one thing to admire, worship and weep; it is 
another and quite severer task to take up the cross 



and follow faithfully. Peter believed and loved, and 
yet in an unexpected emergency he denied and 
cursed. Paul was less emotional but more stead- 
] fast. Peter was an orator, Paul a philosopher. Peter 
could arrest the attention of the multitude and enlist 
their sympathies. Paul taught imperishable philos- 
ophy to be studied in the closet and absorbed by 
the intellect. The best leaders are not always the 
best followers; the best teachers are not always the 
best disciples. The hand that can strike the harp 
with the most entrancing effect may hold the shep- 
herd's crook, but is not fashioned to carry the heavy 
burden. 



J. B. PARKINSON, A.M., 

MADISON. 



T B. P.-VRKINSON, A.M., late professor of civil 
J ' polity and international law in the University 
of Wisconsin, was born near Edwardsville, Madison 
county, Illinois, April ii, 1834. His parents were 
of southern birth, but came to Illinois at an early 
age. His father is a farmer, wedded to his calling. 
He received only such common school advantages 
as the newly settled West afforded, but is a man of 
excellent judgment and strong common sense. His 
mother was the daughter of a Presbyterian minister. 
She was a woman of vigorous intellect, of more 
than ordinary culture, of excellent literary taste, 
and withal a true Christian. She died when the 
subject of this sketch was but twelve years old, but 
not without leaving the impress of her teachings. 
She was a devoted and self-sacrificing mother. In 
1836, just after the close of the Black Hawk war. 
Professor Parkinson's parents moved to Wisconsin, 
and settled upon a farm near Mineral Point, upon 
which his father still resides, at the ripe old age of 
seventy. The school privileges there were limited, 
but of such as could be secured, young Parkinson 
had the full advantage. The school-house, with its 
modern paraphernalia, was unknown, and apart- 
ments in private houses were made to take its place. 
But there is, after all, for natures suited to receive it, 
a beneficial educating influence in this pioneer life, 
in the rough, rude contact, with its stern privations. 
After having become well grounded in the primary 
branches of education, young Parkinson, in 1850, 
at the age of sixteen, entered the preparatory de- j 
partment of Beloit College, and continued his I 



studies there nearly two years. In the spring of 
1852, the California gold fever raged fiercely. His 
father having fitted out an expedition for an over- 
land trip to the Pacific coast, young Parkinson was 
placed in charge of it. After five months spent 
upon the plains, and three years of varied experi- 
ence in the mines of California, he returned home, 
not sadder, but wiser — full of hope — and with 
savings sufficient to carry him through college. In 
1856 he entered the University of AVisconsin, and 
four years afterward graduated with the highest 
honors of his class. He was at once tendered a 
tutorship in the university, which he held for one 
year, and then resigned to accept the office of 
superintendent of schools of LaFayette county, to 
which he had been almost unanimously elected. In 
1 861 he was married to the daughter of Major 
Robert (iray, of Mineral Point, a native of Wiscon- 
sin, a woman of decided character, and one who 
has jjroved herself a model wife and mother. The 
leisure of a few of the first years of married life 
were spent in improving and beautifying a delightful 
country home. During those stirring times, Mr. 
Parkinson took an active part in the discussions of 
the day, and was regarded as a very forcible and 
effective speaker. He has always been a democrat 
in politics, though of a liberal type. After the war 
began, he took strong grounds in favor of its vigor- 
ous prosecution, and never saw the time when he 
thought it wise to entirely abandon the political organ- 
ization whose great leading principles he thoroughly 
subscribed. He was twice the nominee of his party 



48 



THE L'N/TED STATES BlOdliAPHICAI. DICTIOXARV. 



for the office of State superintendent of public in- 
struction, making in each case an excellent run 
against the Hon. John (;. McWynn, of Racine. In 
1866, under the law reorganizing the State Uni- 
versity, he was appointed by Governor Fairchild a 
member of its board of regents. This position he 
lield for one year, when he was elected to the chair 
of mathematics in the university, which professor- 
ship he held for six years, though during most of 
that time he also had charge of the departments of 
civil polity and political economy. In 1871 he joined 
with the three young men, with whom he is still 
associated, in the purchase of the "Madison Demo- 
crat," and was for some time upon the editorial staff. 
The ])aper at once took rank as one of the ablest 
journals in the State. During the same year he was 
chosen chairman of the democratic State central 
committee, which position, as well as his editorial 
connection with the " Democrat," he resigned at the 
close of the year. In 1873 he was elected professor 
of civil polity and international law in the State 
University, although the subjects pertaining to this 
chair had already been under his instruction since 
1868. He has prepared a complete course of 
lectures upon the outlines of international law, 
which has been very highly commended ; also par- 
tial courses in constitutional law and political 
economy. Questions of civil polity and economic 
science are those in which Professor Parkinson has 
always taken the deepest interest, yet his earnest, 
active nature chafed under the somewhat monot- 
onous duties of a professorship. In 1874 he re- 
signed his chair in the university, and resumed his 
editorial connection with the " Democrat," which 



position he now holds. He is also at the present 
time president of the Wisconsin State Board of 
Centennial Managers. The basis of his intellectual 
character is that of a plain, practical common sense, 
which, together with his logical arguments and an- 
alytical acumen, render his conclusions convincing, 
to which he firmly adheres with the confidence of 
their truth. His style, as a writer, partakes of the 
qualities of his mind, simple, lucid and concise. He 
is a forcible speaker, with a well modulated voice 
and distinct enunciation. He is an able debater, 
and enjoys discussions. His power consists in the 
plainness of his propositions, the closeness of his 
reasoning and the earnestness of his manner. Op- 
position brings out his full strength, which it is diffi- 
cult to resist, and still more so to defeat. His 
habits are domestic, social and scrupulously moral. 
He is strongly attached to home and friends. Home 
is his sanctuary from the troubles of life, and friend- 
ship is a holy name. In manner he is dignified 
without affectation, and affable, without familiarity. 
In stature he is tall and spare, though strong and 
active. ■•His temperament is sanguine, nervous, with 
hope enough to aspire to high position, and nerve 
enough to reach it. His qualities of mind, natural 
and ac(|uired, qualify him for the position of teacher 
of the science of law and of government, or for 
their administration. He is essentially a legislator. 
The position in which he would render the most 
service to his country would be as president of a 
university, the minds of whose inmates he would 
enlighten by his learning, and whose morals he 
would improve by his example. His greatest use- 
fulness would appear in the halls of legislation. 



JOHN W. HOYT, A.M., M.D., 



MADISON. 



TOHX W. HOVT, A.M., M.D., of Madison, was 
■J born of New England parents, October 13, 1833, in 
the vicinity of Worthington, Franklin county, Ohio, 
to which place his fatlier and mother, Joab and 
Judith Hoyt, removed from Montreal at the break- 
ing out of the war of 181 2, and where his father still 
resides upon the farm he first purchased. He at- 
tended the select schools and academies in the 
neighboring village. He possessed a rare facility 
for acquiring knowledge, regularly carrying from 
nine to eleven studies, with daily recitations, and at 



fourteen was not only prepared for college but had 
made proficiency in important branches not em- 
braced in an ordinary collegiate course of study. 
This rapid advancement had not been made without 
injury to his health, however, so that it was found 
necessary for him to devote the succeeding two years 
to outdoor labor on the farm, the winters being em- 
ployed in teaching neighborhood schools, and in 
study. He finally entered the Ohio Wesleyan Uni- 
versity, of which the late Bishop Edward Thomson 
was the president, and from which, notwithstanding 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTION AR)'. 



49 



the continued delicacy of his health and the neces- 
ity for alternating study with labor, he graduated 
with honor at the end of the usual course. After 
leaving college he began the study of law with Hon. 
William Dennison, of Columbus, afterward gover- 
nor of Ohio, and postmaster-general of the United 
States, and a little later was found at Cincinnati at- 
tending both law and medical lectures. Finding 
medicine more to his taste than law he gradually 
gave it more and more of his attention, and gradu- 
ated as doctor of medicine in 185 1. From this time 
forward until 1857, we find him at first engaged upon 
a work on materia medica and therapeutics, which 
he had been commissioned by an invalid professor 
to prepare for the press ; next, a professor of chem- 
istry and medical jurisprudence, succeeding that 
distinguished jurist and scientist, Judge J. B. Stalls, 
of Cincinnati, and lecturing to large classes in two 
of the medical colleges of that city ; then organizing 
and managing the department of chemistry and nat- 
ural history in Antioch College, to which he was 
called by the partiality of Horace Mann, president ; 
continuing all the while his medical lectures, and at 
the same time managing a considerable estate at Yel- 
low Springs, including farm, mill, and quarries ; also 
taking an active part in the presidential campaign of 
1856. It was also during this period (in 1855) that 
he made, in a paper read before the American 
Scientific Association, what he believed to be, and 
what probably was in fact, so far as this country is 
concerned, the first promulgation of the doctrine 
now known as the correlation and conservation of 
forces, and everywhere recognized as one of the 
most important advances made by science in this 
century. Forced by damaged health to seek a differ- 
ent climate he removed with his wife to Madison, Wis- 
consin, in 1857, engaging as he then thought tempo- 
rarily, in the editorial management of the " Wisconsin 
Farmer." The new role of agricultural editor com- 
manded a large share of his services for the ten years 
which immediately followed. With his efficient and 
fruitful labors in this field, and in the kindred work 
of managing the affairs of the Wisconsin State Agri- 
cultural Society, which were entrusted to him in 
1859, the people of Wisconsin are familiar. Few of 
his fellow citizens are aware, however, of the great 
amount of extra labor he also performed during this 
period as public lecturer, leader in educational and 
social reforms, as industrial and educational repre- 
sentative of the State and United States, at interna- 
tional expositions, and in the writing and publication 



of numerous books, pamphlets and official reports. 
And probably a still less number are aware that he 
was one of the originators and most efficient promo- 
ters of the national movement, which finally secured 
grants of land for the founding of colleges in the in- 
terest of agriculture and the mechanic arts; that he 
was the originator of the proposition finally approved 
by congress which enabled each such college to ob- 
tain from the army a professor of military science 
and tactics without cost ; or that it was he who orig- 
inated, drafted and carried through the legislative 
measure which reorganized the University of Wis- 
consin, put it upon a proper university basis, and 
secured to it a gift of forty thousand dollars from 
Dane county, and the two hundred and forty thous- 
and acres of land granted to the State by the con- 
gressional act above mentioned. He was one of the 
prime movers in organizing the Wisconsin Editorial 
Association, and at different times has been its sec- 
retary and president. From the first organization of 
the United States Agricultural Society until the 
breaking out of the war of the rebellion, when its 
work was discontinued, he was vice-president. In 
the year last mentioned he was appointed by presi- 
dent Lincoln one of the United States commissioners 
to make arrangements for the representation of this 
country at the London International Exhibition of 
1862, and was also put forward by the governors 
and boards of agriculture of the northwestern States, 
and had the approval of the president, for the posi- 
tion of chief commissioner. Congress failed to make 
an appropriation, however, and he finally went to 
London as commissioner from Wisconsin, in which 
capacity as well as by his reports upon the exhibi- 
tion and upon subsequent travels he rendered good 
service to the country. In 1866 he was commis- 
sioned by the governor of Wisconsin as one of the 
State commissioners to the Paris Universal Exposi- 
tion of 1867, and was chosen by his associates to 
act as president of the commission. In the per- 
formance of these duties he entitled himself to the 
grateful acknowledgment of the State and received 
as a recognition of his services a medal from the 
French emperor. Later, he was also appointed a 
commissioner of the United States to the Paris Ex- 
position, and entrusted with the preparation of the 
commission's report to the government on educa- 
tion. In order the better to qualify himself for this 
very important task, he traveled in all the countries 
of Europe, acquainting himself personally with the 
various national systems and with all classes of in- 



50 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGliAPHICAL DICTIONARV. 



stitutions. The results of these travels and labors 
was a large volume printed by order of the govern- 
ment, abounding in important information and criti- 
cal discussions which have been pronounced of great 
value. The distinction gained by this work and by 
the addresses and lectures delivered in the interest 
of education, more especially his advocacy of the 
claims of university education, and his proposition 
for the establishment of a great American university, 
led to his being unanimously called by the National 
Educational Association, in 1869, to the position of 
chairman of a national committee on an American 
university, in which capacity he still continues to 
labor most zealously and efficiently. In 1870 he 
was instrumental in organizing the Wisconsin Acad- 
emy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, an association of 
investigators which has enlisted the sympathies and 
active cooperation of the most prominent men of the 
state, and has since gained an honorable footing in 
the scientific and literary world. Of this institution 
Dr. Hoyt has been the president from the beginning. 
At about the same time he accepted for a time 
the position of secretary in the Chicago Historical 
Society, which large and prosperous institution he 
was instrumental in reorganizing and putting upon a 
broader and more satisfactory basis. The holding 
of these three important and laborious positions at 
one and the same time — head of the National uni- 
versity movement, and of the Academy of Sciences, 
and managing officer of the Wisconsin State Agri- 
cultural Society and of the Chicago Historical So- 
ciety — sufficiently illustrate the unusual abilities as 
an organizer and executive officer which have char- 
acterized his career. Suffering from overwork he 
resigned his position in the Historical Society in the 
spring of 187 1, and devoted such time as he could 
spare from his remaining official duties in tnneling 
in the western States and Territories. In 1872 lie 
also resigned the secretaryship of the State Agricul- 
tural Society, feeling that twelve years of uninter- 
rupted service as its practical manager entitled him 
to a release, and having also in view the acceptance 
of the presidency of the Topeka, Fort Scott and 
Memphis Railway Company, to which he had been 
called by its directors, but which he finally declined. 
In the spring of 1873 he was appointed to represent 
the United States at Vienna, as honorary commis- 
sioner, and spent the entire season at Vienna, ren- 
dering very important service to the country — first, 
in assisting to organize the American department, 
then as American juror, then in the distinguished 



position of president of the International Jury for | 
Education, a jury embracing some of the most learned 
representatives of all civilized nations; then as one 
of the three executive commissioners, and finally ! 
for a time acting commissioner-in-chief of the Amer- 
ican department. At the conclusion of these im- 
portant labors he received the formal thanks of 
American exhibitors, of the Imperial Commission, , 
and of the Austrian Ministry. The following win- 
ter was spent, by authority of the United States gov- 
ernment, in an inspection of the technical schools 
of Europe, as a means of enriching the report on I 
education, which he had been chosen by the Amer- 
ican commission to prepare and submit to the gov- j 
ernment. In the discharge of these duties, he made \ 
a third general tour of Europe. Upon his return ' 
to America, in the spring of 1874, he received from 
the emperor of Austria the distinguished honor of 
knighthood, including a decoration with the Com- 
mander's Cross of the Imperial Order of Francis 
Joseph. New and unsolicited honors also awaited 
him on his return to Wisconsin, including the offer 
of the presidency of a western college, the position •: 
of chief of the geological survey of Wisconsin, and } 
the position of railroad commissioner for Wisconsin. | 
The last named he finally accepted, and it has added j 
to his reputation by the marked ability and fidelity 
with which he has met its responsibilities. Later in i 
the season of 1874 he was appointed by the governor 
commissioner of water routes between Wisconsin i 
and the seaboard, and as such officer has been active j 
in iHomoting the Fox and Wisconsin river improve- 
ment, and the enterprise of constructing a ship | 
canal between the waters of Georgian Bay and Lake i 
Ontario. 1 

Besides these several responsible positions of rail- \ 
road commissioner, commissioner of water routes to 
the seaboard, president of the Wisconsin Academy ' 
of Sciences, chairman of the National University ; 
Committee of the National Educational Association, 1 
and vice-president of the American Social Science , 
Association, all of which he holds at present, and 
each of which has its responsible duties, he main- ■ 
tains active connection with many more private ' 
affairs, each commanding thought and effort, and is ; 
also known to be engaged upon some literary plans 
that involve much difficulty and protracted labor. 
Doctor Hoyt is in stature five feet ten inches high; j 
weighs one hundred and sixty-five pounds; is sym- ^ 
metrical in form, graceful in manners and of agree- j 
able address. Notwithstanding some constitutional j 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



51 



delicacy he is a person of great physical strength, 
with a nervous energy and power of endurance found 
only in rare combinations of organism and intellect. 
His paternal grandfather was remarkable for these 
traits as a soldier in the revolution, and his father, 
notwithstanding the hardships incident to the war 
of 181 2, and a pioneer life succeeding, is still living, 
at the age of eighty-nine years, in the full enjoyment 
of physical and intellectual vigor, upon the estate of 
his first married-life home. Dr. Hoyt's lectures, 
speeches, reports, books and plans, are notably sys- 
tematic. The readiness and clearness of his per- 
ceptions, with the logical and analytical methods of 
his procedure, make him an habitual organizer. 
Labors thus conducted may therefore be not only 
multiplied, but must of necessity have the elements 
of strength. Comprehensiveness is a marked trait. 
He sees broadly, surveying a subject from every 
available standpoint, and reserving judgment until 
satisfied that no phase or important element has been 



overlooked. The State llniversity, the State Acad- 
emy of Sciences and his plans for a National Uni- 
versity are evidences of these truths. He cherishes 
kindly sentiments toward all, and gives a helping 
hand to whatever has for its aim the good of man- 
kind. A strong sense of justice, tempered by charity 
for human frailties, is illustrated by his daily life. 
His marriage, at the early age of twenty-three, 
with Miss Elizabeth O. Sampson, of Cincinnati, 
Ohio, has given to his home the blessing of two 
beautiful children, sons of such promise as minister 
to a father's pride and make the hope of the world; 
and whose mother, in all the relations of life, has 
proved herself worthy of companionship in his in- 
tellectual attainments, and is the inspiration of all 
his aims. Broad and penetrating in his views and 
profound in his sympathies with all real reforms, 
whether in material, social or political affairs, he is 
of necessity an untiring worker for the good of his 
country and the progress of the race. 



AMOS J. W. PIERCE, 



MILWAUKEE. 



THE world's successful men are those who, with 
persistent determination, have insisted upon 
themselves: they are men who, instead of turning 
their thoughts outward to external helps, have stud- 
ied carefully their own powers, and by casting them- 
selves upon their own resources have been enabled 
to stand erect in the strength of independent man- 
hood. As a representative of this class, he whose 
name heads this sketch is worthy of honorable men- 
tion. A native of New Jersey, he was born near 
Philadelphia on the 7th of May, 1832, the son of 
Louis F. Pierce and Maria nde Jones. His parents, 
though in humble circumstances, were highly re- 
spectable people, but both died during his child- 
hood. His educational advantages were limited to 
those offered by the common schools, but having an 
excessive fondness for study and reading, he care- 
fully improved all his leisure, and in this manner 
acquired a liberal English education. From the 
age of nine years until he attained the age of four- 
teen he attended school; and at this latter age, 
going to Philadelphia, engaged to work for a ship 
chandler. He served in this capacity during a 
period of two years, engaged in various kinds of 
employment, and at the expiration of that time 



accepted a clerkship in a retail grocery store, where 
he remained until 1856. By fidelity, observation 
and strict attention to his work he acquired a good 
business education,, and having accumulated of his 
hard-earned savings one hundred dollars, he deter- 
mined to try his fortune in the West. Accordingly, 
removing to Wisconsin in 1856, he settled at Mil- 
waukee, his present home. During the twenty years 
of his residence here he has been engaged in busi- 
ness most of the time on his own account, and in his 
varied career has been uniformly successful. By 
fair dealing and careful management he has accu- 
mulated an ample competence, and lives in the en- 
joyment of universal esteem. 

Politically, he has never been a strong partisan, 
and although he has always supported the republi- 
can party he is so little hampered by party ties that 
he can support for office him whom he deems most 
worthy, regardless of political prejudice. 

From childhood his religious training has been 
under the influence of the Methodist church, and 
uniting with that body at the age of twenty, he has 
since continued a worthy, active and zealous mem- 
ber. He was married on the 28th of March, 1859, 
to Miss Anna Curry, an estimable lady, full of wo- 



52 



THE rXITBD STATES FtfOGRAPHlCAL D/CTfn.VARy. 



manly virtues, in whom he has found a fond, true 
and devoted wife. They have two sons and two 
daughters, all of whom are living at home. Mr. 
Pierce is preeminently a self-made, business man. 
Thrown upon the world at an early age, he devel- 



oped that spirit of self-reliance and those habits of 
industry, economy and integrity that have so sig- 
nally marked his career; and with these he has 
gradually worked his way to his present standing as a 
thorough business man and an honorable citizen. 



A. WARREN PHELPS, 



MILWAUKEE. 



A WARREN PHELPS is a son of Daniel and 
• Levica Phelps. His ancestors on both sides 
were lineal descendants of the Pilgrims who settled 
in Massachusetts. His grandfather, at the time of 
the outbreak of the revolutionary war, was a farmer 
in New Hampshire. He went to Boston when hostil- 
ities were about to commence, to bring away a can- 
non. Concealing the cannon in his farmer's wagon 
by covering it with straw, he brought it away in safety, 
and it was afterward used with good effect against 
the enemy. His mother was a descendant of Gen- 
eral Warren, who fell at Bunker Hill, and was also a 
cousin of Daniel Webster. 

Warren was born August ii, 1829, at Fort Cov- 
ington, New York. He came with his parents to 
Wisconsin in 1838, and they settled in Johnstown, 
where they remained one year, and then removed to 
Milwaukee. Warren received his education chiefly 
in Milwaukee from private tutqrs, and finished at 
Dr. Buck's private academy. He had always had a 
desire to be a banker, but this desire has not been 
gratified. 

After leaving school he worked for his father, who 
was a tanner, and he learned that business, and when 
he was twenty-one years old he hired out to the 
Graeffenberg Medicine Company, and traveled for 
them two years, selling their medicines. Not liking 



that business, he accepted a situation as book-keeper 
in the hardware store of S. Shepard, where he re- 
mained one year and a half .A.fterward he kept 
books for J- C. Gridley for six months, and subse- 
quently he acted in the same capacity for Benjamin 
Bagnall until 1857, when he was admitted a partner 
in the lumber business, and continued in this busi- 
ness until 1870. He then engaged in the coal trade 
with S. L. Elmore, under the firm name of Elmore 
and Phelps. This partnership continued until 1875, 
when it was dissolved, and the business has since 
been carried on by Mr. Phelps alone. 

Mr. Phelps has been eminently successful; has 
excellent business qualifications, and is guided by 
prudence and integrity. 

Although he does not mix much in politics, he 
has been elected to the city council of Milwaukee 
in 1871 and 1872; also member of the State legis- 
lature during the year 1874. As a business man, he 
bears a high reputation and is very popular. 

In 1855 Mr. Phelps was married to Miss Delight 
Bartlett, a lady of excellent womanly qualities, by 
whom he had four children, two of whom are still 
living, but bereft of their mother while yet young. 
In 1869 Mr. Phelps was married to Miss Carrie 
Sumner, of Southbridge, Massachusetts, by the Rev. 
Charles Sumner, who is a brother of Mrs. Phelps. 



FERDINAND KUEHN, 



FERDINAND KUEHN, State treasurer, was 
born at Augsburg, Bavaria, in the year 1S21, 
and received in the public schools and colleges 
of that place a liberal education. In his fifteenth 
year he entered as an apprentice in a banking 
house at Augsburg, and received later a situation in 
a banking house in Switzerland, which he resigned 



of his own accord after four years, to follow the 
promptings of his love for liberty. In the year 
1844 he emigrated to America, and came without 
delay to Wisconsin, where he settled in Washington 
county, a few miles north of Cedavburg, to enjoy the 
blessings of a country life. He led a laborious 
though a hapjiy life. In the summer of 1846 Mr. 



THE UNITED STATES RIOGliAPIIICAL DICT/ONANV. 



53 



Kuehn directed his steps to Milwaukee. There he 
occupied for a short time a position as clerk, but 
soon learned cigar making, to be independent. For 
four years he remained in this business, but often 
during this time served as traveling book-keeper, 
when he assisted friends in Kenosha and Racine 
in keeping books, and from whence, after a delay of 
some days, usually on Saturday evenings returned 
on foot to his home and family. Then no railroads 
carried passengers, and not always did a steamboat 
land at the right time. Mr. Kuehn was taken away 
from the cigar shop by his friend Geisberg, who was 1 
then city treasurer, and gave him a permanent situa- \ 
tion in his office, and he thereby entered a sphere 
more in accordance with his abilities. During the 
years 1849, 1850 and 185 1, he was engaged in this 
office under the named treasurer ; 1852 under Lucas 1 
Seaver; 1853 under Alex. H. Johnston; in 1854 he 1 
was elected treasurer with a great majority, and in 
1855 without opposition. He was accustomed to 
transact all the business of the office in person, 1 
and without the help of deputies. In this situation ' 
he had a chance to gain a great number of friends 
and acquaintances. In 1856 he declined another 
nomination, but accepted the election as councilor 
of the sixth ward, and entered at the same time into 
business relations with the late Senator Charles 
Quentin. The following two years he served as 
councilor, and later as school commissioner of the 
sixth ward, and was elected comptroller in i860 
with a great majority. After having spent nearly 
seventeen years in the service of the city, Mr. 
Kuehn withdrew himself from public life in 1866, 
and established a business of his own — later in com- 



pany with Mr. Ott — consisting chiefly in taking 
care of the property of non-residents and selling 
real estate. During the first six years of Mr. 
Kuehn's residence in America he struggled very 
hard to obtain a comfortable living for his family 
and himself. His labors were greatly alleviated by 
the cheerful aid rendered him by his wife. His 
success, however, is attributed to his unremitting 
attention to his business, to his punctuality in com- 
plying with his engagements, and to his conciliatory 
and obliging manners, in corroboration of which we 
quote the following from the valedictory and in- 
augural address of his Honor John I. Talmadge, 
mayor of the city of Milwaukee : 

Of the city comptroller, Mr. Kuehn, who now, after six 
years' service in the public interest, retires from the position 
he has so ably filled, more than common mention should 
be made. The adjustment of our former financial embar- 
rassments and the present solid basis of our finances is due 
to him more than to any other. To the discharge of the 
important, intricate and perplexing duties of his office he 
has brought an indefatigable industry, a ripe business ex- 
perience and an incorruptible integrity. He carries with 
tiim in his retirement the universal confidence of the com- 
munity and the warm personal regard of every good citizen. 

In 1873 Mr. Kuehn was elected State treasurer on 
the Reform ticket, receiving a most flattering home 
indorsement, and entered upon the discharge of the 
duties of the office on the 5th of January, 1874. 
His family life has been extremely happy. He has 
been married thirty years, has five children, four 
sons and one daughter. Three of his sons are in 
independent positions — one in Milwaukee, one in 
Madison and one in Stockton, California. He and 
his wife enjoy fine health, and bid fair to live many 
years of usefulness to their country and of happiness 
to their friends. 



SAMUEL KLAUBER, 



MADISON. 



SAMUEL KLAUBER, merchant and capital- 
ist, was born December 10, 1823, at Mutters- 
dorf, Bohemia. His father's name was Simon Klau- 
ber; his mother's, Barbara Klauber. His father 
brought him up to business. He was a produce 
merchant in his native town. Samuel had a com- 
mon-school education. His taste was always to be 
a merchant. He has always been a very industrious 
man. After leaving school he went to buying goods 
for his father. This he followed until he left for Amer- 
ica, on the 22d of August, 1847, and landed at New 
S 



York on the 28th of October. He remained in New 

York one year. He peddled dry goods with a pack 

to make a living. He came to Wisconsin in 1848, 

and settled at Lake Mills. There he kept a grocery 

store, with a man by the name of Brill. He re- 

j mained there until the spring of 185 1. He left 

j there with the intention of going to California, but 

! fell in with his former partner, Mr. Michelbacher, 

I who wished him to take a stock of goods to Madi- 

I son, Wisconsin, which he did, and has lived there 

I ever since. He commenced business with a capital 



54 



THE UN/TED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARV. 



of three hundred dollars, which he made at Lake 
Mills, occupying a small frame store, sixteen by 
forty feet, employing two clerks. He sold the first 
year twenty-three thousand dollars' worth of goods. 
His business increased all the time from year to 
year. The number of hands employed in 1874 
were fifty. The amount of capital now employed 
in this house is seventy thousand dollars. One store 
is thirty-three by one hundred and twenty feet, 
and four stories high ; the other is twenty-two by 
one hundred and thirty-two feet. The amount of 
sales in 1874 was two hundred and twenty-five 
thousand dollars. In 1872 he formed a partnership 
in Milwaukee, under the firm name of Levi Klauber, 
Adler and Co., as dealers in groceries, dry goods, 
clothing and carpets. He has always been successful 



in business, and attributes his success to close atten- 
tion to business and fair dealing. In religion he is 
a Hebrew of the most liberal kind. He was a whig 
until the formation of the republican party, and has 
been a republican ever since. He is one of the 
directors of the Park Hotel. He has traveled a 
great deal in Europe. He married," loth of Sep- 
tember, 1854, Miss Caroline Springer. They have 
four children, all living at home. The eldest, a son, 
Moses Klauber, is acting as cashier for his father. 
Mr. Klauber is a patriotic citizen^ takes a lively 
interest in all enterprises calculated to promote the 
general welfare, is a man of strict integrity, of thor- 
ough business habits, of liberal views and sentiments 
upon all subjects, and in his social relations a most 
genial gentleman. 



LEWIS SILBER, 



MIL \VA VKEE. 



THK subject of this sketch, a native of Kalish, 
Poland, was born on the 28th of March, 1843. 
and is the son of Joachim and Rebecca Silber. 
While a mere boy, Lewis left home to avoid being 
"drafted into the Russian army, and emigrated to the 
United States, landing in the city of New York on 
the isth of September, 1859. Having no trade nor 
profession by which to earn a livelihood he com- 
menced his business career by purchasing a few 
Yankee notions and selling them in New York. 
Here he passed si.x months in working energetically 
by day and attending an evening school by night, in 
order to actjuire a knowledge of the English lan- 
guage. In April, i860, he found employment in 
Orange county, New York, which he pursued for 
four years, during which time he succeeded by strict 
economy in saving from his earnings the sum of 
four hundred dollars. With this small capital he 
returned to New York city and joined his oldest 
brother, Morris Silber, with whom he formed a 
copartnership, and entered into the dry-goods busi- 
ness in Paterson, New Jersey, under the firm name 
of M. Silber and Bro. After continuing in business 
at this place for the i)eriod of one year, and thinking 
the chances for a young man starting in life were 
more favorable in the great West, he, in company 
with his brother Morris, moved to Milwaukee, Wis- 
consin, where, in June, 1865, he opened a dry-goods 
store on West Water street, opposite the old La- 



Crosse depot. He subsequently established a 
branch store in New London, Wisconsin, but as 
this enterprise was not as successful as he had 
anticipated, he discontinued it and moved to Wau- 
pun, Wisconsin, where, with a general stock, he 
commenced a business which was from the start 
successful. His affability, courtesy, and constant 
readiness to meet the wants of customers gained 
for him many friends and the patronage of a large 
extent of surrounding country ; and by able man- 
agement his trade increased continually, until he 
became the leading merchant of the town. Finally, 
after nine years of business success, he removed to 
Milwaukee and entered into partnership with A. W. 
Rich, the leading fancy-goods dealer in the West, 
and succeeded in establishing a first-class wholesale 
store in connection with their large retail establish- 
ment. 

Mr. Silber is a worthy member of the Indejiendent 
Order of Odd-Fellows, having united with the order 
at New London, Wisconsin. He subsequently be- 
came a member by card of Telulah Lodge No. n, 
of Waupun ; also of Waupun Encampment No. 9. 
Upon joining the order he at once became an 
active member, and took a deep interest in its wel- 
fare, and his ability and zeal obtained their reward 
in his election to the several leading positions of 
grand junior warden, grand high priest, and grand 
patriarch of the Grand Encampment of the State. 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



55 



While holding this latter position he instituted the 
following nine new Encampments : Silber Encamp- 
ment at Hudson, which was named after him; one 
at Kilbourn City, Plattsville, Waukesha, Hazel 
Green, Sheboygan Falls, LaCrosse, Watertown, and 
Plymouth. In these positions he has performed his 
duties with eminent success; and, in 1872, as a final 
honor, he was elected to the office of grand repre- 
sentative to the (Irand Lodge of the United States. 



Mr. Silber was married on the 3d of January, 
1872, to Miss Carrie Hyman, and their union has 
been blessed by a son, who was born on the 31st of 
January, 1873, and also with a daughter, who was 
born on the 31st of April, 1875. 

In all his business and social relations Mr. Silber 
has borne a high reputation for an agreeable man- 
ner, and for strict integrity and ability — true char- 
acteristics of the gentleman and business man. 



JOHN MITCHELL, M.D., 



JANES 

THE life of an ordinary settler on the rough, 
uncultivated prairie in the early days was con- 
fessedly a hard one; and when to this the inevitable 
deprivations and discomforts of a practicmg physi- 
cian's career are added, the climax of unattractive- 
ness would seem to have been realized. The part 
taken by the pioneer physicians of the West in its 
early settlement, has been a highly important one ; 
and many of these scattered members of a noble 
profession have added no small honor to its already 
brilliant record. Of this class is Dr. John Mitchell, 
of Janesville, Wisconsin, the subject of this memoir. 

His ancestors were members of the Society of 
Friends — the followers of Penn. He was born on 
Christmas day, 1803, on the Neshaminy, near Attle- 
borough, Bucks county, Pennsylvania. Here his 
grandfather, Richard Mitchell, at an early day, had 
purchased a farm bordering on that stream, and 
upon which he built flouring and other mills. After 
many years he conveyed this property to the Doctor's 
father, whose name also was Richard, and retired 
from active life to Attleborough, where he eventually 
died at an advanced age. 

The Doctor's mother was Elizabeth Brown, cousin 
of General Brown, the commander-in-chief of the 
army in the war of 1812. Their fathers were broth- 
ers, and the founders of Brownsville, Jefferson coun- 
ty, New York. 

Having taken possession of this property the 
Doctor's father was for a time associated in the 
milling business with a brother of the General — 
Judge Brown, who ]:>reviously had married one of 
his sisters. 

Subsequently his father purchased milling and 
farming property at Yardleyville, a few miles above 
Trenton, New Jersey, on the Pennsylvania side of 



the Delaware, and to that place he removed with 
his family in 1812. Here the lad obtained his chief 
education, with a finishing course at Newtown Acad- 
emy. In 1819 he commenced the study of medicine 
under his uncle, Dr. John S. Mitchell, of Humes- 
ville, with whom he remained about two years. 

In 182 1 his father removed with his family to 
Rochester, New York, and the son, for an indefinite 
time, was compelled to give up the study of medi- 
cine. Here he became a clerk in the dry-goods 
store of Everingham and Brothers. In the course of 
some three years the proprietors of the house as- 
sisted him to establish himself in business at Scotts- 
ville in the same county. Here he carried on 
successfully a general country trade. 

In 1834 he removed to Buffalo, New York, where 
he commenced a dry-goods and clothing business 
on an extended scale, having a separate establish- 
ment of each at the same time in the city. In this 
business he continued till the general crash of 1837, 
which terminated his mercantile career. 

In 1838 he entered, as a student, the office of 
Trowbridge and Winne, eminent physicians of that 
city ; and with energy and perseverance that knew 
no discouragement, resumed the study of medicine. 
He continued his studies without interruption, at- 
tending at the same time the usual courses of lec- 
tures, till the winter of 1841-2, when he took his 
degree of M.D. at Geneva College, New York. 

After graduating he returned to Buffalo and im- 
mediately entered upon practice. Although meeting 
with gratifying success, he derided to emigrate to 
the then far West. 

In 1844 he removed with his famil\- to Janesville, 
Wisconsin, then a village of only about three hundred 
inhabitants. Here he established himself pernia- 



56 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



nently in his profession; and besides attending to 
its duties also engaged in farming and dealing in 
lands. A considerable portion of the city is now 
situated upon what was originally his farm. 

In 1 85 1 he established in the interests of his party 
a weekly newspaper, "The Democratic Standard," 
of which for some time he was editor and pro- 
prietor. The paper was eminently successful, and 
after the presidential election of 1852, a favorable op- 
portunity offering, he disposed of the establishment. 

In 185s he was elected president of the State 
Medical Society. Other interests accumulating and 
claiming his attention he, about this time, retired 
from active practice ; but still for many years en- 
gaged in medical consultation. 

In 1864, and again in 1865, the last two years of 
the rebellion, he was elected mayor of the city, the j 
second term without a competitor. I 



In 1874, at its annual meeting, he was elected 
honorary member of the State Medical Society. 

Dr. Mitchell has for many years been in the 
habit of writing for thCj press, and not a few of his 
magazine and other articles, together with several 
poems, are of such merit as to deserve more perma- 
nent record. 

Dr. Mitchell has been thrice married; his wives i 
were sisters, and were the daughters of the Hon. 
Isaac Lacey, deceased, of Monroe county. New York, J 
who for many years was a distinguished member both ii 
of the assembly and senate of that State : Elizabeth | 
and Juliet, the first two, lived but a few years after \ 
marriage. He has also lost one child, a son, who : 
died in infancy. Cyrena C, his present wife, with 
one child of each, two sons and one daughter, and ; 
an orphan, a niece of Mrs. Mitchell, constitute his \ 
family. 



HON. BYRON H. KILBOURN, 



MILWAUKEE. 



HON. BYRON H. KILBOURN was born in 
Granby, Connecticut, September 8, 1801. 
In the fall of 1803, at the age of two years, he was 
transplanted from his native State to take his chance 
in the then almost unbroken wilderness of Ohio. 
His father. Colonel James Kilbourn, during the year 
last named, removed, with his own and forty other 
families, on to a large and fertile tract of land which 
had been purchased by him, as the general agent of 
the Sciota Company, during the preceding season. 
His mother was a daughter of the celebrated John 
Fitch, Esq., the inventor of the steamboat. 

The site of their settlement is now known as the 
village of Worthington, in Franklin county, eight 
miles from the city of Columbus, and near the 
center of the State. The scene rapidly changed. 
The tall forest trees that sheltered the immigrants on 
their first arrival soon gave place to golden harvests 
and the pleasant homes of civilization and refine- 
ment. The central village grew and flourished, 
and the surrounding farms were rapidly improved, 
so that in a comparatively short time this settlement 
became one of the most delightful and attractive 
places in the State, and was long celebrated, not 
only for the high moral tone of its society, but was 
also the seat of learning, and drew to it the youth of 
the better class of people from all parts of the State. 



It held this supremacy during the childhood, youth 
and early manhood of Mr. Kilbourn. Surrounded 
by such associations and influences, and his father 
being in easy circumstances, he acquired at an early 
age as good an education as could at that time be 
obtained without the advantage of a regular college 
course of studies. He showed an early aptitude 
for mathematics, and pursued his studies in that 
department with much avidity, especially in their 
practical application to navigation, surveying and 
engineering. 

At the age of thirteen he left school for a clerk- 
ship in his father's store, and commenced the life of 
a trader in dry goods and groceries, which he con- 
tinued for three years, devoting his leisure time (of 
which he found an abundance), and particularly his 
evenings, to the study of mathematics and the read- 
ing of history and law, and also gave considerable 
attention to music, for which he had a natural fond- 
ness. The law, however, was peculiarly his favor- 
ite study, for the practice of which he was well 
adapted-; but a strong prejudice in the mind of his 
father against the profession prevented his adopting 
it as the business of life, and directed his mind and 
energies into other channels. As he never had any 
relish for merchandising, and could not bear the 
confinement necessary to that occupation, at the age 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARV. 



57 



of sixteen, with his father's approbation, he aban- 
doned it for more congenial pursuits. Havihg a 
strong passion for the wild woods, he engaged in 
surveying, a business at that time deemed quite 
abstruse ; and, as surveyors were scarce, a large de- 
mand existed, yielding ample employment and good 
compensation, affording Mr. Kilbourn much time 
for the prosecution of his favorite studies. 

During this period his father was a representative 
in congress, and an ardent supporter of the admin- 
istration of President Madison ; and during the war 
of 1812 he became largely engaged in the manufac- 
ture of woolens. His works, for some years, went 
on quite prosperously; but by reason of a subse- 
quent change in the policy of the government the 
country became flooded with foreign goods, and the 
establishment of Colonel Kilbourn, in common with 
others throughout the country, went down, bankrupt- 
ing him in their failure. Mr. Kilbourn was about 
seventeen years old when he was thus thrown upon 
his own resources. But the experience which he 
had already acquired as a surveyor now furnished 
him with a convenient resource to commence life 
upon on his own account. 

In the year 1823, when the surveys were com- 
menced by the State of Ohio for the stupendous 
system of internal improvements which was subse- 
quently carried out, Mr. Kilbourn entered the ser- 
vice of the State as an engineer, and continued to 
occupy a prominent position and act an imjiortant 
part in these measures, until the completion of the 
Ohio canal from Lake Erie to the Ohio river, and of 
the Miami canal from Dayton to Cincinnati, in 1832. 
During the first three years of this period his time 
was principally spent in exploring the State and 
locating various lines; and the remaining portion of 
the time he filled the station of resident engineer in 
the construction and superintendence of the canal. 

In the latter part of the year 1832 he retired 
somewhat from active service, owing to a severe and 
long continued attack of rheumatism, brought on by 
frequent exposure, and on being partially restored 
to health, in the spring of 1833 he undertook the 
superintendence of the construction of the Milan 
ship canal, extending from Lake Erie, at the mouth 
of Huron river, to Milan, an important business 
point on that river about ten miles in the interior. 
Here, in an easy employment requiring only a por- 
tion of his time, during the year 1833, he recovered 
sufficiently from his rheumatic attack to indulge in 
his natural desire for some more active enterprise, 



and he determined on looking into that far-off coun- 
try to the west of Lake Michigan, which then seemed 
to be beyond the bounds tliat civilization would 
reach during that age. 

To that distant region he took his course, and 
landed at Green Bay on the 8th of May, 1834, hav- 
ing placed himself in the unpretending position of 
surveyor of public lands, through a contract for 
that purpose obtained from his warm personal friend, 
Micajah T. Williams, of Cincinnati, then surveyor- 
general. His main object, however, was to explore 
the country, and find, if possible, the natural com- 
mercial point for all that vast extent of country 
stretching from the lake westward to the Missis- 
sippi. 

That whole country, now so well known, was then 
almost unknown to the world, except Green Bay at 
the northern and Chicago at the southern extreme 
of the lake. That part of the lake coast lying within 
the present State of Wisconsin, and indeed the whole 
State, then constituted part of the Territory of Mich- 
igan, and was a vast wilderness, along whose borders 
a steamboat was rarely seen, although at long inter- 
vals such a phenomenon was even then sometimes 
witnessed by the native sons of the forest. 

A portion of the spring and summer months Mr. 
Kilbourn spent in the region adjacent to Green Bay 
and in the Manitowoc and Sheboygan country, in 
making government surveys, and the remainder of 
the season to November in exploring the coast, in 
which he visited all the natural business localities 
between Manitowoc and Chicago, as well as the in- 
terior, and finally settled his opinion in favor of the 
Milwaukee river as the locality on which the largest 
amount of business could be concentrated, and con- 
sequently as the most favorable site to become the 
commercial metropolis of the State thereafter to be 
formed. The short time which has since elapsed 
has fully proved the sagacity of that conclusion. 
Up to 1834 it was a rare occurrence for a white 
man to be seen at the Milwaukee river. None but 
those connected with the army, or fur trade, or an 
adventurous traveler, ever ventured into this un- 
known region. But since that time, in the short 
space of thirty-nine years, a city has sprung into 
existence, numbering one hundred thousand inhab- 
itants — the commercial emporium of a State which 
has been peopled and organized within the same 
period, containing a population of over one million 
souls. 

On Mr. Kilbourn 's early visits to Wisconsin, in 



58 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONAltr 



the years 1834, 1835, 1836, and including the greater 
part of 1837, he traveled the country on horseback, 
carrying his camp, blankets and provisions, and in 
the winter season his horse-feed, along with him. 
and wherever he was when night came, there was 
his home. Sometimes he was entertained in the 
wigwams of the Indians, but generally the solitary 
occupant of his own camp, except, as was frequently 
tlie case, he had a traveling companion. There were 
then no roads or highway, but only the devious 
Indian trail, and frequently this was neglected, and 
the journey pursued without any guide but the sun 
or pocket compass. In 1834 and the beginning of 
1835 there was no white man's habitation between 
Chicago and Green Bay, except that of Mr. Solomon 
Juneau, on the Milwaukee river, who had been set- 
tled there many years in the fur trade with the Indi- 
ans, under John J. Astor's Company. Mr. Juneau 
was one of nature's noblemen, and was the very soul 
and embodiment of hospitality and good cheer. 
His house was a home to every straggler in that 
wild region, and among his pleasantest recollections 
Mr. Kilbourn often adverts to the cheerful fireside 
scenes in that wildwood home, after days of travel, 
toil and privation. 

Having decided to locate himself at Milwaukee, 
he made his selections of land, embracing all that 
part of the city lying on the west side of the Mil- 
waukee river above the confluence of the Menomo- 
nee, and became, by subsequent purchase in 1835, 
the original proprietor of all that part of the city, as 
Mr. Juneau was, by early settlement and preemp- 
tion, of the other side of the river, e.xtending to the 
lake shore. 

The following extract from the first directory of 
the city, published in 1848, is interesting in this 
connection : 

Milwaukee cannot lay claim to any great antiquity. It 
is, on the contrary, of very recent origin. Tiie city as such 
is but t-MO years old. The settlement only commenced here 
in 1834. . " . In May, 1834, Byron Kilbourn, Esq., came to 
Wisconsin as a government surveyor, and during that year 
visited Milwaukee, enjoying the hospitality of Mr. Juneau, 
then the only white man residing between Chicago and 
Green Bay. "He made a location'on the west side of the 
river, with a view to purchase when the land should come 
into market. Mr. George H. Walker also visited Milwau- 
kee in the early part of 1834, opening a trading establishment 
here, and making a claim upon the tract since known as 
"Walker's PointV' At the land sale at Green Bay in July 
and August, 1S35, Mr. Juneau purchased the N!E. I4 of 
sec. J9, in Town. 7, and Range J2, on which he resided, and 
Mr. Kilbourn purchased the S.E. J4 of the same section. 
These two tracts, extending along the Milwaukee river, a 
mile in width, constitute the nucleus of the present city of 
Milwaukee. The proprietorship was subsequently modified 
by an arrangement between the two purchasers, in accord- 



ance with which Mr. Kilbourn conveyed to Mr. Juneau that 
part pf the S.E. ^ of sec. 29 lying east of the river, and 
Mr. Juneau conveyed to Mr. "Kilbourn that part of the 
N.E. >4' of the same section lying west of the river. Mr. 
Juneau subsequently added to the original tract by purchase, 
extending eastwai-dly and southerly toward the lake, and 
Mr. Kilbourn, by purchase, extending westwardly and 
northerly toward the interior ; the entire purchase embrac- 
ing in the aggregate about six hundred acres, three hundred 
of which were owned by Mr. Kilbourn, and constituted his 
plat of Milwaukee on the west side of the river. 

A town was organized on the west side of Mil- 
waukee river in 1837. The first officers elected 
were, Byron Kilbourn, president; James H. Rogers, 
John. H. Tweedy, William R. Longstreet and Dan- 
iel H. Richards, trustees. 

In his first explorations Mr. Kilbourn had an eye 
to the ways and means of intercourse which were, 
by the topography of the country, presented for the 
construction of public works to facilitate trade with 
the interior, and formed the project of a canal com- 
munication between the lake at Milwaukee and Rock 
river, and its extension down that stream by slack 
water, and up the Catfish to the four lakes, and by 
canal to the Wisconsin river, thereby opening a wa- 
ter communication \vith the Mississippi. 

During the summer and fall of 1837 he brought 
this project before -the public by a series of articles 
published in the " Milwaukee Advertiser," the first 
newspaper established at Milwaukee. These arti- 
cles had a wide circulation, and doubtless did their 
full share in spreading a knowledge of the superior 
advantages offered by that region to men of business, 
i and for the investment of capital; and no doubt 
aided much in producing the vast tide of immigration 
which for years flowed in an unbroken stream in 
that direction. In pursuance of the plan thus laid 
before the public, he drew up and circulated peti- 
tions, brought the subject before the legislature, and 
obtained the passage of an act incorporating a com- 
pany for the purpose of constructing a canal to 
Rock river, called the Milwaukee and Rock River 
Canal Company. That act was passed early in Jan- 
uary, 1838, and in February the company was duly 
formed. Mr. Kilbourn was elected president, and 
dispatched to Washington for the purpose of obtain- 
ing a grant of land to aid in the construction of the 
canal. He succeeded in obtaining a very liberal 
grant, being one half of all the sections along the 
route of the canal, ten miles wide from one extreme 
to the other. This grant, had it been faithfully ap- 
plied to the object, would have been sufficient to 
have secured the completion of that important work 
in a few years. If the administration of that land 



The Vnited states HioaiiAPHicAL DicriuNAiir. 



S9 



grant, its sale and application to the object designed, 
had devolved solely upon Mr. Kilbourn, with his 
experience in works of that nature, there cannot be 
a doubt that the canal would have been completed 
by the close of the year 1843, and that the whole 
country and the city of Milwaukee would have been 
vastly benefited. For the purpose of being very 
sure that the lands would be faithfully applied to 
the objects of the grant, the act of Congress placed 
them under the control and at the disposal of the 
legislature of the Territory of Wisconsin, prescrib- 
ing that they should be sold under certain regula- 
tions, and the proceeds applied to the construction 
of the canal, and for " «t) other purpose w/iatever." 
This act was passed in June, 1838, and the legisla- 
ture, in pursuance of the trust thus reposed in it, 
undertook the performance of its duties by passing 
an act in the early part of 1839, under which the 
work was successfully begun. But in an evil hour 
local hostilities arose, and local interests and feel- 
ings began to exert their baleful influence on the 
legislature, and finally the subject became mixed up 
in the political cauldron, and for several sessions 
formed the battle-ground of contending politicians. 
In the end the further progress of the work was 
arrested by the direct action of the legislature, 
which, in disregard of the injunctions of the act of 
congress, appropriated the proceeds of the sales of 
those lands to the payment of the debts of the Ter- 
ritory, and to the defraying the expense of holding 
two conventions for the formation of a State govern- 
ment. The canal grant, therefore, obtained solely 
through the personal exertions of Mr. Kilbourn, 
though it failed to produce the results aimed at by 
him, yielded a fund which furnished the legislature 
the means of paying over a hundred thousand dol- 
lars of public indebtedness and expenditures. 

The canal was prostrated by a repeal, at the ses- 
sion of 1841-42, of the laws previously passed for 
its aid, and by the subsequent appropriation of the 
funds derived from the sale of the lands for other 
purposes. When it seemed evident that the canal 
was doomed, Mr. Kilbourn urged upon the legislature 
to make use of the land granted for that purpose, 
by authorizing its application to the construction of 
a railroad. But it was decided that such a project 
was premature, and, though supported by some of 
the most enlightened minds, was overruled by the 
majority. 

In 1840 Mr. Kilbourn was a candidate for delegate 
to congress, but his opponent. Governor Doty, was 



elected by a small majority. The Milwaukee "Cou- 
rier," of May 7, 1845, contained an able article re- 
viewing the claims of the gentlemen who had been 
proposed as candidates for congress, from which the 
following extract is taken. After speaking of Messrs. 
Upham and Darling, the writer continues: 

Byron Kilbourn is unquestionably a man of superior 
abilities, the characteristics of his mind Ixmul; liveliness of 
perception, acuteness ot understandini,', seanhin^ penetra- 
tion, indefatigable perseverance, and willial common sense. 
Never satisfied with any subject that occupies liis attention 
till it is reduced to a demonstration, he is calculated to sift 
everj word, thought, motive and action to the bottom. 
These powers were propagated and extensivrh- exercised by 
the practice of his profession of engineering; and it may be 
thought that his habits of severe thinking, and of refraining 
from trivial conversation, have rendered him less popular 
with the mass than others. He has even been accused of 
being aristocratic in his feelings; but we venture to affirm 
that if ever democracy, ibund a genial habitation, it has 
found it in the breast of Byron Kilbourn. He would as 
willingly shake the hand of the farmer or mechanic, and 
grasp it as tightly too, as that of the first man in the nation. 
His whole soul is absorbed in the welfare of Wisconsin, and 
the breath of slander would fail to impeach his integrity; 
falsehood alone could successfully asperse his character. 
Suffice it to say, the distinction lies here — Upham or Dar- 
ling would be the most eftective candidate before the peo- 
ple; Kilbourn would be the most efficient representative on 
the floor of congress. 

In 1S45 Mr. Kilbourn was elected to represent 
the county of Milwaukee in the territorial legis- 
lature. In 1846 the city of Milwaukee was char- 
tered, and he was chosen a member of the first 
board of aldermen. On the 19th of August of the 
same year the county convention met to nominate 
candidates for various offices. On the first ballot 
for a candidate to represent the county in the terri- 
torial senate, Mr. Kilbourn received a majority of 
the votes of the convention ; but as it was stated 
and understood that his business arrangements for 
the season would not permit him to accept the sta- 
tion, the Hon. H. N. Wells was nominated on the 
next ballot. In 1847 Mr. Kilbourn was reelected 
to the office of alderman, and was also chosen a 
delegate to the convention which met at Madison 
on the 15th of December of that year, and formed 
the present State constitution. In that body he 
was chairman of the committee on the " general 
provisions " of the constitution, and as such drew 
up and reported the preamble and declaration of 
rights, the article on boundaries, the article on 
banks and banking, and the article on amendments. 
In 1848 he was elected mayor of the city of Mil- 
waukee, then containing about fifteen thousand in- 
habitants. He was elected a delegate to, and vice- 
president of, the free democratic national convention, 
which met at Buffalo in 1848, and nominated Martin 



6o 



THE UNITED STATES BtOGliAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



Van Buren for president, and Charles Francis 
Adams for vice-president of the United States. 

When the public mind began to comprehend the 
importance of railroad communication with the in- 
terior, Mr. Kilbourn was by common consent desig- 
nated as the most suitable person to lead the first 
enterprise of that description, and was accordingly 
elected president of the Milwaukee & Mississippi 
railroad company by a unanimous vote of the 
board of directors. This company was organized in 
the early part of 1849, and he continued to occupy 
the ])osition of president of the company until the 
early part of 1852. He also engaged with equal 
zeal in prosecuting another work of equal merit, the 
La Crosse & Milwaukee railroad ; and it is mainly 
attributable to his address and indefatigable enter- 
prise that the numerous difficulties with which these 
companies had to contend were overcome, and the 
roads so successfully carried forward. 

Mr. Kilbourn was reelected mayor of the city of 



Milwaukee in 1854, by more than a thousand ma- 
jority. The " Wisconsin" remarked in reference to 
his opponent, Colonel Walker: "He had been so 
repeatedly elected mayor, that he was thought to be 
invincible, but he coifld not stand before the popular 
sentiment in favor of Mr. Kilbourn." 

In February, 1855, Mr. Kilbourn was the regular 
democratic candidate before the legislature of Wis- 
consin for the office of United States senator. After 
several unsuccessful ballotings, his competitor, the 
Hon. Chas. Durkee, was chosen by one majority. 
Mr. Kilbourn was also president of the board of 
education. It has been said that no man in Wis- 
consin has made so many railroad speeches, or has 
so often presided over State and district conventions 
and other public meetings as Byron Kilbourn. 

In the fall of 1868 Mr. Kilbourn went to Jack- 
sonville, Florida, for the benefit of his health, where 
he died suddenly of apoplexy, on the i6th of De- 
cember, 1870, in the seventieth year of his age. 



p:dward h. ball, 



MILWAUKEE. 



EDWARD H. BATL, a native of Ogden, Monroe 
county. New York, was born on the 29th of 
May, 1825, and is the son of Joseph and Esther 
Ball, who settled upon their present homestead in 
1824, having removed thither from Lee, Berkshire 
county, Massachusetts. The father is now eighty- 
eight years of age, and the mother eighty-six, and 
they have been married sixty-three years. 

Edward received a good common school educa- 
tion, and besides spent one year in a select school. 
At the age of fifteen years, he accepted a clerkship 
in the store of Messrs. Church and Ball, of Spencer- 
port, one of the largest mercantile houses in western 
New York, and so far enjoyed the confidence of his 
employers that lie remained with them seven years. 
In 1846 he removed to Wisconsin, and settled at 
East Troy, Walworth county, and there conducted 
a large and successful general mercantile trade, 
doing the most of his business on the credit system 
of those days. Removing to Milwaukee in 1862, 
he became a member of the firm of Dutcher, Ball 
and Goodrich, wholesale grocers. Mr. Dutcher 
afterward retired, and the firm name changed to Ball 
and Goodrich. The business has steadily increased, 
and is now one of the largest in the State, extending 



throughout the Northwest and western Michigan, 
while the house is known for its good financial stand- 
ing. During his business career of thirty years, 
many of which have been years of depression and 
financial crisis, Mr. Ball has maintained a high 
standing, and never had a note protested or once 
failed to discharge an obligation. Blessed with a 
vigorous constitution, he has been enabled to devote 
his entire attention to his business, and each year 
has had an income larger than his disbursements, 
and has always avoided running in debt. 

In his habits, he is strictly temperate, has never 
tasted of any alcoholic liquors, or used tobacco in 
any form. In politics, he was formerly a whig, but 
has been identified with the republican party since 
its organization. He was a firm supporter of Presi- 
dent Lincoln's administration, and during the war 
contributed liberally toward furthering the interests 
of the Union cause. 

When eleven years of age he united with the Pres- 
byterian church, and has continued a member of 
this and the Congregational church ever since, con- 
tributing liberally to the support of all religious 
enterprises. For many years he has been identified 
with Sabbath school work, and of late years has 




&'^i^ayra^ ^^^'^i^-^^C^ 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARV. 



6l 



conducted a young men's Bible-class, and has been 
the means of great good to those who have been 
brought under the influence of his teachings. He is 
now a prominent member and ruling elder of the 
Immanuel Presbyterian Church of Milwaukee, and 
in the midst of his active business pursuits, never 



allows himself to become so absorbed as to forget 
the claims of his fellow-men or the higher claims of 
his God. 

Mr. Ball was married, August 26, 1847, to .Sarah 
E. Cobb, daughter of Dr. John Cobb, of Ogden, 
New York; they have one son and four daughters. 



MORITZ VON BAUMBACH, 



MILWAUKEE. 



PROMINENT among the leading men in the 
city of Milwaukee is the gentleman whose name 
appears at the head of this short biographical 
history. 

Moritz von Baumbach, a descendant of an an- 
cient and noble German family, was born on the 
13th of January, 1834, at the city of Cassell, in 
Western Germany, which was the capital of the 
Electorate of Hesse Cassel, now of the province of 
Hesse Vassan, Prussia, and of the province of Lower 
Hesse. His father, Baron Ludwig von Baumbach, 
held a commission as military officer in the German 
army, and participated in the battles of his native 
country against Napoleon the First, from the year 
1813 until the year 1816. After that date he, pos- 
sessing talents that eminently fitted him for the 
position, became a very prominent and influential 
politician, and was a member of the first German 
parliament, at Frankfort. 

In his early boyhood, Moritz von Baumbach re- 
ceived the foundation of his education from private 
tuition, but as he advanced in age he entered col- 
lege at Rinteln, and also at Cassel. 

In 1849 he immigrated, with his parents, to the 
United States of America, and resided with them 
for several years in Elyria, Ohio, and afterward in 
the city of New York. 



He came to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in the year 
1856, being then twenty-two years old; and his 
talents and fitness for office being at once recog- 
nized, he was appointed to the office of deputy city 
treasurer the year following his arrival, and immedi- 
ately afterward was elected to the honorable post of 
city treasurer of Milwaukee. 

In i860 he engaged in business by establishing a 
banking-house, under his own name, which he car- 
ried on successfully for ten years, and then consoli- 
dated with the Home Savings Bank, and has carried 
the same on up to the present time as the German 
E.xchange Bank, of which he was president. 

The official appointments held by this gentleman 
have been numerous, as he has been consul for 
Austria and Hungary, and also for Saxony, and 
many other German governments. In 1874 he was 
selected to fill the office of vice-consul for the 
German Empire. 

In religion Moritz von Baumbach is a believer in 
the Protestant faith, having been brought up in the 
Reformed Presbyterian Church. 

Politically, he has always been a partisan of the 
democratic party, and during the American war he 
was a war-democrat. 

He was united in marriage, in the year 1S63, to 
Anna Lafaulnier. 



JOHN PEAT DICKSON, 

JANES I 'ILLE. 



FOREMOST among the pioneer settlers of 
Janesville, Wisconsin, stands the name of John 
Peat Dickson. He is a native of Danville, Vermont, 
where he was born on the i8th of April, 1808, and 
is the son of John and Margaret (McCalum) Dick- 
son. His father was a silk manufacturer in Paisley, 
9 



Scotland, and immigrated to America toward the 
end of the last century. On arriving he located 
himself in Hartford, Connecticut, and thence re- 
moved to Danville, where he finally settled. He 
was a strictly religious man, firmly attached to the 
old Presbyterian communion, and careful of the 



62 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



moral training of his children. On coming to 
America he gradually abandoned the manufacturing 
interest and devoted his time to farming, which 
occupation he followed until his death. 

During his youth John P. Dickson passed his 
time in the summer months on the farm, and in the 
winter attending the district school as opportunity 
offered. From this it will be inferred that his edu- 
cational advantages were not very great, but the lad 
lost no opportunity to profit by them. 

In 1836 he decided to settle in the West, and in 
May of that year left Vermont for Milwaukee, where 
he arrived a month later. After casting about for 
some time in search of a suitable location, he 
selected the site of Janesville for his permanent 
residence, and in August, 1838, entered about two 
hundred acres of land. Part of this he laid out 
as a farm, and disposed of the remainder in various 
ways, selling portions of it, and again adding other 
land as occasion served. Mr. Dickson also acted 
as land agent for eastern speculators, and gradually 
developed, in this manner, a business in real estate. 
Being one of the earliest settlers of the town, he 



became concerned in the conduct of its municipal 
affairs. In 1842 he was elected justice of the peace, 
and from that time held the office for seven years 
almost continuously. He has also filled the office 
of town clerk, and several other positions of like 
nature. In 1859 he was elected to the legislature, 
and served two terms. 

In political affairs he has always attached himself 
to the republican party, and taken a most active 
interest in its career and management. 

Mr. Dickson is one of the representative men of 
the Northwest, an early settler, and one who has 
identified himself closely with its progress. He has 
successfully borne all the hardships and privations 
incident to such a life, and they have developed in 
him, as a natural result, both physical vigor and the 
sturdy moral and mental health which are secured 
by the constant practice of industry and thrift. 

On the 2ist of November, 1832, Mr. Dickson was 
united in marriage to Lorinda, daughter of Mr. 
James Stevens, of Danville, a prominent farmer of 
that place. There have not been any children born 
to them of this union. 



M 



HON. MORTIMER M. JACKSON, 

HALIFAX {NOVA SCOTIA). 
ORTIMER M. JACKSON, formerly one of ! mined to make it his future home. Having 



the judges of the supreme court of Wiscon- 
sin, was born in Rensselaerville, Albany county, 
New York. His father, the late Jeremiah Jackson, 
was a man of intelligence, probity and influence. 
The son, who was quite young at the time of his 
father's death, was afterward sent to a boarding 
school on Long Island, and thence to the Collegiate 
School, in the city of New York. After leaving 
that institution, he entered the office of the late 
David Graham, an eminent lawyer and advocate. 
In 1834 he was a delegate from the city of New 
York to the Whig Young Men's State Convention, 
which nominated William H. Seward for governor; 
and was the author of the address adopted by the 
convention to the people of the State. 

In 1838 he married Miss Catherine Garr, daughter 
of the late Andrew Garr, formerly a distinguished 
lawyer of New York. At that time the great North- 
west was attracting an enterprising population from 
the old States. Wisconsin was a new territory, ris- 
ing rapidly in importance, and Mr. Jackson deter- 



his residence at Mineral Point, he engaged in the 
practice of his profession, and soon became promi- 
nent at the bar. 

He wrote a series of articles over the signature of 
" Wisconsin," calling the attention of the intending 
emigrants to the West to the natural advantages of 
Wisconsin, predating its rapid growth and future 
greatness. He identified himself with the whig 
party, and became a leader and distinguished 
speaker. He was attorney-general of the Territory 
nearly five years; and upon the organization of the 
State government, in 1849, was elected a judge of 
the supreme court and judge of the fifth judicial 
circuit. As a presiding judge he was dignified and 
courteous, and faithful and impartial in the discharge 
of his duties. 

After retiring from the bench he continued to 
practice law until appointed by President Lincoln, 
in 1861, to the office which he now holds, of United 
States Consul at Halifax, Nova Scotia. Circum- 
stances connected with the late civil war gave to 




t^^n/i^-^^ ^^^^^^-W^-^rJ^^^g^yu 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



63 



that consulate an importance second to none under 
the government, and requiring abilities of a high 
order; not only tact and vigilance, but firmness, in- 
tegrity and loyalty. These qualities were in an 
eminent degree combined in Judge Jackson. 

At the request of the State department in October, 
1870, Judge Jackson submitted a report upon the 
fisheries and fishery laws of Canada, in which the 
principal questions involved in the controversy be- 
tween Great Britain and the United States on the 
subject were fully examined and discussed. This 
report was transmitted to congress with the docu- 
ments accompanying the President's annual message. 

Of the many American consuls who have faith- 
fully and ably served their country abroad, no name 
in our consular annals exhibits a more honorable 
record than that of Mortimer M. Jackson. 



On the i6th of August, 1875, at Halifax, the 
capital of Nova Scotia, the wife of Judge Jackson 
passed from earth to heaven. Thirty-seven years 
before, with the fidelity of a true woman and the 
devotion of a loving wife, she turned from the 
blandishments and the luxuries of a gay city to share 
the trials, the privations and the hardships of her 
husband in his western home. Her sympathies 
nerved his arm in his struggles for fame and fortune ; 
her smiles brightened his future prospects. Twenty- 
three years later, when called upon to represent his 
country abroad, she was still his wise counselor, his 
faithful friend, his devoted wife. Her intelligence, 
refinement and accomplishments, which had won so 
many hearts in her native land, were justly appreci- 
ated in her foreign home ; and when removed by 
death the shock was felt alike at home and abroad. 



HON. THOMAS R. HUDD. 



GREEN BAT. 



THOMAS R. HUDD, a native of Buffalo, New 
York, was born on the ist of October, 1835, 
and is the son of Richard Hudd and Mary nee Har- 
rison. His father, an ornamental painter and de- 
signer by occupation, was a man of decided char- 
acter, and took special care in the training of his 
only child, giving him all the advantages that his 
means could afford. Thomas removed from his 
native place and settled in Chicago, Illinois, with 
his widowed mother when he was seven years old, 
and there received his early education in the public 
and select schools; and also worked three years at 
the printer's trade, to earn money with which to 
complete his education, being engaged on the 
" Western Citizen," a weekly paper, and also on the 
" Evening Journal." With the money thus earned, 
he attended the Lawrence University, at Appleton, 
Wisconsin, and after closing his studies there, be- 
gan the study of law, and in 1856 was admitted to 
the bar. At once entering upon the practice of his 
profession in Appleton, he continued it with good 
success during a period of twelve years, and at the 
expiration of that time, in 1868, established himself 
in Green Bay, and there opened that practice in 
which he is still engaged, and in which he has be- 
come widely known as an honorable, and a shrewd 
and successful attorney. At the present time, 1876, 
he is associated with Mr. Wigman, under the firm 



name of Hudd and Wigman. Aside from his regular 
duties he has served in many public capacities, and 
always with credit to himself and satisfaction to all 
interested. In 1856 he was elected district attorney 
forOtogamie county, and reelected in 1858. During 
the years 1862 and 1863 he represented the twenty- 
second district in the State senate, and in 1868 was 
elected a member of the general assembly from 
Otogamie county, and reelected to the same position 
in 1875 from Brown county. He was chosen city 
attorney of Green Bay in 1873, and in 1876 was 
again elected to the State senate from the second 
district. In all these varied positions he has shown 
himself worthy of the trusts that have been reposed 
in him, and by his able and efiicient service has con- 
tributed largely to the welfare of his State, and 
gained the highest respect of all with whom he has 
had to do. His practice is general, he having been 
admitted to all the courts of Wisconsin and also to 
the supreme court of the United States. At the 
present time, he has the largest federal practice o 
any lawyer in his city. 

In his political sentiments, Mr. Hudd is identified 
with the democratic party. 

In his religious views, though not connected with 
any church organization, he inclines toward the 
Unitarian. Unsectarian in his opinions, he makes 
the rule of his actions that expressed in the words ; 



64 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



" Whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, 
do ye even so to them." 

He possesses most excellent personal and social 
qualities, and the best estimate of his character and 
worth may be formed from the high regard with 
which he is held by those who know him best. 



Mr. Hudd was married on the 7th of June, 
1857, to Miss Parthenia S. Peak, who died Septem- 
ber 24, 1870, leaving two sons and three daughters. 
He was married a second time on the 2d of Oc- 
tober, 1872, to Mary Kill, and by her has two 
daughters. 



CHARLES SPENCER DUNCOMBE, M.D., 



CHARLES S. DUNCOMBE, a native of Mid- 
dleburgh, Schoharie county, New York, was 
born on the i8th of November, 1821, and is the 
son of Elijah E. Duncombe and Catharine Bouch 
Duncombe. His ancestors have been somewhat 
noted for their longevity. His great-grandfather, a 
revolutionary soldier, was killed at the battle of 
Bunker Hill. His grandfather removed to Canada 
in 18 1 9, whither his father went three years later. 
He was a prominent man in his community, highly 
respected by all, and for more than forty years a 
practicing physician in Saint Thomas. Two of his 
uncles, Charles and David Duncombe, also phy- 
sicians, served in the provincial house of par- 
liament during a period of twelve years. Charles, 
therefore, being raised under such influences, natur- 
ally inclined to the medical profession. 

During his boyhood he attended the common 
schools of his adopted home in Canada, whither his 
parents had moved when he was one year old, and j 
besides had the advantages offered by a seminary in ! 
London. At the age of seventeen he engaged in ! 
teaching, and two -years later began the study of [ 
medicine, under the supervision of his father, and i 
soon afterward pursued a course of study in the 
Medical College, at Geneva, New York, attending 
two courses of lectures, and graduating on the 23d 
of January, 1844. In the ensuing spring, drawn by 



the superior inducements which it offered to young 
men, he removed to the West, and settled in Wal- 
worth county, Wisconsin, and there established him- 
self in his profession. He remained there four 
years, meeting with good success and building up a 
fair practice, but at the end of that time returned to' 
Saint Thomas, Ontario, and there resumed his prac- 
tice, following it for a period of twelve years, attend- 
ing during that time a course of lectures at the 
Toronto University and one at Geneva College. 
Returning to Wisconsin in the spring of i860, he 
settled at Racine, his present home, and opened an 
office in partnership with Dr. Rufus B. Clark, .a 
homoeopathist. During this year he attended a 
partial course of lectures at the Hahnemann 
Medical College of Chicago, and graduated with 
honor from the same. His practice has been con- 
stantly growing, and he is now widely known for the 
care and skill with which he treats his cases; he 
has made his profession financially successful. 

His political sentiments are republican, though in 
the midst of his professional duties he has found no 
time to devote to political affairs. 

In his religious communion Dr. Duncombe is 
identified with the Episcopal church. 

He was married on the 24th of January, 1844, the 
day after his first graduation, to Miss Susan A. C. 
Baker, and by her has one son and two daughters. 



GENERAL DAVID ATWOOD, 

MADISON. 

DAVID ATWOOD was born in Bedford, New I worked on the farm during the summer, and attended 

Hampshire, December 15, 1815. He belongs j the district school in the winter. The summers 

to a vigorous and long-lived family. His father, at being short in that latitude, the work was continuous, 

the age of ninety, was living at the old homestead. ' There was but little time for rela.xation — none for 

Like most New England boys, young Atwood idleness. The winters were severely cold, and the 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARi: 



65 



pathway to school was frequently obstructed by 
snow-drifts. This course of life, until he was six- 
teen years of age, developed and strengthened him, 
and firmly established those habits of industry and 
frugality which assured him subsequent success. In 
his sixteenth year, he accompanied an elder brother 
to Hamilton, Madison county, New York, where he 
commenced working at a printer's case. His em- 
ployers were law-book publishers. He remained 
there five years, and became master of his craft be- 
fore visiting home. After this he traveled through 
Pennsylvania, the South and the West for nearly 
three years. Stopping but a short time in any one 
place, he had ample opportunity to see much of the 
country, and become familiar with its resources and 
the character of the people. Part of this time he 
was in the employ of the house where he learned 
his trade. He visited every place of note in Ken- 
tucky, Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, and every organized 
county in Indiana. Chicago he remembers as a 
village in a swamp, with a muddy and almost im- 
passable street, and a little wooden hotel not far 
from the present Tremont House. He was highly 
pleased with the West, and had a tempting offer to 
engage in business in Cincinnati, but declined and 
returned to Hamilton in 1839, where, with his 
brother, he undertook the publication of the " Ham- 
ilton Palladium," a weekly newspaper. He worked 
hard for five years, through the Harrison log-cabin 
campaign, and until the defeat of Clay, in 1844. 
He was a zealous supporter of the famous Ken- 
tuckian, and very earnest in advocating the princi- 
ples he espoused — a characteristic of New Hamp- 
shire whigs, who, being in a minority at home, had 
learned to make up in zeal what they lacked in 
numbers. Overworked and broken in health, in the 
political campaign that culminated in the defeat of 
Clay — a campaign so "gallantly fought, and so fool- 
ishly lost — Colonel Atwood again set his face to the 
westward. The "Palladium" had paid expenses, 
and nothing more. Five years of his life had been 
given to the advocacy of the cause of his party, and 
to the duties of a citizen, in urging the interests of 
the country where he resided. It had been to him 
not only a pecuniary sacrifice, but had seriously im- 
paired .his health. It had taken some of the best 
years of his life, and he doubtless felt that leaving 
the East was like transplanting a half-grown tree, 
leaving its best roots in the earth. In the time that 
had elapsed since his first journey, the West had 
grown immeTisely, and though opportunities for es- 



tablishing himself in his business had increased, he 
found it necessary to engage in some occupation to 
recruit his health. The fertility and beauty of the 
western prairies, so unlike his rugged New England 
home, had attracted him on his first visit. Deter- 
mined to abandon the editorial life, he purchased a 
farm near Freeport, Illinois. At that time it took 
six weeks of slow and toilsome travel to get from 
Hamilton to his new home. He started in company 
with a friend. With a span of horses hitched to a 
sleigh, surmounted by a wagon, they left Hamilton 
in February, 1845. In Ohio they found bare ground, 
and abandoned the runners. They reached the 
farm in season to put in a crop of wheat, and were 
very hopeful, but the crop failed. They then bought 
sheep, but half the flock died the first winter. Mis- 
fortune followed misfortune, and they were sur- 
rounded by distress and discouragements on every 
side. Two years spent on this farm restored the 
colonel's health, but exhausted his funds and fur- 
nished him with all the agricultural experience he 
deemed it advisable to indulge in. He sold out, 
and determined to again engage in editorial labors. 
No place seemed so attractive to him then as the 
thriving territory of Wisconsin. Population was in- 
creasing from the flood of immigration setting west- 
ward, and Wisconsin was soon to be admitted into 
the Union. In casting about for a good place to 
settle, he found no spot so inviting as Madison, the 
capital of the Territory, and on reaching it he im- 
mediately became connected with the " Madison 
Express." The capital was then a small village, 
and there was but little business, except such as was 
derived directly or indirectly from the public print- 
ing. His duties were arduous and varied. He was, 
to use his own words in a history of the " Dane 
County Press," "editor, reporter, compositor, fore- 
man, and all hands." He reported the proceedings 
of the last two sessions of the territorial legislature, 
convened at Madison, and the entire proceedings 
of the constitutional convention. Probably no 
one is more familiar with the action of that body 
than he. He was present not only at every ses- 
sion, but every moment that the convention was 
in session, and was thus able, without assistance, 
to write out as complete a report as could be made 
by one not a stenographer. He here established a 
reputation for accuracy and dispatch in furnishing 
matter for a paper. His capacity in this respect is 
remarkable. He seldom hesitates in writing, and 
hardly ever interlines. His ideas flow in full, even 



66 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



sentences, and they come with the same readiness 
when engaged in debate. He is interesting, instruc- 
tive, practical, but brief and pointed in his method, 
yet he elaborates readily without ceasing to interest. 
His ideas are held in solution, and are consequently 
available without a long solving process. His pen 
is always ready. His mind is clear, comprehensive, 
analytical, his observations keen, and his memory 
retentive. Confident that he had found in Madison 
and the thriving country tributary to it, a field where 
the labors of his life would be rewarded, he deter- 
mined to settle permanently. He assumed control 
of the "Madison Express," which was issued tri- 
weekly during the session of the constitutional con- 
vention. The State was admitted into the Union 
in May, 1848. 

At this time, three of the twelve or fifteen papers 
of the State were published in Madison. Two of 
the three were democratic, conducted by men of 
ability, aided by capital and patronage. Hard work, 
judicious judgment, frugality and the unfaltering 
courage of young Atwood, sustained the " Express " 
in the face of these difficulties. Of sixteen political 
papers published in Madison, some have changed 
hands twelve times, and fourteen have ceased to 
exist. 

In September, 1852, General Atwood commenced 
the publication of the "Daily State Journal," and 
still continues it. About a year after the " Journal " 
was established, he associated with him the Hon. 
Horace Rublee, now minister-resident of the United 
States to Switzerland — a man of decided intellect- 
ual power and fine culture. The "Journal" took 
a leading position, became firmly established, and is 
increasing in usefulness. It is republican in politics, 
enterprising, and devoted to the best interests of the 
State. Its power has always been wielded for the 
public good. It is the life-work and monument of 
General Atwood. He was one of the leading spirits 
in the organization of the republican party in 1854, 
and was appointed in 1855 clerk of the first repub- 
lican assembly ever elected. 

In 1858 he was commissioned major-general of 
the fifth division of State militia. In i860 he was 
chosen a member of the legislature. He was ap- 
pointed United States assessor upon the creation of 
that office. He was mayor of Madison in 1868. 

In January, 1870, Hon. B. F. Hopkins, member 
of congress from the capital district, died, and Mr. 
Atwood was at once elected to fill the vacancy thus 
created without any opposing candidate. He took 



his seat on the 23d of February, 1870; and was 
placed on the committee on Pacific railroads, one of 
the most laborious committees in the house. Dur- 
ing that long session, he devoted himself assiduously 
to his duties on the floor, in the committee-room, 
and in the various departments of government, in 
behalf of those seeking assistance or information. 
Several important bills for the interest of the North- 
west were passed during that session, among which 
may be named, an act to render the land grant avail- 
able to the Northern Pacific Railway Company; an 
act providing for the assumption by the general gov- 
ernment of the improvement of the Fox and Wis- 
consin rivers, so as to complete a navigable water 
communication between Lake Michigan and the 
Mississippi river, and an act dividing Wisconsin into 
two judicial districts, providing for the appointment 
of a judge, and for holding terms of court in four 
places instead of two. He obtained appropriations 
for completing and furnishing the United States 
court house and post-office at Madison. Mr. Atwood 
labored diligently for the passage of those bills. He 
declined reelection. 

During his term in congress, an act was passed 
authorizing the appointment of a commission for 
making preparations for commemorating the cen- 
tennial anniversary of American independence, by 
holding an international exhibition in Philadelphia, 
in 1876, and he took an active part in urging the 
passage of this bill, and in favor of locating the ex- 
hibition at Philadelphia. He was appointed a com- 
missioner to represent Wisconsin in that commission, 
and in organizing on the 4th of March, 1873, he was 
made the first president of that body, and spoke the 
first official word in it. Since that time he has de- 
voted much time in promoting the interests of the 
centennial movement. 

He has been thirteen years treasurer of the State 
Agricultural Society, twenty-four years a director, 
and for five years last past the president of the 
Madison Mutual Insurance Company; ten years a 
trustee of the State Hospital for the Insane. 

In person, he is of medium size, has dark blue 
eyes, and hair nearly white. His features are 
regular, attractive and expressive. His private 
character is above reproach. He is even-tem- 
pered, hopeful and frank; hospitable, and temper- 
ate in all things. He has decided abilities, both as a 
speaker and writer, versatile, far-seeing and 
cautious. He has been a safe guide to the repub- 
lican party. He has been sometimes styled "the 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



67 



Ben. Franklin of the Western press," and to those 
who know him best he .possesses the same character- 
istics. 

The maiden name of Mrs. Atwood was Mary 
Sweeney. Her early years were passed in Canton, 
Ohio. In 1848, with her father, she removed to 
Wisconsin, and in 1849 was married to Mr. Atwood. 
This union was so much in harmony with nature, 
that her choicest blessings only could flow from it. 
He is the hero, to protect her from danger; she, the 
heroine, to encourage him in his struggles. He is 
the sturdy oak, to breast the storms of life; she, the 



loving vine, to twine around its branches. The 
harmony of nature is preserved in the offspring of 
their union. There are two sons to sustain the 
father in the down-hill of life; two daughters to 
love and cherish the mother. One son is representing 
the honor of his country abroad, the other is labor- 
ing in his father's vocation. One daughter has 
ripened into womanhood, and is the ornament of 
the household; the other has yet her sweetest 
charms unfolded. These parents may, like the 
mother of the Gracchi when called upon for her 
jewels, point to their children. 



A. J. WARD. M.D., 

MADISON. 



DR. A. I. WARD was born March i, 1824, at 
New Milford, Susquehanna coimty, Pennsyl- 
vania, the son of William and Sally Ward. He re- 
ceived in early life an academic education, after 
which he commenced the study of medicine with 
Dr. Case, of Howard Flatts, Steuben county, New 
York, remaining with him one year; he then went 
to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and entered the uni- 
versity, in which he remained four years, where he 
graduated in the spring of 1846, at the age of twenty- 
one years. He commenced the practice of his pro- 
fession at Painted Post, in the State of New York. 
At the commencement of the war with Mexico he 
joined the army as a private soldier, and went to 
California, around Cape Horn. Shortly after his 
arrival there, he was promoted to the office of as- 
sistant surgeon, remaining such until the close of the 
war. He remained there one year after the war, 
when he returned to Pennsylvania. During the 
winter of 1849-50 he was in Washington city and in 
North Carolina. In the succeeding summer he came 
to Madison, Wisconsin, and commenced the practice 
of medicine. He remained at Madison until 1859, 
when he left for Saint Louis, Missouri, where he 
opened an office, continuing there one year, when 
he went to Pike's Peak, prospecting for gold. He 
spent the winter of 1860-61 at Santa Fe, New 
Mexico. 

Hearing of the attack on Fort Sumter in the 
April following, he returned to Madison, Wisconsin, 
whence he was summoned to Washington to take 
charge of the 2d Wisconsin Regiment as surgeon. 
This regiment composed a part of what was termed 



the Iron Brigade, under the command of Colonel 
Lucius Fairchild, of Wisconsin. This brigade com- 
posed a part of the first army corps. Dr. Ward was 
connected with this corps during the three following 
years, occasionally acting as brigade surgeon, and as 
surgeon-in-chief of the division; he also was in 
charge of the wounded of the first army corps after 
the battles of Fredericksburg and Gettysburg. 
After the latter battle twenty-two hundred wounded 
soldiers were placed under his charge. He after- 
ward accompanied Wadsworth's division on its march 
to Richmond. During the first day's fight in the 
Wilderness, nine hundred wounded soldiers were 
dressed and sent to the rear from this division alone. 
From this time on there was continuous fighting 
until Richmond was reached. 

The term for which the 2d Wisconsin Regiment 
enlisted having expired, it was mustered out of the 
service and Dr. Ward was mustered into the 43d 
Wisconsin Regiment. 

The 43d Regiment of Wisconsin was ordered to 
Nashville, Tennessee, when Dr. Ward, by a general 
order from General Thomas, was made inspector of 
hospitals in and about Nashville, in which capacity 
he acted until the spring of 1865. After the fall of 
Richmond and General Lee's surrender. Dr. Ward 
resigned and returned to Madison, Wisconsin, re- 
suming the practice of medicine. Shortly afterward 
he was breveted lieutenant-colonel on account of 
meritorious service during the war. 

Dr. Ward was married in 1846, at Howard, Steu- 
ben county. New York, to Miss Ellen McConnell. 
Two children have been the result of this union, one 



68 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



of whom alone is living, the wife of Charles Atwood, 
the present vice-consul at Liverpool. She was two 
years at the Georgetown Convent, in the District of 
Columbia, and completed her education at Madison, 
Wisconsin, under the joint instruction of the uni- 
versity and her mother, who is so admirably quali- 
fied by nature and by intellectual culture to impress 
the mind of her daughter with the wise maxims of 



life, the loveliness of virtue, and the charms of culti- 
vated society. 

Dr. Ward's advantages in acquiring a knowledge 
of the principles of his profession, together with 
his experience in the army, have acquired for him 
high distinction as a physician and an enviable repu- 
tation as a surgeon, the benefits of which he is now 
enjoying in an increasing and profitable practice. 



PROFESSOR JACKSON J. BUSHNELL, 

BELOIT. 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of Old 
Saybrook, Connecticut, was born on the 19th 
of February, 1815, and received his name in honor 
of General Jackson, whose victory at New Orleans, 
a month previous, secured to the country the great 
valley to which the manhood of this man was de- 
voted. His early life was passed in his native place, 
where he received his preparatory education and 
developed that devotedness to principle and that 
desire to benefit his fellow-men which so signally 
marked his subsequent career. He early became 
the subject of religious impressions, whose influence 
never lost their hold upon him, but did not unite 
with the church until he reached his nineteenth 
year, at which time he was a clerk in the village of 
Deep River. His mind having turned toward the 
ministr)', he entered Yale College to prepare for his 
life-work, and although he had had but one years' 
preparation he maintained a high standard of schol- 
arship during his entire course, and besides, paid 
his expenses by his own earnings, a fact which must 
be mentioned to his honor, but it is only just to him 
to say that he would never advise a young man to 
imitate his course. If it made him economical it 
never made him close; and if he was independent 
in his self-reliance, no man was ever more helpful to 
others; and although business occupied both his 
hands and half his mind it never possessed a corner 
of his soul. After graduating from college, in 1841, 
he spent a few months in the Theological Seminary 
at Andover, Massachusetts, and later was for several 
years connected with the Western Reserve College 
as instructor and financial agent. In April, 1848, he 
removed to Beloit, Wisconsin, and from that time to 
the day of his death was identified with the interests 
of Beloit College in his sympathies, and for nearly 
all the time by official position as professor of math- 



ematics or treasurer of the college. A most thorough 
business manager, he never allowed secular interests 
to interfere with his Christian life; overwhelmed 
with business, he was thoroughly unselfish ; most 
active among those who were eager for money, he 
did not seem to care for money; with plans the 
largest and most sanguine, he never seemed in haste 
to be rich. Active, energetic and enterprising, he 
was pure in all his motives, and in all that he did 
sought to serve some noble purpose. He was pre- 
eminently a Christian business man. In the build- 
ing up of Beloit College no one was more active 
than he. Entering heartily into the enterprise of 
establishing a Christian institution as a center of 
blessing for all men, for all time, he said at the 
beginning of his work, " We can have a college here 
if we will make one ; " a principle which seemed to 
inspire him in all his efforts. In laboring for the 
endowment of the college, he always sought to lead 
the way to which he called others, thinking it easier 
to earn an endowment than to beg one. In working 
for the college, however, he did not separate it from 
the interests of the community; whatever would 
build up the city, whether a bank, a. railroad, a water- 
power, a Sabbath-school, or a church, would strength- 
en the college; and thus sympathizing with and 
aiding in all ways to build up a Christian community. 
The city is full of monuments of his energy. For 
the endowment of the college no resources which 
his greatest worldly success could have brought 
would be more than may be brought in as the result 
of such an example of high aims in business life. 
His devotion itself was a continual endowment of \ 
vigor and soul, and even his presence a constant 
I inspiration to his fellow teachers and pupils. As a 
! teacher he was earnest, clear, faithful and kind ; as 
a friend, true. What he was in one relation that was | 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAP///CAL DICTIONART. 



69 



he in all ; and manifold as his life was it was the 
most simple in its character. Hopeful in adversity, 
genial, helpful, earnest, full of activity of body, mind 
and soul, he faithfully illustrated in his life the truth 
that man is possessed of a divine nature which is 
but a spark of divinity itself. It was always morning 
with him, and the darkest clouds were tinged with a 
golden hue. "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God 
with all thy soul, mind, might and strength, and thy 
neighbor as thyself," was the great rule of his life, 
and most faithfully did he carry it out in his works. 
He was an incessant worker, and although his vivid 
spirit kept its glow, his manifold labors wore upon 
his frame, and on Saturday night, the ist of March, 
1873, he went weary to rest. During the night he 
was attacked with the typhoid pneumonia, and for 
nearly seven days lay under its power. At four 
o'clock on Saturday, March 8, he ceased to breathe, 
and his features, freed from the perpetual urgency 
of his spirit, assumed in their repose a nobleness 
which was a new revelation of the grandeur of char- 
acter which had been forming under that restless 
activity. His last audible words were, " How beau- 
tiful," and when asked, "Is it Christ.'" Ive replied, 



"Ves." His favorite idea of heaven was, "work 
without weariness." He has gone! and though 
dead, he still lives, and the influence of his noble 
life and example shall continue to grow as the years 
roll away. 

At a meeting of the alumni and friends of Beloit 
College at the Matteson House, Chicago, the follow- 
ing resolutions were adopted : 

Resolved, That in the death of Professor Jackson J. 
Bushnell, we feel that Beloit College has lost an able, faith- 
ful and successful instructor, to whose self-sacrificing efforts 
it largely owes its birth amid doubts, and its growth amid 
many di'scouragements; that it was his remarkable financial 
ability which rescued the college from pecuniary embar- 
rassments, and that not only as a man of business, but as a 
wise counselor and a cheerful, warm-hearted Christian, he 
commanded the respect and love of all who came in contact 
with him. 

Resolved, That while the intelligence Qf his death has 
saddened our hearts, it has also brought to our minds a 
bright example of perseverance under difficulties, faith 
amid trials, and devotion and self-sacrifice in the cause of 
education and religion, which should lead us to emulate him 
and to take a greater personal interest in the college to 
which he gave his best labors and his greatest sacrifices and 
his life. 

Resolved, That we deeply sympathize with the afflicted 
family in the severe bereavement which they have experi- 
enced", and with the faculty of the college in the removal of 
an honored colleague who had been associated with them 
from the founding of the institution. 



ROCxER H. MILLS, 



ROGER H. MILLS, a native of New Hartford, 
in Litchfield county, Connecticut, was born 
the i8th of April, 1813, and is the son of Roger 
Mills and Harriet nee Merrill. His father, a lawyer, 
was a prominent man in his State. His original 
paternal ancestor in this country was Simon Mills, 
who immigrated from Windsor, England, with Cap- 
tain Newbury, previous to the year 1635, as it is 
understood. 

His grandfathers were Joseph Mills and Phinias 
Merrill, the latter a captain in the revolutionary 
army. Until his removal to Beloit, his residence 
was in the town of his birth, with' the exception of 
one year immediately preceding his coming to this 
State ; was adinitted to the bar from Yale College 
Law School, in 1831, and immediately commenced 
practice in his native town, entering into business 
with his father, who, not long after, retired from his 
professional life, leaving the son to continue the 
office and business, which he did successfully until 
the fall of 1853, when he removed to New Britain, 



Connecticut, where he remained until the ist of 
October, 1854, the time of his removal to Wisconsin. 
In the spring of 1855 he commenced the practice of 
his profession in Beloit, in which he has since con- 
tinued. 

While a resident of Connecticut he was honored 
by being elected to represent his native town in the 
general assembly, first in 1839, and one term subse- 
quently, and in 1848 was elected a member of the 
senate from his district, and the next year was 
elected secretary of state. Mr. Mills was, in the 
succeeding year, a candidate for lieutenant-gov- 
ernor, put in nomination by the whig party, and 
defeated by one vote. He held several other offices 
in the State ; was judge of probate in his district some 
twelve years; two years chairman of the board of 
directors of the Connecticut State Prison, and held 
other appointments, all which shows the estimation 
in which he was held by his neighbors and the people 
of the State. 

It was not so much the way, in that day and lati- 



70 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



tude, to seek appointments to office, as now; and 
it is said that Mr. Mills had no knowledge or inti- 
mation of his being placed in the candidacy for 
senatorial honors, or as secretary of state, until 
after he had been nominated in the conventions 
that presented his name for the honors which were 
tendered to him. 

In his political views he has always been decided 
and pronounced — first a whig, then a republican — 
always according to his neighbors and friends the 
right to adopt and enforce their political sentiments. 



In religious sentiments, Mr. Mills is identified with 
the Congregational denomination and church. 

July 17, 1859, he married Harriet A. North, of 
New Britain, Connecticut, and they now have, of 
living children, Roger Henry Mills, junior, who 
graduated at Beloit College in 1874; John Ham- 
mond Mills, who graduated at the same college in 
1875, and one daughter, Clara Burnham Mills. 

The sons are law students, R. H. Mills, junior, in 
his father's office, and John H. Mills in Columbian 
Law School, at Washington, District of Columbia. 



NICHOLAS M. HARRINGTON, 



DEL A I 'AN. 



THE personal history of the gentleman whose 
name and portrait are herewith presented, is 
worthy of record and a fixed place in the annals of 
the earlier days of Wisconsin's emergence from her 
once barbaric state, when the stalwart Winnebagos 
occupied — or later, when the wily chieftain. Black- 
hawk, invaded — her territory to wrest it from the in- 
truding white man. 

Mr. Harrington may be ranked with the class 
called " self-made men," but his career through life 
thus far illustrates more than the common meaning 
of that appellation, in its ordinary application ; for, 
from his boyhood he has stood aloof and far above 
what usually are regarded irresistible influencing 
surroundings. And it is this strongly marked feature 
of his character, without apparent studied effort or 
ostentation, as best known to his boyhood acquaint- 
ances, that renders the history and progress of his 
life of peculiar value to those of coming generations 
who would be directed by example, and what has 
been and what may be achieved, as a rule and guide 
for life efforts and duties, rather than by the laggard 
plea and defense of " destiny " and "fixed fate." 

Mr. Harrington, therefore, stands before his gen- 
eration and is an example to those who follow — as 
from first effort establishing himself on a pedestal of i 
elevated moral principle, and always cultivating 
order and system in his habits, thus acquiring as a 
result perfect mastery over inclinations, passion and 
the directing attributes of organization, physical and 
mental, until he has been able to subordinate all to 
a rational control of judgment and really a pleasura- 
ble direction in the line of duties, that has marked 
his manhood and career. It is in this light that his 



history is of special value to the coming man, as 
strikingly illustrative of what one may do for and of 
himself when once imbued with a love of being 
right and an ambition to climb the hill of life among 
those to be known and valued for their virtues and 
successes, always assuming as a rule for himself 
that the " individual is wholly responsible for the 
use niade of the talents with which he is endowed," 
and that the seed of usefulness is in his own hands. 

Mr. Harrington was born in Rhode Island, at 
West Greenwich, July 15, 1815, and was the son of 
David Harrington, and Amy Andrews, the widow of 
William Corey, a sea-captain. His paternal ances- 
tors on both sides were fugitives from religious per- 
secutions under Cromwell, in the seventeenth century, 
and settled in Smithfield, Rhode Island. They and 
their descendants participated in the French and 
Indian wars and the Revolution. Two brothers 
and a near relative on his father's side were engaged 
in the opening fight for independence at Lexington, 
and two of them were killed, namely, Jonathan and 
Caleb Harrington. (See " Lossing's Field Book 
of the Revolution," vol. I, p. 554.) The whole race 
of emigrants and descendants seem marked with 
courage, good strong common sense, sound judg- 
ment and vigorous intellect. 

In 1817 Mr. Harrington became a resident of the 
town of Potter, Yates county, New York, by the 
emigration of his parents in connection with his 
maternal grandparents and family, Mr. Samuel 
Andrews. Here he spent his youth and early' 
manhood, cultivating his mind by every means 
within his limited reach, and achieving a marked 
character for earnest yet consistent love of duty. 




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THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



71 



and a faithful discharge of it, both to himself and 
others; hence he became a man without vicious 
or demoralizing habits and with principles fixed in 
heart and habit. His early educational advantages 
were very limited, his attendance at school not being 
more than one year previous to his nineteenth birth- 
day. At this time he began teaching at eleven dol- 
lars per month, an occupation which he continued 
during seven winters and two summers. During 
this time he attended the Yates County Academy, 
and the Franklin Academy of Prattsburgh, New 
York, and by close application to his studies in and 
out of school, acquired a good English education 
and some knowledge of Greek and Latin. He has 
through his life been devotedly attached to books of 
the best authors, and with his first-earned fifty cents 
invested in a three months subscription to a news- 
paper. 

In 1843 hs became an inhabitant of the Territory 
of Wisconsin, making Delavan, then an infantile 
hamlet, his first stopping place, and soon fixed upon 
it as his permanent home, and entered into business 
under the firm name of Harrington and Monell, as 
merchant, his partner being J. D. Monell, of Hud- 
son, New York. Subsequently he assumed the en- 
tire control of the business, and pursued it to a 
successful issue in the year 1850, when he retired 
therefrom, and devoted his time and attention to 
travel, and afterward to banking, insurance and 
various agencies, and speculative purchase and sale 
of real estate, in which he has been eminently suc- 
cessful, and exceptionally free from delinquency 
and defalcation, never having failed for a single day 
to meet his business engagements during the whole 
period of his career, and rendering universal satis- 
faction to those who committed their trusts into 
his hands. Yet thus careful and exact in his deal- 
ings, no fair man will charge him with meanness or 
oppression, while his neighbors award him universal 
respect. 

With regard to ambitious aspirations for public 
positions, he disclaims any lack of appreciation of 
the honors, but says that the people can find just as 
good servants for less pay than he can afford to ab- 
stract his services and skill from his own affairs, and 
therefore has occupied comparatively but few public 
positions, except when constrained to do so from a 
conscious obligation, and in those only where the 
emolument was nothing or nominal, and that, too, 
without regard to the responsibility or labor in- 
volved. Hence he gave his services to the Deaf 



and Dumb Institute, located at Delavan, for fourteen 
years, as trustee, treasurer and corresponding secre- 
tary, and his best fostering care, without salary, and 
until this asylum of mercy had gained a hold upon 
the charities of the State that now carries it along 
triumphantly. 

He also accepted the office of post-master under 
the administration of Franklin Pierce, unsolicited, 
for the purpose of obtaining additional mail facili- 
ties for Delavan, at this time, 1853, when there were 
but three mails each week from the east and three 
from the west, making a tri-weekly mail. So effect- 
ual were his efforts and influence with the post-office 
department, that in one and one-half years after his 
acceptance of the post-office, Delavan could boast 
of forty-five mails each week. When these addi- 
tional weekly, semi-weekly and daily mails were se- 
cured, he resigned the office of postmaster. In this 
connection it seems quite proper to say that Mr. 
Harrington is an admitted attorney-at-law in the 
courts of the State, which with his other business 
qualifications eminently fits him for the intelligent 
discharge of all duties assumed. 

In politics he is usually associated with the dem- 
ocracy, but in the late war period he lent his influ- 
ence earnestly to the preservation of the Union. 
He holds decided religious opinion;!^ and is a zeal- 
ous member of the Protestant Episcopal church, 
and also a Freemason of a high order, to which in- 
stitution he is strongly and conscientiously attached. 

Socially, he has few superiors; ever ready to draw 
from all rational sources knowledge and pleasure, 
he greatly contributes in return from his exhaustless 
fund of carefully collected facts and points of his- 
tory, an interest to the pleasure and profit of those 
about him. In his domestic relations his treasure 
of a wife, with him, presides over the household in 
genial unison, and their home is the seat of domestic 
peace, plenty and happiness, without excess or stint. 
For some years they have mutually devoted their 
first care and attention to the rearing and education 
of their four children — three sons and one daugh- 
ter, and for the purpose of training his sons to 
practical business duties, Mr. Harrington has to some 
extent resumed merchandising; and now since he 
has passed his sixth decad-? is engaged in establish- 
ing himself and family permanently at a rural 
home, one and a half miles distant from the village, 
which shall embrace the practical facilities of farm 
life with that of cultivated moral taste and freedom 
from fancied town-life restraints, To this end he is 



72 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARV. 



occupied in the erection of a country residence and 
outbuildings that shall vie with any in the State for 
taste, convenience and practical uses, and with other 
improvements of lawn and soil to correspond and 
render it a success, both agriculturally and artisti- 
cally. This he says is to be the climax of his am- 
bition, and to this end he is sparing neither skill nor 
money, and when consummated it will favorably 
compare with any place in the State for its combina- 
tion of taste, convenience and utility. 

Another feature of Mr. Harrington's character is 
an ardent love of his kindred and friends, never for- 
getting and never failing to extend an up-lifting aid 
to their necessities and deficiencies, that seems al- 
most by intuition to elevate and advance them above 
the plane of their ordinary personal dependence, 
and place them where hope and prosperity bear 
them onward. 

It is with a most commendable pride that he 
points to scores of individuals whose lives and 
fortunes verify this fact, and that, too, without an 
instance where the ends do not more than justify 
the means, and affirm the value and blessing of an 
elevating hand and spirit. His sympathies have 
always been deeply engaged in the welfare of the 
weak and those in distress, and for the aid of all 
such his labors have never been withheld. 

It is no purpose of the writer to eulogize or flatter 
the subject of this life sketch beyond the statement 
of simple^ facts, and from them find evidences that 
confirm and bear out the philosophy of his life rule, 
" System in all things that we do, a hearty purpose 
to attain a higher and better and more perfect plane 
of human usefulness than from whence we start, and 
by patient industry and perseverance secure suc- 



cess." Such has been his course, his aim, and faith, 
and the results are before the world. Yet, with all 
this, I would not claim that he is not without eccen- 
tricities, peculiarities, and even faults, for who that 
is human is 1 

But, in conclusion, I will say, that his is a life and 
he a sample of what consistent effort, directed by 
correct principles, may aim at and hope for. 

Mr. Harrington has been thrice married ; his first 
two wives died in early wedded life, without chil- 
dren; therefore, it is with his present companion, 
the mother of his children, that his paternal ties 
have been formed, and by mutual bearing and for- 
bearing, a most genial unity has been maintained 
and cemented, and which, doubtless, largely con- 
tributed to secure results so favorably distinguishing 
their lives and condition. 

Mrs. Harrington's maiden name was Catharine M. 
Crosby, daughter of Eber Crosby, a descendant of 
Enoch Crosby, alias " Harvey Burch," Cooper's spy 
of the revolution. She was born at Patterson, 
Putnam county, New York, on the 27th of October, 
1825, and is a lady of superior culture and sterling 
qualities, and a most fitting balance and aid to 
her husband. 

The writer must say, before concluding, that he 
knows, and closely observed the subject of this 
biographical sketch from boyhood to his depart- 
ure for Wisconsin, and has been in regular corre- 
spondence from that time, and has visited him at his 
home at Delavan, where the main facts of his life 
have been enacted, therefore confidently commits 
it to the annals of history of his adopted State as a 
proud and worthy record, and thus most respect- 
fully submits it. 



ERASTUS B. WOLCOTT, M.D., 



MILWAUKEE. 



ERASTUS B. WOLCOTT, M.D., was born at 
Benton, Yates county. New York, the i8th of 
October, in the year 1804, son of Elisha Wolcott and 
Anna Hull Wolcott, who came from Litchfield 
county, Connecticut, and were among the first set- 
tlers in that region of country. 

In 1822 Dr. Wolcott commenced the study of 
medicine and surgery with Dr. Joshua Lee, an emi- 
nent physician and surgeon of central New York, 
and received a diploma from Yates County JMedical 



Society in 1825. He attended the College of Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons of the Western District of New- 
York from 1830 to 1833, and took his degree in 
medicine and surgery at that institution. In the 
spring of 1835, he was examined by a board of army 
surgeons, and received the appointment of surgeon 
in the United States army, January ist, 1836. He 
resigned in 1S39, and came to Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 
In 1836 he married Elizabeth J. Dousman, who 
died in 1S60, leaving a daughter and a son. Dr. 




(a /3- ^'^7-^c. 



THE UNITED STATES H/OCRAPIilCAL DICTIONARV. 



73 



Wolcott gave his children a Hberal education, the 
former having graduated at the Milwaukee Female 
College, and the latter at Yale College. 

He was connected with some of the earliest enter- 
prises of the State. He built the first mills at West 
Bend, Washington county, Wisconsin, and, with 
others, the first mill at Humboldt, near Milwaukee. 
He was one of the prime movers in building the first 
railroad in the State, from Milwaukee to the Missis- 
sippi river, and among the first in the Northwestern 
Life Insurance Company, and continues to be a 
trustee to the present time. He was appointed 
trustee of the Wisconsin Hospital for the Insane, the 
first year, and reappointed through Governor Ran- 
dall's and Governor Lewis's administrations. He 
was appointed one of the board of regents of the 
State University, by Goverlior Dewey, in 1850. He 
was appointed surgeon of the State militia, as early 
as 1842, by Governor Doty. He was commissioned 
colonel of a regiment of militia in 1846, and in the 
same year major-general of the first division of Wis- 
consin militia. He held, through the war of the late 
rebellion, the position of surgeon-general of Wiscon- 
sin, with the rank of brigadier-general, and still 
retains it. He was, in 1866, appointed by Governor 
Fairchild commissioner to represent the State of 
Wisconsin at the Universal Exposition at Paris, in 
1867. He was appointed in the same year (1866), 
by congress, manager of the National Home for 
Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, at Milwaukee, which 
position he retains to the present time, having been 
reappointed in 1875. 

He was married, October 12, 1869, to Laura J. 
Ross, M.D. Her ancestry, during colonial times, 
were distinguished for patriotism in revolutionary 
history. Both on the father's and mother's side were 
leading minds in the support of the national cause 
of independence. She was carefully disciplined and 
thoroughly educated in the best schools and by the 
ablest teachers in New England. One of the pio- 
neer women in the study of the natural sciences, and 
one among the first women who graduated in medi- 
cine and received hospital instruction in this country, 
she spent some time in Europe, to pursue the study 
of her profession, and has followed it in Milwaukee, 
with marked success, for eighteen years. 

She is the counterpart of her husband, differing 
only to complete the mystic union by which man 
and wife are one. She has ventured beyond the 
threshold prescribed to her sex by the lords of crea- 
tion. She has entered the temple of science, and 



won honors those lords might envy. Skilled in her 
profession, she has relieved many a pang of human 
suffering. Intelligent, cultivated and sympathetic, 
she is particularly so in the sick-room. Her sympa- 
thies give hope to the afflicted, and her smile dispels 
the gloom of despondence. In this sphere, as well 
as in every other in which the activities of her mind 
are engaged, or the sympathies of her heart enlisted, 
she is, in the language of Dante, "a womanly 
woman." 

Dr. Wolcott is a lineal descendant of Henry Wol- 
cott, Esq., a landed gentleman of England, who came 
to America in 1630. He was the son and heir of 
John Wolcott, of Golden Manor. The manor house 
is still standing in England, is of great antiquity, is 
richly ornamented with carved work, and upon the 
walls may be seen the motto of the family coat of 
arms : " Ntilliits addicttts juiare in verba tnagistri " 
(inclined to swear in the words of no master). This 
sentiment was in harmony with the spirit of the 
English gentlemen of the middle ages, and that of 
the Puritan of a later date, who spurned the dicta- 
tion of ecclesiastical wisdom. This peculiarity of 
the family has lost none of its force in the character 
of Dr. E. B. Wolcott, who derives his knowledge of 
the Author of all things from the study of His works. 

Henry Wolcott, of the old English gentry, was the 
first magistrate in the Connecticut Colony, and his 
descendants in a direct line, for over one hundred 
and eighty years, were counselors of war, officers of 
the army during the revolution, one a signer of the 
" Declaration of Independence," representatives and 
senators in congress, chief judges of the supreme 
court, and six governors of Connecticut, three bear- 
ing the name of Wolcott — Roger, Oliver, and Oliver 
junior. 

Roger Wolcott, first governor of Connecticut, was 
judge of the county court, deputy governor, chief 
justice of the superior court, and governor of the 
State. He lived to see his son Oliver governor 
during fourteen years, and his grandson Oliver four 
years ; and of his descendants bearing the name of 
Wolcott, twelve were graduates of Yale College, two 
of Harvard University, and two at other New Eng 
land colleges, previous to the year 1834. 

The maternal branch of the Hull family were 
revolutionary patriots, and pioneers of Yates county ; 
were zealously interested in educational matters, and 
had marked and estimable characteristics, the women 
of the family being noted for their intellectual pow- 
ers and womanly graces. 



74 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



Science teaches us the laws of order, of fitness, 
and of progress in the physical world. Mind teaches 
us that we have intellectual powers susceptible of 
indefinite improvement, and consciousness reveals 
to us our immortality. Observation teaches us there 
is harmony in all things. Upon this basis philosophy 
has erected the superstructure of man's perfectibility. 
Transcendentalists have dreamed of it ; philosophers 
have formed theories in regard to it ; religionists 
have taught it. Who shall say, then, that when the 
laws of hereditary descent shall be better known, 
and better obeyed, the greater share, at least, of 
hurnan imperfections shall not be eliminated, and 
humanity elevated to a degree of excellence attained 
now only in individual instances, and that individual 
instances may not transcend all our present concep- 
tions ? ■ 

We have been led into these reflections by the 
contemplation of those qualities which characterize 



the ancestors of Dr. E. B. Wolcott, which, whether 
by hereditary descent, by example, or by instruction, 
seem to have culminated in him. His form is sym- 
metrical, his movements graceful, his youthful ener- 
gies unimpaired. His mind is vigorous and active, 
embracing a wide field of observation. Always emi- 
nent in his profession, he keeps a steady step in the 
march of medical science. Skilled as a surgeon, the 
knife does not tremble in his hand. Unerring in 
his diagnosis, he waits with the patience of a nurse. 
His sensibilities are alive to every object of human 
suffering. As son, husband, father, and friend, he- 
discharges his duties with scrupulous fidelity. We 
have been told that Cervantes "smiled the chivalry of 
Spain away." If so, she, like Liberty, took her flight 
to the New World, and found worshipers in its for- 
ests. If truth, justice, honor, and mercy are her 
characteristics, they are happily personated in the 
subject of our sketch. 



EDWARD BEESON, 



FOND DU LAC. 



THE truth of the old maxim, " Heaven helps 
those who help themselves," is peculiarly 
shown in the career of Edward Beeson, of Fond 
du Lac county, whose great energy, self-reliance 
and industry, coupled with true innate principles of 
right, entitle him now to the proud satisfaction of 
looking back at a well-spent life and a character 
uprightly sustained. . 

His parents, John and Sarah S. Beeson, lived in 
Columbiana county, Ohio, where his father carried 
on business as a miller. Edward was born on the 
7th of July, 1815, and educated at New Lisbon in 
the same State. On leaving school he went to 
Beaver county, Pennsylvania, to learn the trade of 
printing, and at nineteen years of age he and his 
brother commenced the publication of the " Demo- 
cratic Watchman," which they carried on for about 
eighteen months. 

It will be observed by this sketch of his life that, 
from the time he left school until he finally settled 
at Fond du Lac in 1842, his mercurial temperament 
was always leading him to strike out for "pastures 
new." 

In the fail of 1835 he was for a short time on the 
Detroit " Free Press," but in the following year he 
came to Green Bay, Wisconsin, where he worked as 



a carpenter, and in the latter part of the same year 
he engaged on the Chicago " Democrat," which was 
published at that time by John Calhoun, and shortly 
afterward edited by John Wentworth. In the spring 
of 1837 he returned to Green Bay, where he and his 
two brothers built a saw-mill on the Little Swamico 
river. In the fall he sold out and went to St. Louis, 
Louisville (Kentucky), and Cincinnati, at which 
latter places he worked on the Louisville "Journal " 
and the Cincinnati " Gazette " during the winter. 
In 1838 he engaged on the Finlay "Courier," in 
Hancock county, Ohio, where he, in partnership 
with a friend, successfully conducted the paper 
until the spring of 184 1. He then came to Keno- 
sha, Wisconsin, and remained there one year in the 
printing business. In 1842 he came to Fond du 
Lac county, where he turned his attention to farm- 
ing for about four years. In the winter of 1846 he 
worked as a compositor in the office of the Fond du 
Lac "Whig," and in the spring bought the Fond du 
Lac "Journal," which he carried on for several 
years, until 1854. Since then he has been con- 
nected with the Fond du Lac " Union," the " Demo- 
cratic Press," etc., and in the spring of 1867, 
revived the publication of the "Journal." 

He was married on the 8th of September, 1849, 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



75 



to Miss Susan E. Bell, by whom he had seven 
children, two sons and five daughters, of whom two 
died in infancy. His many good qualities have 
gained for him a large circle of friends, and it is 
shown by the fact of his being elected repeatedly to 
town and city offices, and twice as county treasurer, 
that the citizens look upon him in the light of a 
trustworthy, honorable gentleman. Although con- 
siderably advanced in years he is still in vigorous 
health. He is president of the Star Printing Com- 



pany and of the Gravel Road Company of Fond 
du Lac. 

National progress is the sum of individual indus- 
try, energy, and uprightness, as national decay is of 
individual idleness, selfishness and vice. Edward 
Beeson will leave to his children the best of heri- 
tages, a good and honest name; happy the son who 
can say, with Pope, "I think it enough that my par- 
ents, such as they were, never cost me a blush, and 
that their son, such as he is, never cost them a tear." 



JAMES LUTHER CLARK, 

OSHKOSII. 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of Alton, 
Belknap county. New Hampshire, was born 
April 17, 1824, and is the son of Aaron Clark and 
»Marcy nee Ham. His father was a farmer, and suc- 
ceeded by honest toil in making a comfortable living 
for his family. James received his education at a 
common school in his native town, after leaving 
which he learned the carpenter and Joiner's trade. 
This he followed until 1855, when he came West 
and located at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. Here he pur- 
sued his trade for two years, subsequent to which he 
engaged in the lumber business for about three years, 
and for the two years following held the position of 
superintendent in the mills of different parties. In 
1862 he engaged in making match splints, and after 
pursuing this occupation for five years, commenced 
the manufacture of matches, his brand being known 
as the "Star Match." The value of the amount 
produced in 1867 was twenty thousand dollars, but 
the recognized superiority of the brand soon gained 
for it a general sale throughout the northern and 
western States, in consequence of which the business 



has steadily increased until in 1875 it amounted to 
three hundred and thirty thousand dollars. 

He has been a republican since the organization 
of the party, but has never allowed his better judg- 
ment to be so hampered by party prejudices as to 
support measures which he believed to be wrong. 
Desirous of no political office, he has chosen rather 
to devote to his private business that care and at- 
tention which cannot but be crowned with success. 

His religious views are broad and liberal. He 
was married July 26, 185 1, to Miss Sarah Flint, by 
whom he has had two sons. 

Mr. Clark, starting in life without means, has suc- 
ceeded by combining industry, integrity, and perse- 
verance, in building up a business which has been, 
at once, a means of great prosperity to himself, and 
of furnishing employment and support to a large 
number of hands. His quiet, unassuming manners, 
and sterling business qualities have gained him the 
firm friendship of a large circle of acquaintances, 
and have made him an object of pride and esteem 
to the city of his adoption. 



JOHN P. SLIGHT, 

WATERTOWN. 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of Laugh- 
ton, Lincolnshire, England, was born on the 
27th of August, 1820, and is the son of William 
Slight and Ann m'e Preston. His father, a farmer in 
comfortable circumstances, was a man of enterpris- 
ing spirit, and influential in his community. John 
passed his boyhood on his father's farm in his native 



place, receiving a limited education, and in 1837, 
being then seventeen years of age, immigrated to 
America, and settled at LaFayette, Indiana. During 
the first year after his arrival he was employed on the 
Wabash and Erie canal. 

After the completion of the work, at the end of 
one year, with his brother Joseph he took charge 



76 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



of a steamboat lock at Delphi, thirty miles up the 
river. Sickness, however, compelled them to leave 
at the end of two or three months, and they went 
to Louisville, thence to Cincinnati, and from there 
to Mansfield, Ohio. At the expiration of three 
months, having regained their health, they returned 
to Wabash, and engaged in pork-packing during 
the winter. In the following spring they took it to 
New Orleans, intending to ship it to England, but 
were not able to procure a suitable boat. Returning 
to Indiana in the ensuing fall, Mr. Slight remained 
there till the autumn of 1842, when he returned to 
Ohio, and in the following spring took a drove of 
horses to New York. During this same year he 
visited his home in England and remained there till 
1844, when he returned to Mansfield, Ohio. In 
1845 he removed to Watertown, Wisconsin, and en- 
gaged in agricultural pursuits, in which occupation 
he is still engaged, owning and conducting a beauti- 
ful and extensive farm of five hundred and sixty 
acres, three miles from the city. 

Mr. Slight's life, while it presents few phases in 
distinction from that of other men, is yet marked by 
a spirit of enterprise and determination, and rewarded 



with a degree of success well worthy of emulation. 
He came to the United States a poor boy, without 
friends or acquaintances, and by his own industry, 
energy and perseverance, has made his way, step by 
step, to his present standing, as a successful business 
man and an honorable citizen. Throughout his 
career he has been known for his fair dealing and 
promptness in meeting his engagements, and by close 
attention to business has accumulated an ample 
fortune, and lives now surrounded by the comforts ■ 
of a happy home, and enjoys the high regard of alK 
who know him. 

In politics, Mr. Slight has always been identified , 
with the republican party. He has never sought 
political honors, and has held no office except that 
of justice of the peace. 

In his religious views, he holds to the faith of the 
Church of England. 

He was married on the ist of March, 1852, to 
Mary Ann Russell, by whom he has three sons and 
one daughter. Possessed of noble personal qualities, 
generous, genial and social, he is a devoted husband, 
a fond father, and a true and agreeable friend and 
companion. 



EARL P. FINCH, 



OSHKOSH. 



AMONG the prominent men of Oshkosh, Wis- 
consin, none deserves a more honorable men- 
tion than he whose name heads this sketch. A 
native of Jay, Essex county. New York, he was born 
on the 27th of October, 1828, and is the son of 
Joshua C. and Eliza A. Finch. His father, a farmer 
and contractor, was an influential man in his com- 
munity, and highly esteemed by all. Earl's boy- 
hood disclosed few characteristics differing from 
those of ordinary farmer boys ; he had a fondness 
for study, and early developed a love for professional 
life. He received his preparatory education in the 
common schools of his native place, and at the age 
of fourteen years was engaged in the nail factory, 
and after one year spent there worked a short time 
in the rolling-mills. The next three years he was 
employed in the office of Messrs. J. and J. Rogers, 
iron manufacturers, and at the expiration of that time 
removed to the West, and settled at Neemah, Wis- 
consin, entering a claim for a tract of land. Wish- 
ing, however, for a more thorough education, he 



soon sold his claim, and going to Appleton spent a 
time in school, and afterward entered Beloit College. 
After closing his studies here he returned to the 
East and spent two years in college at Middlebury, 
Vermont, and then went to Union College, New 
York, and graduated. Returning to the West in 
1856, he settled at Menasha, Wisconsin, where, 
during the first year after his arrival, he was em- 
ployed in the United States land office. During 
this year he began the study of law, and removing 
to Oshkosh, in 1858, spent two years in the office of 
Judge Wheeler. After his admission to the bar, in 
i860, he opened an office in Oshkosh, and began 
that practice in which he has become well-known as 
a skillful, successful and iionorable practitioner, 
having been admitted to all the courts. At the 
present time, 1876, he is associated with Mr. Barber, 
under the firm name of Finch and Barber, and has 
a satisfactory and lucrative practice. 

Mr. Finch has taken no active part in matters 
aside from his profession, and finds here ample 



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77 



scope for his talents and highest ambitions. His 
poHtical sentiments are democratic, and though 
frequently solicited to accept public office, he has 
uniformly declined, except where they were in the 
line of his profession, preferring the peace and quiet 
of his practice to political honors and emoluments. 
He was elected city attorney in 1868, and is at 
present local attorney for the Milwaukee and St. 
Paul Railroad Company; also for the Wisconsin 
Central Railroad Company. Though not a member 



of any church organization, he is a regular attendant 
upon the Episcopal service. Personally and socially 
he has most excellent qualities, and by his genial 
disposition and courteous manners he has endeared 
himself to a large circle of warm and true friends, 
while his native endowments and professional skill 
have secured to him that reward which must invari- 
ably follow continued and honorable effort. He was 
married, January 22, 1862, to Miss Anna E. Bryan; 
they have four sons and two daughters. 



GENERAL T. S. ALLEN, 



OSHKOSH. 



TS. ALLEN, a native of Alleghany county, 
. New York, was born on the 26th of July, 
1825, and is the son of Rev. A. S. Allen and Lydia 
nt'e Kingsbury. His life has been a most eventful 
one, but we can give only an outline of its most 
prominent phases. After receiving his primary edu- 
cation, he learned the printer's trade, and later, in 
1843, entered college, at the same time working at 
his trade to defray his expenses. At the close of 
his studies, he was employed in teaching for a short 
time, and in 1846 removed to Chicago, Illinois. 
During the first year after his arrival he was engaged 
as foreman on a daily paper, and at the expiration 
of that time, by reason of impaired health, relin- 
quished his trade, and removing to Wisconsin, en- 
gaged in mining and surveying, at Dodgeville, in 
which occupations, and in teaching, he spent the 
following two years. In 1850 he was elected clerk 
of the board of supervisors for a term of two years, 
and at the expiration of his term of office, engaged 
in railroading and real-estate operations, continuing 
in the same till 1857, when he was elected to the 
.State legislature from the Mineral Point district. In 
i860 he was employed as assistant chief-clerk in the 
State land office, at Madison, and on the 13th of 
April, 1 86 1, enlisted as a private in the Governor's 
Guards, but was soon after chosen captain of the 
Miners' Guards of Mineral Point, and was duly com- 
missoned as such by Governor Randall. The com- 
pany was assigned to the 2d Regiment, and became 
known as Company I. This regiment participated 
in the battle of Bull Run, July 2, 1861, his com- 
pany losing eighteen men in the fight. After coming 
out in good order, its several captains gathered their 
men at Centerville, and secured coffee and provi- 



sions for their exhausted command. Being without 
superior officers, the regiment placed itself under 
command of Captain McKee, as senior captain, and 
Captain T. S. Allen, who brought up the rear, and 
returned to their old camp at Arlington Heights. 
Captain Allen was made major of his regiment on 
the 22d of August following, and on the 8th of 
September, 1862, was promoted to the rank of 
lieutenant-colonel. He served in this capacity till 
the 14th of January, 1863, at which time he was 
commissioned colonel of the sth Wisconsin, as suc- 
cessor to Colonel Amasa Cobb. 

As major of the 2d Regiment, he was twice 
wounded in the battle of Gainesville, but did not 
leave the field, and was again wounded at Antietam, 
while commanding the regiment in the absence of 
Colonel Fairchild. In the famous charge of the 3d 
of May, 1863, on Marys Heights, where General 
Burnside had lost five thousand men in a former en- 
gagement, giving it the name of " Slaughter Pen," 
Colonel Allen's regiment of the eighth division, sixth 
corps, took the lead. The 6th Maine and the 31st 
New York were also placed under his orders. When 
the time arrived for moving on the works he ad- 
dressed his men : " Boys, you see those heights .' 
You must take them ! You think you cannot ; but 
you can — you will do it ! When the order 'for- 
ward ! ' is given, you will start on double-quick ; 
you will not fire a gun ; you will not stop till you 
get orders to halt, and you will never get that order ! " 
And they did not get it until they stood captors 
within the enemy's works, although the 5th Wiscon- 
sin suffered a loss of one hundred and thirty-six 
men, killed and wounded, and the other regiments 
in the same proportion. Previous to the charge at 



78 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



Rappahannock Station, on November 7, 1863, Gen- 
eral David Russell, commanding the brigade, re- 
marked that he had two regiments that could take 
those works. Having received permission, he 
ordered out the 6th Maine and 5th Wisconsin. 
As they were passing over the parapet of the redoubt, 
Colonel Allen had his hand so badly shattered by a 
ball that he was rendered unfit for duty, and was 
complimented for his gallant service in the action in 
a general order by Major-General H. G. Wright, 
division commander of the sixth corps. While dis- 
abled from wounds he was detailed on General 
Casey's examining board, on which he served during 
the summer of 1864. 

In August he returned to Wisconsin, the time of 
his regiment having expired, and raised seven new 
companies to fill up the ranks, two hundred and 
fifty men organized into three companies having 
reenlisted for the war. He returned with these 
men in October, and served until December, in the 
Shenandoah Valley under General Phil. Sheridan. 
In December the command was moved to the front 
of Petersburg. In the attack on the lines on the 2d 
of April, 1865, he was given the advance in the 
charge, which proved successful at all points, and 
again distinguished himself, leading his regiment two 
miles through the enemy's advance line, to the 
South Railroad, its loss being one-tenth of the whole 
corps, comprising fifty regiments. 



He was present at the surrender of General Lee, 
which closed the war. Shortly after the close of the 
war he was elected secretary of state. 

He was a delegate at large to the republican 
national convention in 1868. In 1870 he removed 
to Oshkosh, his present home, and began the publi- 
cation of the " Northwestern," a daily and weekly 
paper, with which he is still connected, and is widely 
known as an able editor. He suffered a severe loss 
in the great fire of 1875, by the burning of his es- 
tablishment. 

In his religious sentiments, Colonel Allen is 
liberal, and though a regular attendant of the Con- 
gregational _church, is not connected with any re- 
ligious body. 

In politics, he is a republican, having helped to 
organize that party in Wisconsin. 

He was married on the nth of August, 185 1, to 
Miss Sarah Bracken, daughter of General Charles 
Bracken, and by her had one daughter. Mrs. Allen 
died in 1854, and in April, 1866, he was married to 
Miss Natilie Weber, by whom he has two sons and 
three daughters. 

Colonel Allen has traveled extensively throughout 
the United States, and gained a most valuable prac- 
tical knowledge of men and things. He began life 
without means, and by his own untiring energy and 
enterprise has risen step by step to his present high 
social position and public standing. 



PHILO ROMYNE HOY, M.D., 



PHILO R. HOY, a native of Mansfield, Ohio, 
was born on the 3d of November, 1816, and is 
the son of Captain William Hoy and Sarah Drown 
Hoy. His father, one of the pioneers of Mansfield, 
was a prominent man in his community, and the first 
to erect a house in that place. Philo's boyhood 
differed little from that of ordinary boys. Natu- 
rally of a studious disposition he acquired a fond- 
ness for books, and in early life decided to enter the 
medical profession. After completing his education 
in the common schools and private schools of his 
native place, he pursued a course of study in the 
Ohio Medical College, at Cincinnati, and graduated 
in 1840, with the degree of M.D. During the first 
six years of his practice, he resided at "New Haven, 
Ohio, and at the expiration of that time (1846) re- 



moved to Racine, Wisconsin, where he has since fol- 
lowed his profession. As a medical practitioner, he 
has made for himself a worthy reputation, and has a 
flourishing and lucrative practice. Aside from his 
professional work, Dr. Hoy has devoted much time 
and study to the subject of natural history, and in 
all scientific questions has taken a deep interest. In 
1853, in company with Professors Kirkland and 
Spencer F. Baird, he spent the season gathering in- 
formation respecting fish, and is at the present time 
(1876) one of the fish commissioners of his State. 
He is the president of the Academy of Sciences and 
Letters of Wisconsin ; a member of the Academy of 
Science of Philadelphia, also that of Buffalo, New 
York, Saint Louis, Cleveland, etc. Was an organic 
member of the Academy of Science of Chicago, and a 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTION ARr. 



79 



fellow of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science. Besides these, he belongs to many 
otlier medical and scientific associations. Has a 
large correspondence with most of the scientific 
savans within the United States, as well as with 
several distinguished men of Europe. 

He has 'now one of the largest collections of 
animals in the Northwest, all of them natives of 
Wisconsin, and gathered mostly in the immediate 
vicinity of his own city. The following is a partial 
list of his specimens: Three hundred and eighteen 
different species of birds ; of bird's eggs, one hun- 
dred and fifty species ; of mammals, thirty-five ; 
reptiles, fifty ; beetles, thirteen hundred ; moths, two 
thousand; spahingedes, thirty-eight; other insects, 
one thousand ; and besides, a large collection of 
shells and fossils from the Niagara limestone in the 
vicinity of Racine. 

In his political views. Dr. Hoy was formerly a 
whig, and is now identified with the republican 



party. During the civil war he took a deep interest 
in the northern cause. 

In religion he is not connected with any church 
organization, but makes the rule of his actions that 
expressed by our Saviour in the words: "Whatso- 
ever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even 
so unto them." Unsectarian, his sympathies are 
broad enough to gather in their embrace all men. 

He was married at Ripley, Ohio, on the 26th of 
October, 1842, to Miss Mary Elizabeth Austin, by 
whom he has two sons and one daughter. His 
oldest son, Albert H. Hoy, M.D., a young man of 
promise, is a practicing physician at Racine. He 
was appointed a medical cadet in the regular army, 
and promoted to assistant surgeon. Was in the 
service for over three years, serving in the hospitals 
in Keokuk, Iowa, Covington, Kentucky, and at 
Louisville in several general hospitals. Went to 
Europe after the close of the war, and studied in 
Heidelberg, Vienna, Berlin and Paris. 



GEORGE BREMER, 



MILWAUKEE. 



THE subject of this sketch was born on the 15th 
of April, 1813, at Gandersheim, Dukedom 
Brunswick, Germany, and is the son of Joseph 
Bremer and Caroline tiee Rosenthal. His tastes for 
mercantile life developed at an early age, and 
having received a common school education he 
entered a dry-goods establishment at the age of 
fifteen years. Here he served an apprenticeship of 
four years, and then during the term of fifteen years 
clerked in different mercantile houses, being man- 
ager of a large dry-goods emporium in Hanover for 
the last six years. In 1847 he emigrated to- the 
United States, arriving at Milwaukee on the 4th of 
July. For a short time he engaged in farming, but 
soon after opened a small country store, which he 
kept until 1849. Upon his return to Milwaukee, in 
1850, he went into partnership with Jakob Mora- 
wetz under the firm name of G. Bremer and Co., 
and opened a store at No. 216 East Water street. 
Their business so increased and their trade became 
so extensive that they found it necessary to seek 
more spacious quarters. In 1855 they erected a 
large four-story brick store on east Water street, 
near Huron, and relinquishing their retail depart- 
ment admitted Mr. M. L. Morawetz as a partner. 



Their business here assumed such dimensions that 
they were again obliged to look for better accommo- 
dations, and in 1869 they moved into one of the 
stores of their brick block, corner of Broadway and 
Huron' street, which is one of the finest and most 
commodious in the city, and here they are still 
conducting their very extensive business. The 
house of G. Bremer and Co. is the oldest grocery 
house in Milwaukee, and has always met its obliga- 
tions promptly, even during the hardest business 
calamities. Generous and public -spirited, Mr. 
Bremer has always contributed liberally to char- 
itable and benevolent purposes, as well as to all 
enterprises connected with the welfare of the city. 
He was one of the organizers of the Bank of 
Commerce in 1870, and has been a director of said 
bank to this day. His friends and acquaintances 
are not in business circles alone, but among all 
classes in the city, and greatly in the whole country. 

In April, 1863, Mr. Bremer left to visit his native 
country, where he made a very extensive tour, being 
absent from home just one year. 

He was educated in the Hebrew faith, but has 
been entirely non-sectarian ever since he came to 
this country. Liberal in all his views, his entire 



8o 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGFAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



career has been marked by energy, enterprise and 
honorable dealing. 

He has never taken an active part in politics, 
and although frequently solicited, has always de- 
clined to accept any office. 

He was one of the organizers of the first German 



lodge of F. and A. Masons in Milwaukee, in 1850, 
and has been thrice elected to its highest office. 

Mr. Bremer was married on the 23d of November, 
1849, to Miss Amalia Morawetz, and has six chil- 
dren : Josephine (Mrs. Geilfuss), Freddie, Bertha 
(Mrs. Gugler), Hugo, Agathe, Lillie. 



WILLIAM H. NORRIS, Junior, 

GREEN BAT. 



THE life history of William H. Norris, junior, 
while it has many experiences in common with 
those of others, yet has an identity peculiarly its 
own, and is marked by a will-power and an inde- 
pendent force of character »hat entitle it to most 
honorable mention in the list of prominent, self- 
made men. A native of Hallowell, Maine, he was 
born on the 24th of July, 1 832, and is the son of 
Rev. William H. Norris and Sarah M. ne'e Mahan. 
His father was a Methodist minister. 

William received his education at Yale College, 
and after completing his studies, spent one year in 
teaching. His tastes early led him to choose the 
legal profession, and in 1855 he began the study 
of law at the Dana Law School of Cambridge, 
Massachusetts. At the expiration of one year he 
removed to the West and settled in Green Bay, 
Wisconsin, and there continued his studies in the- 
office of J. H. Howe, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1857. 

After his admission he spent one year with Mr. 
Howe as clerk, and in 1859 entered into partnership 
with him, continuing the business under the firm 
name of J. H. Howe and Norris till 1862, when Mr. 
Howe withdrew. He then conducted the business 
in his own name till 1870, and in the following year 
associated with himself Mr. Thomas B. Chynoweath, 
his present partner. Their practice has been gen- 



eral, but they have given special attention to mer- 
cantile and railroad law. 

Since 1864 he has been local attorney for the 
Chicago and Northwestern Railroad, and since 1870, 
general attorney for the Green Bay and Minnesota 
Railroad. As an attorney, he stands at the head of 
the bar in his city, and has a larger practice than any 
other lawyer, having been admitted to practice in all 
the courts of the United States, except the United 
States supreme court. 

His religious views are Congregational. 

In politics, he is identified with the republican 
party. He was elected superintendent of public 
schools in 1859. 

Mr. Norris was married on the 31st of January, 
1859, to Miss Hannah B. Harriman, by whom he 
has two daughters and one son. 

He began life without money, and by persevering 
and continued effort has made for himself a wide 
reputation as an able lawyer, and accumulated a 
moderate competence. He has lived in South 
America and considerably in the United States, and 
by careful observation accumulated a large fund of 
valuable information. 

Personally and socially he has a high standing, 
and by his generous manner, pleasing address, and 
manly bearing, has endeared himself to a large circle 
of warm friends. 



JOHN D. INBUSCH, 

MTL WA UKEE. 



IN the far-away kingdom of Hanover, Germany, 
on the 25th of December, 1820, was born the 
subject of this sketch, son of Herman and Maria 
Inbusch. Under the excellent system of public in- 
struction in that country, which allows no child to 



go without schooling, he received a thorough com- 
mon-school education at Badbergen. At an early 
age young Inbusch, following the example of his 
elder brothers, left his quiet German home on the 
sleepy river Haase, and sailing across the Atlantic 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



landed in New York city. Here he served two 
years as clerk in a grocery store owned by his 
brothers, afterward entering the firm as a junior 
partner, where he remained for a period of twelve 
years. His only capital at beginning was ability, 
energy and the quiet persistence of his race, in be- 
coming master of the minutest details of his business. 
In the spring of 1849 he removed to Milwaukee, 
and in connection with two brothers, John H. and 
John Gerhard Inbusch, he instituted a wholesale 
liquor establishment, under the name and title of 
Inbusch Brothers. In i860, after a period of eleven 
years of slow but sure success, they added a stock 
of groceries to their trade. Nine years later, closing 
out entirely their liquor interest, they confined them- 
selves exclusively to the wholesale grocery business. 
For many years this trade has been steadily on the 
increase. In 1869 their sales did not exceed in 



amount a half million per annum. In 1874 it had 
reached the handsome sum of over a million. Their 
store has also doubled in size and capacity to meet 
the demands of their business, and the wholesale 
grocery house of Inbusch Brothers is well and favor- 
ably known throughout the State and the entire 
Northwest. Mr. J. D. Inbusch is now one of the 
directors of the Milwaukee National Bank. He was 
married November 8, 1857, to Miss Emily Heuffner, 
and the fruits of this marriage have been two sons 
and two daughters. Notwithstanding his business 
and social relations, Mr. Inbusch has found time for 
extensive traveling, and in 1853 and 1872 he visited 
his old Badbergian home on the Haase, Germany, 
as well as Holland, Italy, France and England. 

In politics he has always been a democrat ; and 
from his early youth his religious convictions have 
been those of the Lutheran creed. 



FREDERIC C. WINKLER, 



MILWAUKEE. 



FREDERIC C. WINKLER was born in Bre- 
men, Germany, the 15th of March, 1838. His 
parents emigrated to the United States when he was 
six years of age, and located in Milwaukee, where 
his father, Carl Winkler, established a pharmacy and 
starch factory. 

Educated in the public and private schools of that 
day in Milwaukee, and under private tuition of Prof. 
Engelmann (q.v.), Mr. Winkler taught a common 
school, before reaching his eighteenth year, and imme- 
diately afterward commenced the study of law in the 
office of Hon. H. L. Palmer, where (teaching school 
in the winter months) he remained a student until 
the fall of 1858, when he entered the office of Messrs. 
Abbott, Gregory and Pinney, at Madison, as clerk. 
While here he was, on the 19th of April, 1859, ad- 
mitted to the bar in the circuit court of Dane county 
after a thorough examination in open court, under 
a rule then recently established by Judge Dixon. 
Shortly after this he returned to Milwaukee, and 
entered on the practice of his profession. He met 
at once with considerable success. His first part- 
nership was with Mr. G. Von Deutsch, who, on 
account of ill health and a trip to Europe, left a 
large share of the work of the office to him, so that 
he was brought into court practice more rapidly 
f than is generally the case. 



From 1856 Mr. Winkler's sympathies had been 
strongly enlisted for the anti-slavery principles of 
the republican party, and in i860 he took an active 
part in the canvass of Milwaukee county in favor of 
Lincoln and Hamlin. Immediately after the break- 
ing out of the war his partner entered the cavalry 
service, leaving the business to him. In 1862, when 
the appeal for more men became urgent, Mr. Wink 
ler gave up his business and recruited a company of 
infantry — Company B, of the 26th Regiment, Wis- 
consin Volunteers, of which he was appomted cap- 
tain. The regiment left the State early in October 
and was assigned to the eleventh corps of the army 
of the Potomac, then commanded by General Sigel. 
During the succeeding winter Captain Winkler was 
constantly employed as judge advocate in courts 
martial at corps headquarters. At the opening of 
the spring campaign he was assigned to the staff of 
General Schurz, commanding a division of the corps. 
He participated in the battles of Chancellorsville and 
Gettysburg, in the former of which he had a horse 
shot under him. The first day of Gettysburg the 
regiment lost very heavily, only four officers escap- 
ing unhurt, the lieutenant-colonel and major being 
among the wounded. Captain Winkler resigned his 
staff service and temporarily took charge of the reg- 
iment during the battle. Afterward he remained 



82 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



with the regiment as second in command, still, how- 
ever, subject to frequent detail for court-martial 
service. After the battle of Chickamauga the regi- 
ment was transferred to the West, as part of General 
Hooker's forces that were sent to Rosecranz's relief. 
Shortly afterward the colonel resigned, and Captain 
Winkler thenceforth commanded the regiment, being 
successively promoted through the several grades to 
the colonelcy. 

Under his command the regiment participated in 
the battle of Mission Ridge, in 1863; the Atlanta 
campaign, with its battles and countless skirmishes, 
in 1864; the march to the sea, and thence north 
through the Carolinas. It won a high reputation. 
Of its conduct in the battle of Peach Tree Creek, 
July 20, 1864, the following mention is made in the 
official report of Colonel Wood, the brigade com- 
mander: 

Where all behaved well, it may be regarded as invidious 
to call attention to individuals, yet it seems to me that I 
cannot discharge my whole duty in this rejiort without 
pointing out for especial commendation the conduct of the 
26th Wisconsin Infantry and its brave and able commander. 
The position of this regiment was such that the brunt of the 
attack fell upon it. The brave, skillful and determinate 
manner in which it met this attack, rolled back the onset, 



pressed forward in a counter charge, and drove back the 
enemy, could not be excelled by the troops of this or any 
other army, and is worthy of the highest commendation 
and praise. It is to be hoped that such conduct will be held 
up as an example to others, and will meet its appropriate 
reward. 

During the winter quarters of 1864 Colonel Wink- 
ler returned home to recruit for his regiment, and 
was married to Miss Frances M. Wightman, of West 
Bend, Wisconsin. 

Upon the close of the war he was breveted briga- 
dier-general of volunteers "for meritorious services." 

Returning to Milwaukee, he resumed the practice 
of his profession, soon taking a prominent position 
at the bar. In 1867 he became associated with the 
Hon. A. R. R. Butler. In 1872 he was a member 
of the assembly in the State legislature, and was 
the same year nominated for congress by the repub- 
licans in a largely democratic district. 

In the spring of 1875 he was tendered the position 
of United States attorney for the eastern district of 
Wisconsin, but declined it on account of his large 
private practice. He is now a member of the firm 
of Jenkins, Elliott and Winkler, one of the leading 
law firms of the State. 



DARWIN CLARK, 



DARWIN CLARK was born at Otsego, Otsego 
county, New York, May 12, 1812. His father's 
name was Isaac, his mother's, Eunice Clark. They 
were intelligent, respectable and pious. Mrs. Clark 
was a member of the Presbyterian church. The 
character of their son, Darwin, was formed under 
the influence of those qualities of his parents, and 
hence his success in business, his exemplary moral 
character, and his religious sentiments. He had a 
common school education in his native town, and 
after leaving school taught during three successive 
winters. Before he attained the age of twenty-one he 
learned the trade of cabinet making. He immigrated 
to Wisconsin in May, 1837, and arrived at Madison 
on the loth of June, at which place he made his 
permanent residence. He worked occasionally on the 
capitol as carpenter, and occasionally at his trade, 
and sometimes as clerk in a store, during two years. 
In the winter of 1840 he circulated a subscription 
for the purpose of buying books for the first Sabbath 
school established in Madison. In the spring of 



1845 he commenced the furniture business, and has 
continued it to the present time. He is a religious 
man in his sentiments and uniformly attends the 
Episcopal church. 

In politics he is, and has always been, a Democrat, 
unwavering in his devotion to the Union. He was 
the first treasurer of the then village of Madison, 
and filled the office three different years. He was 
president of the council and acting mayor of the city 
in i860. He was alderman four years, commencing 
in 1858, and again in 1873, 1874 and 1875, in which 
latter year he was again elected president of the 
council. He married Sarah L. Goodnow, a noble 
wife and Christian woman, in September, 1848, and 
lived with her six years. In 1858 he married Fran- 
ces A. Adams, by whom he has two children, living 
with their parents. His grandparents on both sides 
were revolutionary soldiers; his father was in the 
war of 18 1 2. Mr. Clark is what is commonly termed 
a self-made man. Nature makes all men ; circum- 
stances develop them. Mr. Clark was fortunate in 




t^-rzi^v-z^ 



'^/klcir^ 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



83 



having parents to teach him the vahie of knowledge 
and the vahie of morals; hence, when he had the 
opportunity, he was teaching others, thereby indi- 
rectly teaching himself. The principles of action 
which have governed him through life were based 
upon the morals his parents taught him. He is a 
remarkable man, having many of the virtues which 
distinguish good men, and none of their vices. He 



has by honest toil accumulated a comfortable inde- 
pendence ; he has discharged the duties of many 
offices of honor, and some of them of pecuniary 
responsibility, and yet neither in his public duties 
nor in his private dealings has a shade of suspicion 
ever rested upon the escutcheon of his honor. Such 
men are the salt of the earth, and should be held up 
as models for all those who come after them. 



GEORGE O. WEST. 



WHITEWATER 



THE subject of this sketch was born at Charles- 
ton, New Hampshire, on the 29th of January, 
1836, and is the son of Enoch H. and Lydia West. 
His father, a farmer by occupation, was highly 
esteemed for his many excellent qualities. His 
mother was a woman of estimable character, the 
influence of whose teachings and example early 
instilled into her son those principles of morality 
and uprightness that have marked his whole life. 

George passed his boyhood on his father's farm, 
receiving his education at Ackweth Academy, New 
Hampshire, where he pursued a full course of 
academical studies. His natural tastes inclined him 
toward a mercantile life, and accordingly, after 
leaving school, he engaged in buying wheat and in 
merchandizing. He continued in this business 
during a period of twelve years, and at the expira- 
tion of that time turned his attention to the produce 
trade, which he has since continued to follow with 
good success. In 1857 he removed to Monroe, 



Wisconsin, where he was for two years engaged in 
selling goods. He then resumed the produce busi- 
ness, and three years later removed to Darlington, 
Wisconsin, where he resided until 1867, when he 
settled in Whitewater, his present home. He has 
dealt extensively in live-stock and wool, and during 
the last eight years has been the heaviest wool 
dealer in his State. 

Politically, Mr. West was, until 1872, a supporter 
of the republican party ; at that time he became 
identified with the liberal movement, and supported 
Horace Greeley for the presidency. He has held 
several town offices, but has never taken any promi- 
nent part in politics, finding in his legitimate busi- 
ness full scope for the exercise of all his powers. 

His religious training was under Universalist influ- 
ences, and he still adheres to the doctrines of that 
church. 

He was married, March 18, 1857, to Miss Sophia 
C. Parks; they have one son and one daughter. 



RICHARD RICHARDS, 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of Marion- 
ethshire, North Wales, was born on the 6th of 
August, 1818, and is the son of Griffith and Ann 
Richards. He received his early education in the 
common schools of his native place, and later 
attended an academy in Liverpool. After com- 
pleting his studies he engaged in farm-work with 
his father, and spent ten years in this occupation. 
At the expiration of this time he emigrated to 
America, arriving in New York city on the ist of 



June, 1841, thence he went to Ohio, and in the 
ensuing August settled at Racine, Wisconsin. Here 
he purchased five hundred and eighty acres of land, 
and since that time has devoted himself chiefly to 
his farming interests. In 1852, he turned his atten- 
tion to' raising fancy stock and has now some of the 
finest horses in the West, the pedigree of three of 
which we append : " Swigert," foaled in the spring 
of 1866, is a brown stallion, and was bred by the 
late Robert A. Alexander, of Woodford county, 



84 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



Kentucky. He was got by Mr. Alexander's Nor- 
man dam "Plaudina," by " Mambrino Chief," grand 
dam, the Burch mare, by " Brown Pilot," dam of 
"Brown Pilot" by Cherokee, son of "Sir Archy." 
" Swigert " is a brother of " Blackwood," who has a 
record of 2:23; also a brother of "Lulu," who has 
a record of 2:14!; also a brother of "Nashville 
Girl," record 2:20. "Rosalind," a sister of the dam 
of "Swigert," has a record of 2:2i|-. 

" Alden Goldsmith," foaled in the spring of 1874, 
a bay stallion, was bred by Alden Goldsmith, of 
Blooming Grove, Orange county, New York. He 
was got by " Volunteer," and he by Rysdyk's 
Hambletonian dam, "Maid of Orange," by Rys- 
dyk's Hainbletonian grandam ; dam by " Saltram," 
he by Webber's "Whip," he by Blackburn's "Whip," 
and he by imported "Whip." He is a brother of 
" Huntress; " also of " Gloster," " Abdallah," " Bo- 
dine," " Wm. H. Allen," and many others. 



"Western Chief," foaled in June, 1871, a bay 
stallion, was bred by Geo. W. Ogden, of Paris, 
Bourbon county, Kentucky. He was got by Curtis' 
" Hambletonian ; " he by Rysdyk's dam, " Lady 
Ealenon," by " Mambrino Chief; " grandam, a 
thoroughbred mare, bred in Virginia and noted as 
a trotter. 

Mr. Richards has also a fine herd of Durham 
cattle, and the finest lot of Essex and Berkshire 
hogs in the West. Besides he has a flock of two 
hundred and fifty sheep, mostly Spanish merinos, 
and at the exposition of 1867, in France, received a 
diploma and bronze medal for superior samples of 
wool. 

He has been identified with the republican party 
since its organization, and in 1873 was elected to 
the State legislature. 

He was married in February, 1841, to Miss Jane 
Evans, and they have two sons and three daughters. 



A. W. RICH 



MILWAUKEE. 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of Somos, 
Hungary, was born July 27, 1843, and is the 
son of Emanuel and Sarah Rich. He received his 
early education in German, Hebrew and Hungarian 
at a private school in his native country. When he 
had reached his tenth year he immigrated to Amer- 
ica in company with his parents, and arrived at New 
York October 24, 1853, and after remaining there 
until 1855, they removed to Cleveland, Ohio. Here 
he continued his education, attending the public 
schools for the period of three months. Subse- 
quently, in 1857, they removed into the wilds of 
Michigan, settling upon a farm in Saginaw county, 
where they experienced all the hardships and toil 
characteristic of pioneer life. Here they remained 
three years, at the end of which time they again 
removed and settled at Owasso, Michigan. From 
this time young Rich, now in his eighteenth year, 
was obliged to depend upon his own exertions for a 
livelihood. His father furnished him with about 
forty dollars' worth of goods and started him upon 
a peddling trip; but he considered this business by 
far too humiliating to his self-respect, and refusing 
to continue in it, worked his way to Detroit, and 
obtained a situation in a wrapping-paper house, with 
a salary of fifteen dollars per month. Becoming 



dissatisfied in this position, however, he proceeded 
to Cleveland, his former place of residence, and was 
advised by his relatives and friends to resume ped- 
dling ; but being unwilling to pursue a business 
which was so utterly distasteful to him, hp obtained 
work upon a farm and nursery near the city at a 
salary of twelve dollars per month and board. In 
this position he continued for the period of six 
months, gaining, in the meantime, a superficial 
knowledge of the science of optics, to which he was 
greatly assisted by a friend, then engaged in that 
line of business, and by close study during his spare 
hours. Having saved enough from his earnings to 
supply himself with about forty dollars' worth of 
spectacles, he set out as a traveling optician, and 
after meeting with fair success in his travels over 
different parts of the country, arrived at Milwaukee 
in June, 1865. Here, in company with a friend, 
whom he met by accident, he opened an optical es- 
tablishment with a capital of eight hundred dollars, 
belonging equally to himself and partner, the firm 
being styled A. W. Rich and Co. This enterprise 
not proving as successful as he had anticipated, he 
abandoned it at the expiration of a year and a half, 
and saved from his capital, after paying all liabilities, 
the sum of four hundred and fifty dollars. Subse- 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIOXARV. 



85 



(liientl)', forming a copartnership with a fellow-coun- 
tryman, who was at that time a manufacturer of 
hoop skirts, he continued in that business for six 
months, at the expiration of which time, finding that 
his views and those of his partner greatly conflicted 
as regarded the manner in which the business should 
be conducted, the partnership was dissolved. A few 
months later Mr. Rich opened a part of the store 
now occupied by him for the sale of hoop skirts and 
corsets, and the manufacture of the former, conduct- 
ing the business with the assistance of one young 
lady the first year and two the second. By exten- 
sive advertising in the principal daily papers of the 
city, he brought his business prominently before the 
public, and found that it was steadily increasing. 
Afterward, in order to supply the demand for other 
articles of ladies' apparel, he increased his stock 
until it embraced a complete line of ladies' goods. 
The principles upon which he built up his trade 
were, to make one class of goods a specialty; to 
cater to the best class of trade by keeping choice 
goods and an attractive place of business ; to make 
a fair profit and adhere to one price; to allow no 
accumulation of old stock : to advertise extensively, 
and to conduct all business transactions with the 
strictest integrity. Following these principles, his 
business increased from thirty-three to fifty per cent 
yearly, and his place of business increased from 
fourteen by forty feet to a large, double store, thirty 
by ninety, his employes in the store from two to 
twenty, while he employed from eight to twelve per- 



sons in the manufacturing department. From eight 
thousand the first year, his sales had amounted to 
over eighty thousand the sixth, when, feeling that 
there was still room for improvement, he admitted 
Mr. L. Silber as a partner in the business on the 
15th of August, 1874, the firm being styled A. W. 
Rich and Co. Since that time such success has 
attended their efforts as to necessitate a change in 
their business quarters in order to accommodate the 
large stock of goods necessary for their jobbing 
trade. Mr. Rich's parents being Jews, he was nat- 
urally brought up to a belief in their religion, and is 
a consistent member of that sect. Having always 
possessed a natural taste for literary pursuits, he is 
well read in the English language, and is at present 
more proficient in that than in his own. He is a 
correspondent of several newspapers published in 
Milwaukee and other cities, and has been president 
of two literary societies; further, he has held leading 
positions in the Masonic and other organizations, in 
which he is much esteemed for his intelligence, ex- 
ecutive ability and liberality. 

In politics he has always been a thorough repub- 
lican. 

Mr. Rich was married February 13, 1871, to Miss 
Rosa Seidenberg, whose father is a large importer 
and manufacturer of New York city. Mr. Rich's 
business success may be attributed to a laudable 
ambition, a persistent determination to succeed, a 
careful attention to the wants of his customers, and 
energy and integrity in all his transactions. 



CHRISTIAN LINDE, M.D., 



OSHKOSH. 



CHRISTIAN LINDE, a native of Copenhagen, 
Denmark, was born on the 19th of February, 
1817. He graduated at the Royal University of 
Copenhagen in 1837, and attended the hospitals 
there till 1S42, when he had to leave on account of 
political difliculties. 

He immigrated to the United States, and on the 
17th of July arrived in Wisconsin, and purchased 
two hundred and eighty acres of land, where the 
Insane Asylum now stands, near Oshkosh. His 
intention was to engage in farming, hunting and 
trapping, and not to engage in the practice of his 
profession. During the next four years he endeav- 
ored to give his attention to his farming interests, 



but was called to Green Bay so often, to attend to 
professional duties, that, in 1846, he left his farm and 
established himself at that place, and engaged in his 
profession. In the following year, having sold his 
farm, he removed to Oshkosh, his present home, and 
purchased a tract of land where the city now stands. 
During the next two years he was engaged in active 
practice, and at the expiration of that time began 
hunting, trapping, speculating, and dealing in furs. 
He employed himself in this manner till 1858, in 
the meantime attending to his professional work; 
and, being the only surgeon then in northern Wis- 
consin, was called upon to perform some most diffi- 
cult surgical operations. In 1858 he discontinued 



86 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



his other business, and resuming his practice atOsh- 
kosh, has since given it his chief attention. 

A prominent and enterprising man, he has always 
taken a leading part, and now stands among the 
foremost of his profession in Wisconsin. During 
the late civil war he was examining surgeon for 
Winnebago county. Dr. Linde was, at one time, 
president of the Winnebago County Medical Society, 
is now an active member of the State Medical So- 
ciety, and also of the American Medical Association, 
and has been chosen as a delegate to the medical 
convention to be held at Philadelphia during the 
present year (1876). 

His career throughout has been marked by perse- 
verance and public-spirltedness; and, settling in 
Wisconsin at an early day, as he did, his name is 
coupled with many incidents of interest connected 
with the history of that State. In 1842 he was the 
only surgeon in northern Wisconsin, E. B. Wolcott 
being the only other one in the State. He was, in 
truth, one of the pioneers, and found, in his new 
home, ample opportunity to gratify his natural taste 



for hunting, trapping, and other kindred occupations 
connected with pioneer life. He helped to cut the 
first road from Oshkosh to Fond du Lac ; and, be- 
ginning thus when the State was new, he has grown 
up with it, and in his practice has kept pace with the 
growth of other improvements. 

His political views are democratic ; and he is not 
identified with any church organization. 

Dr. Linde was married in 1843, to Miss Sarah 
Dickinson, who died in 1849, leaving one son. This 
son, a promising physician, is a graduate of Rush 
Medical College, of Chicago, and is now in partner- 
ship with his father, the firm being C. and F. H. 
Linde. On the isth of May, 1858, Dr. Linde mar- 
ried his second wife. Miss Huldah Henning, by whom 
he has one son and three daughters. 

Such is a brief outline of the life -history of one 
who, by his own exertions, has risen from compara- 
tive obscurity to a position of high social standing 
and public trust, and made for himself a name 
that shall live in the memories of all who have 
known him. 



HENRY M. MENDEL, 



MIL U A UKEE. 



HENRY M. MENDEL, clothier, of Milwaukee, 
was born in Breslau, Germany, on the 15th 
of October, 1839 — son of Moses and Henrietta 
Mendel. His education was received in the high 
school of his native city. While yet a boy he was 
thrown upon his own resources, and at the age of 
fourteen he sailed for America, landing in New York, 
where his stay was brief; from thence he came to 
Milwaukee, where he arrived on the 24th of August, 
1854, and found employment as clerk and book- 
keeper in a clothing store, which position he retained 
five years. Leaving the store he entered the office 
of register of deeds as copying clerk, where he 
remained two years and a half, the latter part of the 
time acting as deputy, after which he returned to his 
former position as book-keeper. In 1865, with a 
partner, he started in the wholesale hat and cap busi- 
ness, the firm name being Stein and Mendel, and 
was very successful in building up a large and profit- 
able trade. He continued this business five years, 
when he sold his interest to Mr. Stein, and entered 
the wholesale clothing house of S. Adler and Brother, 
as partner, under the firm name of Adler, Mendel 



and Company. Here his early training in a clothing 
store, together with his ripe experience in the job- 
bing trade, and a fixed principle as to business hon- 
esty, enabled him to contribute new energy and 
influence to an already well-known establishment. 
Success followed his efforts as before, so that it may 
be said of Mr. Mendel, though starting at the bottom 
round of the ladder, beginning with the drudgery of 
clerkship and working his way up through the various 
grades rising therefrom, he has enjoyed the smiles 
of fortune and experienced few of her frowns, but 
may, in a far greater measure than can be stated 
here, consider his success as the results of an ener- 
getic business disposition, coupled with honesty of 
purpose and principle. He is an excellent musician, 
and took a lively interest in the Milwaukee Musical 
Society, holding various official positions therein. 
While he was president of the society the present 
Academy of Music was rebuilt, which is a spacious 
and substantial structure, internally a monutnent of 
art and beauty, reflecting great credit upon the man- 
agement of the society, and especially upon its exec- 
utive head. While this society was groaning under 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTION AliV. 



87 



a crushing burden of stock as well as floating debts 
in the years 1870 and 1871, a plan was formed by 
prominent citizens, among whom were Messrs. 
Jacobs, Fridersdorf and Mendel, as executive com- 
mittee, whereby this indebtedness might be can- 
celed, which, by their combined energy and pluck, 
was entirely successful. 

Mr. Mendel is still a young man, and has a prom- 
ising future before him. He has a thorough, semi- 



classical education, and cultured manners and tastes, 
which makes him a valued member of the very best 
society. 

In religious faith he is a Jew, with broad and 
liberal views. 

In politics he is a republican. 

On the 19th of February, i86g, he was married to 
Isabella, daughter of David Adler. They have three 
children, two sons and one daughter. 



JAMES H. THOMPSON, M.D., 

MILW AUKEE. 



THE biographical sketch of Dr. James H. 
Thompson, one of our ablest medical officers 
of the volunteer army during the war, will be best 
illustrated by official testimony of his' valuable ser- 
vices. His life may be said to have been devoted 
to public usefulness and duty, and has called forth 
expressions of appreciation from all the departments 
in which he served. The incidents of his e.xperi- 
ences would no doubt be very interesting, but our 
limits will compel us to confine ourselves to the man. 

James H. Thompson was born September 4, 1835, 
at Foxcroft, in the State of Maine, and received his 
preliminary education at the academy of his native 
town. For a time he taught school, and then en- 
tered Bowdoin College ; graduated from the medical 
department of that institution in 1859, and com- 
menced the practice of his profession, in copartner- 
ship with Dr. W. H. Allen, at Orono, Penobscot 
county, Maine. In i860 he went to New York city, 
and pursued his studies at the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, and attended hospital clinics. 

In 1 86 1 he returned to his native town, and was 
married to Mary Elizabeth, only daughter of Hon. 
John G. Mayo, of Dover, Maine. 

In October, of the same year; he was examined by 
the medical examining board of the United States 
army, and so satisfactory was his examination that 
Dr. John Bradbury, one of the examiners, gave Dr. 
Thompson the following letter : 

To Col. Geo. F. Shipley, Portland, Maine, 

Dr. James H. Thompson, of Orono, has just passed a 
most satisfactory examination before the examining board. 
I have known him for many years, as student and practi- 
tioner. He has always had an unblemished moral reputa- 
tion, and we have met with no man more eminently quali- 
fied for a medical officer of your regiment than he. 
Respectfully, 
John C. Br.vdbury, Member of Exam. Board. 



In November, 1861, Dr. Thompson was commis- 
sioned assistant surgeon of the 12th Regiment of 
Maine Volunteers, and full surgeon on the 5th of 
December of the same year. He served with his 
regiment and in hospital at New Orleans, Baton 
Rouge, the first Red River expedition of General 
Banks, and at Port Hudson, with distinction, until 
August, 1863, when his health failed and he was 
compelled to go North on furlough, after having 
voluntarily given up a furlough, previously granted, 
in order to participate in the siege or capitulation of 
Port Hudson. 

Dr. Thompson was on the steamer at New Orleans, 
en route for home, on sick leave, when news of the 
repulse of our forces at Port Hudson reached him. 
He immediately changed his destination to the front 
instead of home. On reaching Baton Rouge, he 
found that all the wounded had been brought there. 
The hospital accommodations were very limited. 
Dr. Thompson organized the Church Hospital, the 
patients of which gave expression of their apprecia- 
tion of his skill and urbanity, and regretted the 
necessity of his departure. 

In a letter from Dr. Reed, medical director of the 
right wing, ITnited States forces, referring to Dr. 
Thompson's services, he says: " Whether in charge 
of his regiment upon the field, or in charge of gene- 
ral hospital, he has always thoroughly performed his 
work. Entirely capable and reliable, cool, prudent, 
1 and highly energetic, I regard Dr. Thompson as one 
I of the ablest men it has been my fortune to meet." 

In a letter of Dr. John H. Runcle, medical di- 
rector, referring to Dr. Thompson, he says: "After 
the attack on Port Hudson, of the 27th of May, he 
rendered valuable service in hospital at Baton Rouge, 
i although at the time he had a leave of absence, dis- 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



playing great devotion and much self-sacrifice, and 
greatly aggravating the disease he was suffering 
from." 

We have also before us a letter from Brigadier- 
General Shepley, military governor of Louisiana, 
which, speaking of Dr. Thompson's services, says : 
" I cannot speak too highly of his judgment and 
skill in his profession, and his constant and unre- 
mitting devotion to every duty. It is not too much 
to say that he always had the best regimental hos- 
pital to be found in the command to which his 
regiment was attached." 

In November, 1863, Dr. Thompson's health still 
not permitting him to return to the South to his 
regiment, and being desirous of remaining in the 
army during the war, on the invitation of the sur- 
geon-general he appeared before the medical exam- 
ining board at Washington, and passed a very rigid 
examination of six days' duration with honor, and 
received, on the roth of November, 1863, his 
appointment as assistant surgeon of the United 
States Volunteers, and was appointed full surgeon 
of volunteers on the 5th of December, 1863. His 
appointment was confirmed by the senate, and he 
was duly commissioned by President Lincoln. Dr. 
Thompson reported immediately to Point Lookout, 
Maryland, and was placed as medical officer in 
charge of prisoners of war in camp and hospital. 

In 1864 he was made surgeon-in-chief of district 
St. Mary's, on the staff of General James Barnes, and 
served at Point Lookout during the remainder of 
the war. At the close of the war Dr. Thompson 
received many flattering testimonials of his services 
from heads of departments in which he had served, 
— our limits only admit of extracts. General Barnes 
in a letter to Dr. Thompson says : 



As the advent of peace leads to the breaking up of all 
the military associations of this command, it gives me a 
gi-eat deal of gratification to be able to say to you in parting 
that your kind, careful and soldier-like treatment of the 
prisoners of war who have been here in such large numbers 
has ever met my approbation, and is highly honorable to 
your character as a man, while your skillful management of 
the sick in your charge, and the low average of mortality, 
as shown by the official records, bear an equally honorable 
testimony to your professional ability and skill. 

General Hoffman also pays a high compliment, as 
follows : 

At the time you were assigned to duty at the depot, the 
sanitary condition of the camp and hospital was very un- 
favorable, but your energy and good judgment, governed 
by proper humane feelings, soon inaugurated measures 
which brought about most commendable reforms, and 
while the camp and hospital were placed in a perfect state 
of police, and the sick were supplied with everything 
necessary to their comfort and speedy recovery, the hospi- 
tal fund was so judiciously managed as to leave a surplus 
of over twenty-five thousand dollars to be returned to the 
subsistence department. 

In August, 1865, Dr. Thompson was breveted 
lieutenant-colonel United States Volunteers, for 
faithful and meritorious services, by President 
Johnson, and was mustered out at his own request 
on the 15th of September, 1865. 

In 1867 Dr. Thompson was appointed surgeon to 
the National Soldiers' Home near Milwaukee, where 
he remained until 1870, when he removed to the 
city of Milwaukee and entered at once upon a large 
and lucrative private practice. On his leaving, 
E. B. Wolcott, resident manager of the Soldiers' 
Home, closes a very complimentary letter in these 
words : 

I, therefore, having a full appreciation of his services to 
this institution, deeply regret his separation from it. I 
trust, nevertheless, our loss may be his gain, and of this 
I feel assured, knowing his business capacity to be first 
rate, and integrity beyond question. 

With such indorsements eulogy from us would be 
superfluous, but such a record deserves a place 
among the eminent and self-made men. 



JOHN A. DUTCHER, 

MILUAUKEE. 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of Salisbury, 
Litchfield county, Connecticut, was born No- 
vember I, 1829, and is the son of John A. Butcher 
and Mary n(fe Chapin. His father dying when he 
was a few months old, he was left to the care of his 
mother, who afterward married again and removed 
to Kent, Connecticut. At the age of fourteen years, 
he accepted a clerkship in a store, and in that capa- 
city served during a period of five years, laying the 



foundation of his subsequent mercantile career. At 



I the end of this tune, in 1849, he removed to Osh- 
kosh, Wisconsin, where he spent one year, and then 
entered the wholesale grocery house of P. W. Badg- 
ley, Milwaukee, as book-keeper. At the end of two 
years he was admitted as a partner to the business, 
the firm being known as P. W. Badgley and Co. Upon 
the death of Mr. Badgley in 1853, Mr. Dutcher con- 
tinued the business with Kellogg Sexton, and later 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGKAPHICAL DICTIONAIir. 



admitted to the firm Mr. J. R. Goodrich. In i8( 
Mr. Sexton retired, and E. H. Ball was admitted to 
the partnership, the firm name becoming Dutcher, 
Ball and Goodrich. From the time when Mr. 
Dutcher became connected with the house its 
growth was marked, each year adding largely to the 
extent and influence of its trade, and, upon his re- 
tirement in 1870, it stood among the foremost houses 
in its line in the Northwest, and was known for its 
able management and sound financial standing, hav- 
ing passed safely through the financial crises of the 
last twenty-five years. In 1870, Mr. Dutcher, asso- 
ciating himself with Messrs. Vose and Adams, en- 
gaged in the manufacture of stoves, under the firm 
name of Dutcher, Vose and Adams. In this, as in 
his former business, he has been remarkably success- 
ful, the house having competed successfully with 
eastern manufacturers, in quality, style and price of 
its wares. In 1871, owing to the demands of trade, 
and increased transportation facilities, he established 
a wholesale tea house, under the firm name of J. A. 
Dutcher and Co. His wide experience in mercantile 
affairs at once gave to the enterprise a leading place, 
and it has built up an extensive and flourishing trade. 
Though still at the head of the two last named busi- 
ness houses, Mr. Dutcher finds time, in the midst of 



his various duties, to devote to self-culture and the 
interests of those about him. 

During the last twenty years he has been a most 
active and zealous Christian worker, taking a promi- 
nent part in all religious enterprises of his city. He 
united with the Plymouth Church in 1856. Later, 
he assisted in organizing the Olivet Church, and be- 
came one of its most active and devoted members. 
At the present time (1876) he is a member of Im- 
manuel Presbyterian Church. While aiding in all 
enterprises tending to the furtherance of religious 
interests, Mr. Dutcher has devoted special atten- 
tion to Sunday school work, and done much to sus- 
tain and build up the Sunday school cause through- 
out his State. He has also, for many years, been 
deeply interested in the welfare of sailors, and has 
been a liberal supporter of the Wisconsin Seamen's 
Friend Society, being president of the society from 
its establishment in 1868, and aided largely in found- 
ing the Bethel Home for Sailors, of Milwaukee. He 
has besides shown a worthy public-spiritedness, and 
been honored with positions of responsibility and 
trust, and has always been in sympathy with all 
movements tending to the welfare of his city. 

Mr. Dutcher was married, October 11, 1852, to 
Miss Annette Edwards, of Kent, Connecticut. 



JOHN BLACK, 



MILWAUKEE. 



JOHN BLACK, son of Peter and Magdalena 
•J Black, was born near the city of Bitche, France, 
August 16, 1830. His father was by occupation a 
farmer. John received a common-school education 
and a partial collegiate course. Is by occupation a 
liquor dealer. He came to Lockport, New York, in 
1846, and remained there several years, and after- 
ward visited the principal cities in the United States 
and Canada. He settled in Milwaukee in 1857, 
where he has since resided. While accumulating 
his ample fortune he has always avoided outside 
speculations, confining himself strictly to a legiti- 
mate mercantile business, yet was ever ready to con- 
tribute to such industrial enterprises as were calcu- 
lated to promote the public good. 

In 1870 a number of the leading business men 
and capitalists of Milwaukee organized the Bank of 
Commerce ; in this enterprise he was foremost, and 
one of the principal stockholders. He was elected 



vice-president of the bank, a position which he still 
holds. In addition to the successful management of 
his large and extensive mercantile business he has 
occasionally taken a prominent part in public affairs. 
I He was for several years railroad commissioner of 
the city of Milwaukee. In 1869 he received the 
democratic nomination for the office of state treas- 
urer, but the entire ticket was defeated at the elec- 
tion. In 1870 he was elected a member of the 
common council. The people of Milwaukee had 
long and seriously felt the want of a system of water 
works, the delay in business being caused by a pro- 
vision in the law relating to the bonded indebted- 
ness of the city. During his term in the council he 
succeeded in removing, with other assistance, this 
difficulty, and getting the necessary legislation which 
resulted in the building of our present complete sys- 
tem of water works. In 1871 he was elected a 
member of the assembly. Among the important 



90 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



measures introduced and passed by him was one for 
the punishment of persons found carrying concealed 
weapons. In the presidential election of 1872 he 
was one of the electors at large on the democratic 
electoral ticket for the State of Wisconsin. In 1873 
he was elected a member of the State senate. Dur- 
ing his term as senator he introduced and succeeded 
in passing two very important measures, one for the 
punishment of bribery at elections, which was re- 
ceived with unbounded satisfaction by the people of 
the entire State, and the other to secure liberty of 
conscience to inmates of State institutions. This 
latter bill, though meeting a determined opposition 
inside and outside the legislature, he carried through 
the senate, but it failed to pass the assembly. Of his 
public life it can be truly said that " the office has 
always sought the man, and never the man the office." 



Mr. Black's public and private character command 
equally the admiration and the respect of the com- 
munity in which he lives. As a public man he is 
patriotic and enterprising, heartily cooperating in 
every public work calculated to promote the public 
good, giving his thoughts, time and means to the 
promotion of their success. As a private man he is 
social, generous and hospitable, of exemplary morals, 
and believes in a religion the cardinal maxim of 
which is " to do as he would be done by." 

Believing that the people are the safest depository 
of power and the proper authority to exercise it, he 
is in political sentiment a democrat, and in times of 
trial and difficulty one of the " unterrified." 

His purest affections are manifested in the sacred- 
ness of his home, in the stations of husband, father, 
neighbor and friend. 



TIMOTHY A. CHAPMAN, 

MILWAUKEE. 



TIMOTHY A. CHAPMAN, a merchant of the 
city of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the third son 
and eighth child of Mary Greenwood and Geo. W. 
Chapman, was born on the 23d of May, 1824, in 
Gilead, Oxford county, in the State of Maine. His 
father was a native of Massachusetts, and a farmer; 
was at one time a member of the legislature, and for 
thirteen years town clerk and selectman ; such was 
the confidence of the people with whom he lived 
that in giving his testimony in court he was not 
required to take the usual oath. He has just passed 
away at the age of ninety-five, with every faculty 
unimpaired except that of sight. He has left to the 
world the record of a well-spent life. Timothy A. 
Chapman during his boyhood assisted his father 
upon the labors of the farm, and was educated at 
the district school of his native town, and at the 
academies of Bethel and Yarmouth, Maine; subse- 
quently engaged in teaching. At the age of twenty, 
desiring a wider theater of action, he went to Boston 
with less than ten dollars in his pocket, where he 
met with a dry-goods merchant who ga\'e him em- 
ployment as clerk in his store. He served in that 
capacity six years, when through the solicitation and 
encouragement of James M. Beebe, he became one 
of the firm of T. A. and H. G. Chapman, Hanover 
street, Boston, and remained there seven years with 
but little success, except to establish a reputation 



' for capacity and integrity. Observing the power 
and influence of capital invested in the dry-goods 
1 business in the East, he determined to make his 
1 future experiments in the West. In the year 1857 he 
removed to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and through the 
assistance of C. F. Hovey and Co. resumed business 
I on East Water street under the firm of Hassett and 
; Chapman. Mr. Hassett retiring at the end of five 
' years, Mr. Charles Endicott became a partner and 
remained three years ; since that time, a period of 
twelve years, Mr. Chapman has conducted the 
business alone. Having goods of the best quality, 
united with system and good order in his establish- 
ment, together with the rule of "one price," his 
patronage very soon exceeded his expectations. 
The city grew, and rival houses arose, but he main- 
tained his supremacy. In 1872 he built one of the 
largest dry-goods houses in the Northwest, situated 
on the corner of Wisconsin and Milwaukee streets, 
which he now occupies. The dimensions of the 
building are forty-six by two h''.ndred and forty feet, 
and four stories high. The interior is airy, cheerful 
and perfect in detail, affording every convenience to 
employe and patron. Although there are over one 
hundred clerks in this establishment, the character 
of its head is felt in every member, and order and 
system reign su])reme. 

In 1850 Mr. Chapman married Miss Laura Bow- 




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THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DlCTIONARr. 



91 



ker, of Boston, a woman of education and cidture, 
of social qualities and of exemplary character as 
wife and mother. In accumulating his present 
fortune he has not been unmindful of the comfort 
and happiness of employes and members of his own 
family who have been less successful in business ; 
nor has he been wanting in public spirit. He' con- 



tributes liberally to whatever measures are calcu- 
lated to promote the general welfare, physical, 
moral, or intellectual, recognizing no distinction of 
creed or opinion, being broad and liberal, a lover of 
nature and scientific pursuits. His life illustrates 
the success an ambitious man may achieve by self- 
reliance, sound judgment, and persevering industry. 



HON. LEVI HUBBELL, 



MILWAUKEE. 



LEVI HUBBELL was born in Ballston, New 
^ York, April 15, 1808, and was the youngest 
son of his parents, who were natives of Fairfield, 
Connecticut. His father, Abijah Hubbell, entered 
the service as a soldier in May, 1776, and served 
during the war. He was wounded at the battle of 
Brandywine and bore the scar during his life. His 
mother was the daughter of Dr. Fitch, of Reading. 
Levi commenced his classical studies at an academy 
in Ballston, and completed his preparation for col- 
lege at Canandaigua, New York. He graduated at 
Union College, Schenectady in 1827, where two of 
his brothers had preceded him. He read law at 
Schenectady and at Canandaigua. Soon after his 
admission to the bar, he formed a partnership with 
his brother, Walter, of Canandaigua, in whose office 
the subsequently distinguished orator and statesman 
Stephen A. Douglas was then a student. 

At- this time he was a member of a debating club 
of which Stephen A. Douglas, George W. Clinton, 
Henry Morris and others who rose to distinction 
were members. He regards his connection with 
that club as one of the most fortunate events of his 
life. He engaged early in politics and was one of 
the editors of the " Ontario Messenger," the organ 
of the democratic party in that county. Through 
his influence yoimg Douglas was led into the demo- 
cratic fold, and became an ardent friend of General 
Jackson. In January, 1833, he was called by Gov- 
ernor Marcy to take the office of adjutant-general 
of New York, succeeding General John A. Dix, 
which he held until November, 1836, when he re- 
signed and removed to Ithaca, New York. 

In 1840 he was elected a member of the State as- 
sembly from Tompkins county as a conservative dem- 
ocrat. He took an active part in support of the 
policy of enlarging the Erie canal, and of opening 
channels of communication with the growing West. 



In June, 1844, he removed to Milwaukee, where he 
has since resided. He formed a partnership with 
Asahel Finch and William Pitt Lynde, and practiced 
law under the firm name of Hubbell, Finch and 
Lynde. In May, 1848, he was a delegate to the 
national democratic convention at Baltimore, giving 
his support to General Cass. As a member of the 
committee on resolutions he acted with Governor 
McDowell of Virginia, Slidell of Louisiana, and 
Francis I. Blair of Washington, in opposing the pro- 
slavery resolutions of William L. Yancey of Georgia. 
In July, 1848, he was elected one of the judges of 
the supreme and circuit courts of the State. 

His circuit embraced the counties of Milwaukee, 
Waukesha, Jefferson and Dane, the duties of which, 
together with those of the supreme bench, were very 
laborious. The termsof the judges were determined 
by lot, and he drew the three years term. In 1851 
he was reelected for si.x years. A separate supreme 
court being established in 1853, he continued to act 
as circuit judge until June, 1856, when he resigned 
in consequence of the inadequacy of the salary — 
fifteen hundred dollars per annum — and resumed the 
practice of law in the city of Milwaukee. 

Of his ability, learning and general character as a 
judge there is but one intelligent opinion, and that 
places him among the most distinguished of the 
profession. When the war of the rebellion com- 
menced he exerted all of his influence on the side of 
the government, and was denominated a war demo- 
crat, or republican. In 1863 he was elected a mem- 
ber of the State legislature from the county of 
Milwaukee, a body in which his genius, learning 
and classic taste admirably qualified him for efficien- 
cy and usefulness. Accordingly his tongue and his 
pen were devoted to the cause of his country, the 
one in eloquent appeals to the patriotism of his 
countrymen and the other in expounding the prin- 



92 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



ciples of the government which were being assailed 
with a view to their demolition. 

In 1870 he was appointed by President Grant dis- 
trict attorney for the United States for the eastern 
district of Wisconsin, and retained this office until 
June, 1875, discharging its duties with ability and 
fidelity. 

It is proper to state not only in reference to Judge 
Hubbell, but as a part of the history of the times, 
that an attempt was made in 1853 to impeach him 
for misconduct as a judge of the circuit and supreme 
courts of the state. The trial, which has long since 



been regarded as a political drama instigated by a 

few envious and malignant parties, ended after a full 

and searching investigation in his prompt acquittal 

by the court. The result was received by the State 

at large with gratification, and by the citizens of 

, Milwaukee (his home) with manifestations of joy, 

j with bands of music, the firing of cannon, guns, etc. 

! Judge Hubbell was twice married to beautiful 

! accomplished women : first, in 1836, to Susan Linn, 

! daughter of Hon. Simeon De Witt of Albany, New 

York, and after her death, in 1852 to Mary Morris, 

1 daughter of the late Samuel W. Beall of Wisconsin. 



ANSON W. BUTTLES, 



MIL U'A UKEE. 



ANSON W. BUTTLES, civil engineer and sur- 
veyor, was born at Milton, Northumberland 
county, Pennsylvania, on the 2 2d of June, 182 1, be- 
ing the eldest son of Cephas and Nancy Buttles ; 
the former was born at East Granville, Massachu- 
setts, on the nth of April, 1791 (and now in general 
good health) and the latter was born at East Wind- 
sor, Connecticut, on the 23d of February, 1794 
(whose maiden name was Stoughton). 

Mr. .Buttles' father removed to Pennsylvania from 
Massachusetts about the year 1817, his intended 
wife following at a later date. They were married 
at Milton, Northumberland county, Pennsylvania, on 
the 25 th of May, 1820, and about the year 1831 they 
removed from Pennsylvania to Clear Spring, Wash- 
ington county, Maryland, with their family of five 
sons and one daughter, where they remained until 
the year 1843, and removed from thence to Colum- 
bus, Ohio, and resided there for a few months, and 
finally proceeded to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where 
they permanently located, in the year 1843, o" '1^^ 
5th of October. Their five sons and one daughter 
(who were all born in Pennsylvania) removed with 
them to Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 

Abijah Buttles and Augustus Stoughton, the grand- 
fathers of A. W. Buttles, were soldiers in the revo- 
lutionary war; the former crossed the Delaware 
river on the night of December 25, 1776, with Gen- 
eral Washington's wing of the army, and assisted in 
the capture of the Hessians, one of whom he made 
prisoner and led him up to his captain, when the Hes- 
sian drew from his pocket a bottle of New England 
rum and the three took a sociable drink together. 



The subject of this memoir began his studies at 
Northumberland College, Pennsylvania, at a very 
early age, and received the balance of his education 
in Washington county, Maryland, partly under select 
tuition, and prepared himself for the profession of 
civil engineering and surveying, the practice of 
which he commenced (very young) on the Chesa- 
peake and Ohio canal in Maryland, and later, when 
the Baltimore and Ohio railroad was commenced, he 
went into camp on the location of that road, under 
B. H. Latrobe as chief engineer. He commenced 
at the lowest step of the ladder, and elevated as fast 
as an opportunity would permit, which were few and 
far between, being at too young an age (although 
capable) to repose much responsibility upon in such 
very important and gigantic work as railroading was 
considered in those days. However, he remained 
on the location and construction of said road until 
the same was completed as far as Cumberland, 
Maryland, and from that time quit the profession 
until the Milwaukee and Mississippi railroad in Wis- 
consin began its career, and upon which road was 
on the location as far as Madison and upon the con- 
struction as far as Milton. 

The chief engineer was the late Hon. Byron Kil- 
bourn, a very ambitious, co'^^.petent and accurate 
officer, and under whose authority Mr. Buttles had 
charge of the construction of the first division from 
Milwaukee to Waukesha, twenty and one-half miles, 
and which distance he has walked both ways in a 
day many times, with his instrument upon his shoul- 
der, giving grades, directions, etc., whenever they 
were needed. 



THR UNITED STATES BIOGIiAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



93 



And the first rails ever laid in the State of Wiscon- 
sin were put down to grades staked by him. 

After his services were no longer needed there he 
was removed to the next division from Waukesha 
west, and remained on said division until the com- 
pletion of the road to Milton and the branch to 
Janesville, at which time he left the road and fol- 
lowed the fortunes of Mr. Kilbourn, who had 
transferred his services from the Milwaukee and 
Mississippi road to the Milwaukee and La Crosse 
as chief engineer, and Mr. Buttles was on the loca- 
tion and construction of that road as far as Hartford, 
having charge of all the most difficult work, and re- 
mained on it until graded thus far. 

Then quit the profession of civil engineer, for the 
reason that he had contracted a heavy cold while 
camping out on the Mississippi road, which became 
seated for such a length of time that finally it partly 
deprived him of his hearing. Since which time he 
has been county surveyor of Milwaukee county three 
terms, and held the office of county superintendent 
of schools second district of Milwaukee county for 
six years, bfesides holding the offices of town clerk 
and justice of the peace for a number of years, the 
latter two are now in his possession. 

In the year 1870 he had charge of the first division 
of the Milwaukee and Manitowoc railroad as the 
resident engineer, and continued as such until the 
company became bankrupt, since which time he has 
turned his attention to farming, where he now re- 
sides, in the town of Milwaukee, occasionally doing 
some surveying. 

In regard to his politics, has always voted with 
the democracy, yet never was a strict partisan, rather 



considered the man to be elected. At present his 
political views are, " Hard money for the people, a 
tariff for revenue only, honest payment of the pub- 
lic debt, free speech and free press, and opposition 
to a third term." 

He was married, January 15, 1850, to Miss Cornelia 
H. Mullie, who emigrated to Wisconsin from the 
kingdom of Holland in the year 1848. It was a 
very common expression of Mr. Buttles when in his 
teens, to say that he never would marry unless he 
could bestow his heart with a fine, large Dutch girl 
recently from the old country; yet strange to say 
such was really the case, as she was a fine, hale, 
hearty Dutch girl, and a lady above the average 
weight, and " the bill was filled in all its particulars." 
She not speaking the English language and he could 
not speak her native tongue, notwithstanding the 
contract was made without any obstacle, and after a 
time resulted in the raising of a family of eleven 
children — four sons and seven daughters, and at 
the present writing all are living, their parents also, 
and are all without a blemish upon either their per- 
sons or character, the eldest being now engaged 
in the public schools of Wisconsin and the next 
eldest fitting for the dry-goods business. 

Mr. Buttles' wife being the first woman who was 
propelled by steam on a railroad in Wisconsin, 
which took place on the Milwaukee and Mississippi 
railroad when a very short distance of the track was 
laid from Milwaukee west. 

His religious views have never been definitely ■ 
settled, never being connected with any church, but 
has always when possible attended the Episcopal 
church, of which his parents were members. 



WILLIAM E. SMITH, 



MIL WA UKEE. 



WILLIAM E. SMITH, of Milwaukee, mer- 
chant, was born in 1824, in Scotland, the son 
of Alexander and Sarah Smith, whose name, previous 
to her marriage, was Grant. His father was a man 
of education and culture, belonging to the middle 
class, and manager of a large landed estate. Mr. 
William E. Smith was quite young when he came to 
America. Lived first in New York, then in Michi- 
gan, and in Wisconsin in 1849 ; was educated in the 
public schools. 

He was married to Miss Mary Booth, daughter of 
13 



Rev. John Booth, of Michigan. He has two sons 
and two daughters. His oldest son was educated at 
the State University ; the younger is at the academy 
in Milwaukee. Both daughters have received a lib- 
eral education. 

In 1850 he was elected to the legislature from 
Dodge county, where he settled in 1849. He was 
first a whig, then a republican. The questions of 
the session were the abolition of capital punishment 
and the submission of the bank question to the peo- 
ple. In 1 85 1 he was nominated for reelection, and 



04 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHrCAL DrCTrONART. 



declined. He was elected to the senate in 1857. 
He attended the convention at Madison in 1854, 
which organized the republican party, taking an 
active part therein. During the first session in the 
senate he was a member of the committee on educa- 
tion. In the second session, in 1858, he was chair- 
man of the committee on education. In 1858 he was 
appointed one of the regents of normal schools, there 
being four now in the State. He was elected to the 
senate in 1863, serving in 1864 and 1865 ; was mem- 
ber of committee on finance and on banks, and was 
chairman of committee on benevolent institutions. 
In 1865 he was elected treasurer of the State, was 
reelected in 1867, and retired in January, 1870, from 
that office, enjoying the public confidence. He 
went to Europe in 1870 for observation and recrea- 
tion, and traveled through Great Britain and on the 
Continent. Returning in 1870 to his old home in 
Dodge county, he was reelected to the assembly, feel- 
ing very grateful for this indorsement of his public 
services after twenty years, and also by the State in 
electing him speaker of the assembly. 



He is a trustee of the Milwaukee Female College, 
and has been regent of normal schools seventeen 
years. He has been a trustee of the Wisconsin 
Female College at Fox Lake twenty years ; he is 
trustee of Wayland University at Beaver Dam ; 
trustee of the University of Chicago, Illinois; trustee 
and one of the executive committee of the North- 
western Life Insurance Company ; is State prison 
commissioner, to which position he was appointed 
by Governor Taylor ; he is vice-president of the 
Milwaukee Chamber of Commerce; representative 
of the chamber of commerce in the National Board 
of Trade, and one of the vice-presidents of the 
National Board of Trade. 

But few men in our country have ever been called 
upon to discharge the duties of as great a variety of 
offices as Mr. William E. Smith ; none has dis- 
charged them with more ability or with greater sat- 
isfaction to his countrymen. 

The purity of his life has disarmed envy and jeal- 
ousy of their malice, and the "smell of fire is not 
upon his garments." 



HENDERSON HUNT, M.D., 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of Nichols, 
New York, was born on the 4th of January, 
1813, of Ebenezer Hunt and Abigail m'e Dod. His 
paternal ancestors immigrated with the Pilgrims, and 
his grandfather Hunt, with five brothers, served dur- 
ing the war of the revolution. His maternal ances- 
tors, also, were among the first settlers of the colonies. 
His mother when quite young removed with her 
parents from Newark, New Jersey, to Fort Wyoming, 
soon after it was burnt by the Indians. And from this 
place the family removed up the Susquehanna river 
in a large boat propelled by poles to where Nichols 
now is, in the county of Tioga, New York. Here, 
on the east bank of the river, the Dod family perma- 
nently settled in an unbroken forest inhabited only 
by wild beasts and Indians. At the age of fifteen 
his mother married Andrew White, by whom she 
bore three children. The last remaining member of 
this branch of the family was the late Judge White 
of Jasper, Texas. After the death of White she 
married Ebenezer Hunt. The fruit of this alliance 
was six children, three boys and three girls, Hender- 
son being the second. 



Henderson's early life presented few marked char- 
acteristics, other than an ardent desire for knowl- 
edge and fondness of study. He lived with his 
parents, employing his time in farm work and study 
at home and at the district schools, and while there 
imbibed those habits of strict temperance and indus- 
try that have marked his subsequent career, having 
never chewed tobacco, or smoked a cigar or pipe, or 
drank a particle of ardent spirits as a beverage, from 
childhood to the present time. His retiring disposi- 
tion and native modesty naturally inclined him toward 
his books, in which he found most congenial com- 
pany. The sciences especially were his delight ; 
and having acquired the mastery of surveying, he left 
home at the age of twenty-two and went to Michi- 
gan, intending there to engage in his profession. 
But not meeting with the success that he had an- 
ticipated, he soon returned to New York and began 
the study of medicine with Dr. Terrey of Newark. 
At the expiration of six months, going to Ohio, he 
engaged in teaching in the high school of what is 
now South Cleveland. Five months later he entered 
the medical college at Worthington, Ohio, where he 




• »s. 



LP, &yM. 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



95 



matriculated for a full term of college studies, two 
winter and two summer courses of lectures, and 
graduated from the same in 1837. Returning to 
Cleveland he spent a short time in practice with Dr. 
Kellogg, and later continued his profession for three 
years at Chardon, Ohio. In 1841, removing to Wis- 
consin in his own private conveyance, he settled at 
Delavan, where, during a period of eight years, he 
conducted a large and continually growing practice. 
At the end of this time he matriculated as an M.D. 
in the University Medical College in the eity of 
New York, where he attended a full course of lec- 
tures, and in the spring returned home and again 
took up the practice of medicine in company with 
Dr. J. R. Bradway, his former pupil, now of Oak- 
land, California. 

In 1849, having purchased a large farm, he re- 
linquished his profession in part and turned his at- 
tention to agricultural pursuits. Aside from his 
regular business he has devoted much time to pub- 
lic enterprises. In 1851 he aided in organizing the 
Deaf and Dumb Institute, was chairman of the build- 
ing committee and served as president of the insti- 
tution during a period of seven years; and in all 
matters pertaining to the welfare of his city his sym- 
pathy and support have never been wanting. 

Politically, he was in early life a democrat, but 
in 1856 he became identified with the republican 
party, and has since remained a firm supporter of 
its principles. 



His early religious training on the part of his par- 
ents consisted more of Christian example enforced 
by positive injunction to do right regardless of con- 
sequences than by catechism. His parents were 
both sincere practical Christians, but did not belong 
to any denomination. Under such influences Hen- 
derson was left quite_ free to choose and embrace 
that form of doctrine he might think most reasona- 
ble. At the age of twelve he began to learn and 
receive the doctrines of the New Church, and in 
this faith has lived and grown for over fifty years, 
firmly believing it to be the true doctrine of revela- 
tion and the only one that is capable of fully har- 
monizing the bible with science ; and that one, too, 
which is filling the Christian world and the churches 
with a higher and purer life and light. 

He was married in 1838 to Miss Loraine B. Filler, 
of Newburg, Ohio, who died in 1849, leaving two 
sons, one daughter having died in early infancy. 
He was married a second time in 1850 to Miss 
Sarah A. Barlow, of Delavan, Wisconsin, and by her 
has had eight sons and one daughter. 

As a man. Dr. Hunt is widely known as upright 
and honorable in his dealing, while his social and 
personal qualities have secured to him a large circle 
of warm friends. His life has been one of varied 
e.xperiences, and now, having reached the sundown 
side, he enjoys the satisfaction of having done what 
he could to aid his fellow men, and of having de- 
veloped in himself a true and generous manhood. 



HON. PETER VICTOR DEUSTER, 



MIL WA UKEE. 



PETER VICTOR DEUSTER, a native of 
Prussia, was born near Cologne in that king- 
dom on the 13th of February, 1831. He is the 
only son of Mathias and Anna C. (Koenen) Deuster. 

The groundwork of the lad's education was laid 
at the common school, where he pursued his studies 
until he attained the age of thirteen. He was then 
removed to an academy, and continued there until 
his parents immigrated to America, three years later. 

In the month of May, 1847, they set sail for the 
United States and landed in Milwaukee in July. 
Mathias Deuster bought a farm in Milwaukee 
county, and his son turned his hand to farming 
until winter set in, when he entered the printing 
office of the late Hon. Moritz Schoefiler, editor of 



the ■' Wisconsin Banner," as an apprentice. For 
three years he remained in this employment, until 
his indenture expired. He then worked for over a 
year longer as Mr. Schoeffler's accountant and col- 
lector. 

Peter V. Deuster then commenced the ]iubli- 
cation of a literary weekly paper called the " Haus- 
freund " which he edited, printed and carried for 
about six months, at the end of which time he was 
engaged as foreman in the "See Bote "office and 
held that position until November, 1854. About 
this time he was offered the charge of a newspaper 
published by Judge A. Heidkamp, at Port Washing- 
ton, Wisconsin, and accepted the same. He entered 
at once upon his duties but did not confine himself 



96 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARi: 



to the task of superintending the paper. He ran 
the post-office, was deputy clerk of the circuit court, 
notary public, land agent, did banking business, and 
at night taught school for young men. 

In 1856, after having made all arrangements for 
starting a paper at Green Bay, he was offered a third 
interest in the " See Bote," and in September of that 
year he returned to Milwaukee and entered into 
partnership with Messrs. Greulich and Rickert as 
publishers of the said newspaper. A year afterward 
he purchased Mr. Rickert's interest, and in i860 he 
bought out his remaining partner, the Hon. August 
Greulich, and has ever since published and edited 
the paper alone. 

Mr. Deuster was born and educated in the Roman 
Catholic faith, but although still an adherent to this 
ancient church, he is also a believer in the doctrine 
of Frederick the Great, "To let every man attain to 
salvation according to his own notion." 

Ever since he has been old enough to form any 
opinion on political matters he has been an admirer 
of the Jeffersonian democracy, and still holds the 
fundamental principles of the same as the safest for 
the preservation of liberty. 

In the year 1862 Mr. Deuster was chosen by the 
citizens of the south side of Milwaukee to represent 
them in the legislative assembly, and in 1869 he was 



elected to the State senate from the sixth senatorial 
district, which was composed of part of the city of 
Milwaukee. 

In addition to the various nevi'spapers that we 
have before alluded to, we must not omit to men- 
tion that he was the publisher of the Chicago " Daily 
Union " (a democratic German paper) from 1869 to 
the outbreak of the great fire. 

Although Mr. Deuster has led such a busy life he 
found time to make a trip to Europe in 1865, and 
visited all the principal parts of Germany. In 1874 
he went to California, where he remained for about 
six months, with the object of seeing all the noted 
places of that State. 

He was married, January 10, i860, to Agathe Ger- 
trude, only daughter of John Stoltz, Esq., one of 
the earliest settlers of the city of Milwaukee. 

Mr. Deuster's record is that of a man who is not 
satisfied unless actively engaged. His has been a 
career of industry, and as steady application to 
work is the healthiest training for every individual, 
I so is it the best discipline of a State. The idle pass 
' through life leaving as little trace of their existence 
as foam upon the water or smoke upon the air; 
whereas the industrious stamp their character upon 
their age, and influence not only their own but all 
succeeding generations. 



ALBERT B. GEILFUSS, 



MIL WA UKEE. 



ALBERT B. GEILFUSS is a native of Germany, 
. and was born in Saxony, March i, 1847, whence 
at the age of four years he was brought to the 
United States. His father, who is still living, was a 
school-teacher, and spared no pains in the educa- 
tion of his eight children. The family remained in 
New York until 1854, when they removed to Mil- 
waukee, where the subject of our notice was at once 
placed at school in the German and English Acad- 
emy, under the care of the learned and much 
lamented Professor Peter Engelmann. Here he was 
a close student, history, mathematics and the lan- 
guages being his favorite studies. He remained in 
the academy until 1861, when he graduated with 
the highest honors. Immediately after leaving school 
he was employed in tl^e boot and shoe store of B. 
Stern, as clerk and assistant. Disliking the business, 
he soon after entered the banking house of Price, 



Bros, and Co., as errand-boy, when after a short 
time he took charge of the books during an illness 
of their accountant. He rapidly acquired a knowl- 
edge of banking, and in 1865 was engaged as 
book-keeper of the Fifth Ward Bank, now South 
Side Savings Bank, where he also acted in the capac- 
ity of teller. In the fall of that year. Price, Bros, 
and Co. recommended him very strongly to Good- 
rich, Rumsey and Co., their successors in business, 
where he remained until March, 1867, when he was 
called to the Merchants' National Bank of Milwau- 
kee, by its president, Mr. E. H. Goodrich, as teller 
and general assistant. Mr. Geilfuss filled this posi- 
tion until 1870, when the Merchants' National Bank 
went into voluntary liquidation, and was succeeded 
by the Bank of Commerce (Edward O'Neill, presi- 
dent, John Black, vice-president), in the organization 
of which Mr, Geilfuss rendered very valuable assist- 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



97 



ance. The directors of this bank comprised many 
of the wealthiest and most prominent merchants 
and capitalists of Milwaukee, and they immediately 
appointed Mr. Geilfuss cashier. A greater evidence 
of confidence in character and ability could hardly 
have been given to so young a man, as Mr. Geilfuss 
was then but twenty-three years of age — by far the 
youngest cashier that had ever been appointed in 
Milwaukee. His close attention to business, to- 
gether with the careful management of all matters 
intrusted to him, rendered him exceedingly popular 
with the customers of the bank, and the directors 
rewarded him with a reelection every year to the 
position of cashier. 

In politics, Mr. Geilfuss may be called independ- 
ent. He has generally voted the republican ticket. 
He, however, took an active part in the liberal 
movement, and in May, 1872, was elected a delegate 
to the Cincinnati convention, and was chosen secre- 
tary of the Wisconsin delegation. 

His religious views are broad and liberal, his aim 
being "to do right." He is not only tolerant of 
others' views, but gives full credit to all for sincerity, 
when their works accord with their profession. He 
is of a very social disposition, and has been elected 



three times to the presidency of the Germania Lit- 
erary Society. He has frequently been chosen to 
official positions in the Milwaukee Musical Society, 
Milwaukee Mjennerchor, and Young Men's Associ- 
ation, of which latter institution he has been thrice 
treasurer; the last term he was elected without op- 
position. He has been twice elected treasurer of 
the Milwaukee Musical Society, and is at present 
one of the five trustees selected for the management 
of the Academy of Music. 

In September, 1869, he was married to Josephine 
A. Bremer, eldest daughter of George Bremer, the 
senior partner of one of the oldest grocery houses 
in Milwaukee. He has three children, a boy and 
two girls, living. Mr. Geilfuss has attained not only 
a great and well deserved popularity, but has been 
the recipient of many positions of trust, due not 
alone to a marked and singular business talent, but 
to an unswerving integrity, and a faithful adherence 
to the interests of those whom he has always so 
truly served in the responsible offices he has filled. 
The fearless, honest and upright manner in which 
he has at all times discharged his duties has won for 
him a deep respect and an unlimited confidence, 
that cannot be but gratifying to so young a man. 



WILLIAM H. RODWAY, 



MIL WA UKEE. 



WILLIAM H. RODWAY, a native of Wilt- 
shire, England, was born on the 29th of 
March, 1823, and is the son of Richard Rodway and 
Ann ne'e Fisher. His mother was descended from a 
very old and respectable family, and both her father 
and grandfather were captains in the British navy. 
William had a great fondness for study and literary 
pursuits, and while a pupil in the common schools 
was noted for his power of declamation and aptness 
in his studies. At the age of fifteen years he left 
school and during the ne.\t five years served an 
apprenticeship in a dry-goods house, and there laid 
the foundation of his subsequent business career. 
.\t the close of his term of service he removed to 
London and there spent several years in the same 
business with Messrs. Stagg and Mantle, Geo. Hitch- 
cock and Co., and Swan and Edgar. His stay in 
London was especially beneficial to him in perfect- 
ing his knowledge of business and bringing him into 
more direct contact with the most prominent mer- 



chants. After filling many positions of trust to the 
entire satisfaction of his employers, he left London 
[ and spent one year with his uncle, John Fisher, of 
; Bristol, proprietor of a herse and carriage repository. 
i In 1849 he immigrated to the United States, and 
settled in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Here for a time 
I he was somewhat unfortunate ; soon after his 
arrival all his clothes were stolen, and at the end of 
the first year he had e.xhausted nearly all his means. 
I He was next engaged for a short time in painting, 
I and soon afterward, in company wfth Mr. Acheson, 
I purchased the first lithograph press ever brought to 
Chicago, and under the firm name of Acheson and 
! Rodway began that business which has become so 
extensively known as the Chicago Lithograph Com- 
pany. At the same time he began dealing in real 
estate, and other remunerative occupations, and 
finally devoted his attention almost wholly to real 
I estate operations. In 1857 he owned about twenty 
thousand acres of land in different parts of Wiscon- 



98 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



sin, and has continued his extensive dealings up to 
the present time. Besides this he has an interest of 
eighty thousand dollars in a sash, door and blind 
factory, which is conducted under the firm name of 
Rodway, Conway and Co., and ships largely of his 
goods to thirteen different States. Their facilities 
for carrying on their business are unsurpassed by 
those of any establishment in the State, and they 
are widely known for their sound financial standing. 
In his real estate dealings especially, Mr. Rodway 
has shown himself preeminently a business man; 
and his strict honesty, undoubted integrity and 
keen perception have placed him among the fore- 
most men of his city. He has negotiated some of 
the largest sales ever made in his State, and was 
chiefly instrumental in the sale to the United States 
Government of the property near Milwaukee on 
which now stands the Soldiers' National Home. 

In his political views he is a staunch republican, 
and has been a warm supporter of General Grant 
since the battle of Pittsburg Landing. His ambi- 
tion, however, has not been for political honors or 
emoluments, he finding in his regular business more 



\ satisfactory and congenial work, and ample scope 
for his best talents. He has traveled extensively, 
and in visiting the principal cities both in this 
country and Europe he has gained an invaluable 
experience and an accurate knowledge of men and 
things. 

His religious training was under rigid Episco- 
palian influences, and he is now a worthy and 
zealous member of that church. 

Mr. Rodway has been twice married ; first in 
1848 to Miss Eliza Jane Fisher, who died on the 
3d of January, 1864. His second marriage was on 
the 27th of June, 1865, to Mrs. Hannah Mary 
Hathaway, a native of Perth, Scotland, and daughter 
of Joseph and Mary Smith. Her father, a revenue 
officer in England, died in her majesty's service. 

Mr. Rodway 's taste and delicacy in all matters of 
literature and art, his keen wit and fine power of 
expression, render him a most pleasing man socially 
to his few near and intimate friends, and only those 
who have known him thus can appreciate him as 
the delightful companion, the generous host and 
friend, as well as the successful business man. 



COLONEL WILLIAM L. UTLEY, 



WILLIAM L. UTLEY, a native of Monson, 
Massachusetts, was born on the loth of July, 
1814. His father, a graduate of one of the best col- 
leges of his day, had been a successful business 
man, but with many others failed in the cotton man- 
ufacturing business, at tlie close of the war of 1812. 
Abandoning the luxuries which had surrounded 
him, he removed his family to the " Western Re- 
serve " in Ohio, then a dense wilderness, whose still- 
ness was broken only by the crack of the Indian's 
rifle or the tread of wild beasts. At this time, Wil- 
liam was four years old; and surrounded by such 
scenes of pioneer life he passed his boyhood, receiv- 
ing his education in a log school-house, and at the 
hands of his father and mother. His first ambition 
was to become a hunter; this, however, was suc- 
ceeded by a taste for music and painting, and with 
a view to cultivating his talents in this direction, he 
left his home in Ohio at the age of twenty-one, and 
went to New York State. Having little money he 
struggled hard, sometimes having plenty, and at 
others being reduced to penury, and thus lived a 



nomadic life until .\ugust, 1844, when he found him- 
self in Racine, Wisconsin, a portrait painter and 
fiddler. Up to this time his political views had been 
democratic, although he had taken no active part in 
political matters, and could with difficulty define his 
opinions. His political career began in 1848, when 
he abandoned his former sentiments, and became 
identified with the free-soil or republican movement 
at the first meeting of that body ever held in the 
United States. Upon that issue he was elected the 
first marshal Racine ever had, and growing in zeal 
and political favor, he was, in 1850, elected to the 
legislature and reelected in 185 1. In the following 
year he was appointed adjutant-general of the State 
by Governor Leonard J. Farwell, and from that time 
till i860 held various positions of public trust, but 
was most of the time engaged in keeping public- 
house, in which business he was financially suc- 
cessful. He was elected to the State senate in i860, 
and there rendered most efficient service, distin- 
guishing himself in opposing the demands of the 
South and in assisting to put the State in readiness 



THE ItNITED .STATES B/OGRAPH/CAL DlCTlONAnY. 



99 



for war. At the opening of the rebellion in 1861 
Governor Alexander Randall appointed him adju- 
tant-general of the State, and although there was 
hardly a soldier in the State when he entered upon 
his duties, within six months he placed thirty thous- 
and men in the field, and was highly complimented 
in a private letter from President Lincoln for his 
prompt and energetic action. Upon the accession 
of Governor Harvey he left the adjutant-general's 
office and again took his seat in the senate. Soon 
after his return home at the close of the session in 
1862, he received a colonel's commission from Gov- 
ernor Solomon, with orders to raise a regiment in 
ten days. At the expiration of that time he reported 
at Madison with men enough to form t'*o regiments, 
one of which, the 22d, was assigned to him; and 
with them, undrilled, he went to the front and as- 
sisted in driving Kirby Smith and General Bragg 
out of Kentucky, and was the first to carry the 
president's emancipation proclamation through that 
State, which he did at the point of the bayonet. 
Leaving Kentucky in February, 1863, he went to 
Tennessee, and there, at Spring Hill, his regiment, 
with the entire brigade of General Coburn, were 
taken prisoners, and confined for several months in 
Libby Prison. Upon being exchanged, the regi- 
ment was reorganized at St. Louis, Missouri, and 
from there went to Franklin, Tennessee. He was 
soon afterward placed in command of the post regi- 
ment at Murphysboro, where he remained till Feb- 
ruary, 1864. Soon after, joining General Sherman's 
army in the famous " march to the sea," he partici- 
pated in all the battles till the taking of Atlanta, and 
distinguished himself by his valor on all occasions. 
On the 5th of July, 1864, hy reason of impaired 



health, he was obliged to resign his commission and 
return to his hoine. After regaining his health, in 
company with his son, the then only survivor of his 
family, he purchased the " Racine Journal," which 
was then a poorly patronized democratic sheet, and 
changing its politics, made of it a widely circulated 
and influential paper. At the end of nine years of 
successful labor as a journalist, he closed his con- 
nection with the " Journal " and devoted his attention 
to his duties as postmaster, an office to which he 
had been appointed by General Grant in 1869, and 
reappointed in 1873. He was chiefly instrumental 
in securing the erection of the fine post-office building 
of his city. Mr. Utley has given special attention 
to the raising of blooded horses for nearly thirty 
years, and has raised many which have become cel- 
ebrated, among which is the horse " Billy Utley." 

In his religious views he is a Universalist, and 
believes that God will overrule all things for good. 
Naturally kind, genial and social, he is a most agree- 
able companion. Firm, prompt and decided, he 
never proves untrue to his promise, stands ready to 
make any sacrifice for a friend, and never turns his 
back upon an enemy. 

He has been twice married: first, on the nth of 
July, 1839. to Miss Louisa Wing, who died April 10, 
1864 ; they had three children, of whom one, a son, is 
now living. Secondly, on the 22d of February, 1866, 
to Miss Sarah J. VVooster, by whom he has one son. 

Naturally domestic in his habits, Mr. Utley finds 
his chief enjoyment in his own family, and is most 
highly esteemed and respected by them as a devoted 
husband and fond father, while by all whom he 
knows he is admired as an upright and fair dealing 
gentleman. 



LEVI BLOSSOM, 



MIL WA UKEE. 



LEVI BLOSSOM was born at Canaseraga, Alle- 
^ gany county. State of New York, September 
23, 1813. His parents, Levi and Cynthia Blos- 
som, were natives of New England. He was edu- 
cated in the common schools of the State in which 
he was born. Self-made man, as it were, he left 
home at an early age, when quite a boy, remaining 
in his native State until the year 1836. Thrown 
upon his own resources when about fourteen, he 
came west, arriving at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in 



November, 1836, having been among the earliest 
settlers, and identified with nearly every public work 
for years. A few years ago he went south, and was 
engaged in the raising and cultivation of cotton, but 
returned again to Milwaukee, and remained there 
until a few days previous to his death. Mr. Blossom 
was one of the first to suggest the building of the 
Lake Shore Railroad from Milwaukee to Chicago. 
The project was regarded as utterly chimerical, as it 
was thought impossible for the road to compete with 



too 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



the water route. But he entered upon the work with 
extraordinary energy, and, by a series of addresses 
to the people along the proposed line, induced them 
to subscribe liberally for its construction. Thus the 
scheme was pushed forward to realization in the 
road which now constitutes the Milwaukee division 
of the Chicago and Northwestern system. It shows 
how abundantly Mr. Blossom's prescience was vin- 
dicated, that now another road has been built par- 
allel to this, and that both enjoy remunerative 
business. And this was by no means the only enter- 
prise that he conceived with admirable judgment 
and promoted with resistless energy and fertility of 
resource. The plank roads leading out of Milwau- 
kee at an early day, and also the lake avenue, a pop- 
ular drive leading to what is familiarly known as 
Whitefish Bay, were projected and completed under 
his supervision. He was also a large stockholder 
in the Northwestern Iron Company, and treasurer of 
said company for several years. Mr. Blossom was 
an able debater and fluent speaker, and ready to 
support, by individual effort and on the platform, 
any interest of trade or reform or enterprise for the 
public weal. 

In politics Mr. Blossom was a whig, and acted 
with the party during its existence ; but when the 
republican party came into power he acted with and 
supported the principles of that party until his death. 

Mr. Blossom was a constant attendant of the 
Episcopal church, and gave generously of his means 
for the support of the same. He also made many 
and liberal donations to the poor of Milwaukee, and 



many will feel the want of one who was ever ready 
to assist them in their hour of distress, and they will 
mourn the loss of a friend who so often contributed 
to their relief. 

Mr. Blossom was a man possessed of great energy 
and foresight in business matters, and had great 
executive ability in prosecuting any measure or pro- 
ject which he undertook. He was also a public- 
spirited man, ever ready to assist others in promot- 
ing and consummating any great public work or 
enterprise which would contribute to the prosperity 
and welfare of his adopted city and State. He was 
well and favorably known throughout the Northwest, 
and was generally conceded to have been one of the 
ablest busiiress men and financiers during his resi- 
dence in Wisconsin, a period of thirty-seven years. 

Levi Blossom died at the Grand Hotel, San Fran- 
cisco, Friday evening, October 31, 1873, of erysip- 
elas, aged sixty years. He arrived in California only 
two days previous to his death, accompanied by his 
family, who returned to their former home with the 
last remains of the husband and father, who had 
only a few days before, been in the enjoyment of 
health and every promise of a long life. The funeral 
ceremonies were from St. Paul's Church, Milwaukee, 
on the 7th of December, 1873, where he attended 
more than thirty years, and were conducted by Rev. 
Dr. Keene, assisted by Rev. Dr. Cole, of Neshota. 
Then passed from view Levi Blossom, one of the 
pioneers of Wisconsin, a man of genial nature, of 
noble, generous impulses, and one who possessed a 
large and earnest public spirit. 



EDWIN H. GALLOWAY. 



FOND DV LAC. 



IS a native of Harrisburg, Lewis county. New 
York, where he was born April 12, 1825. He 
is the son of Charles Galloway and Ann /ice Moore. 
His father was a farmer by occupation, and ranked 
high as a neighbor and citizen. Edwin in his younger 
days was sent to the district school, and afterward 
finished his studies at the Lowville Academy. At the 
close of school he entered the employ of a merchant, 
and passed two years as a clerk and salesman. Then 
being twenty-three years of age, of a slight physical 
build, with a money capital hardly equaling his nec- 
essary traveling expenses, he started westward, and 
located at Fond du Lac, arriving there in the summer 



of 1848. The place was then a small village, hardly 
known on the map, but speedily destined, with such 
citizens as young Galloway to develop its resources, 
to spring forth as a champion, in growth and pros- 
perity, for the leadership of the State. 

Starting in as an operator in real estate, he touched 
merchandise incidentally for a short time only, and 
then took up lumbering, in its various and extended 
forms. His real-estate and lumbering operations he 
followed closely and successfully until the year 1866, 
when by reason of his imperfect health, which for- 
bade the constant day and night strain necessary in 
carrying on a business then widely extended, and em- 




.^2^^^^e^ty , 



THE tmiTED STATES n/OGPAP/f/CA/. DICTIOXAnV 



bracing various enterprises of magnitude, he began 
gradually to withdraw from affairs requiring active 
employment, and arranged and reduced his invest- 
ments more in keeping with the capacity of his phys- 
ical strength. For the jjaslr ten years he has been a 
jirincipal stockholder and manager of the Savings 
Bank of Fonddu Lac, and is now the vice-president 
of that institution. j 

Although for years ranking as one of the most I 
active and successful business men of the State, he j 
has ever been, and is to-day, devotedly attached to | 
his home and his friends. His domestic nature and j 
genial temperament are never to be destroyed by 
the e.Kcitement and wear of business affairs. He may 
always be found at his office or with his family. The 
onl\ exception to this rule in the past has been, when 
from a sense of duty he has accepted, now and then, 
some of the many political positions tendered and 
urged upon him by the community, wherein the per- 
formance of public duties necessitated his absence 
from both, a condition requiring the keenest sacri- 
fice on his part. 

Another prominent, and perhaps the most promi- j 
nent, characteristic of this man, is his universal be- i 



nevolence, and almost unlimited charity to the poor. 
This spirit on his part lias not found expression by 
glittering endowments, or other public exhibition of 
its donations; for although during his every day 
life, whenever any public enterprise, any religious 
society, or any laudable project wliatever, from a 
new railroad to a summer-day picnic, needs aid or 
encouragement, they always find in him a ready and 
generous friend, yet it is among the individual 
poor, those in trouble, in distress, the sick or dis- 
couraged, cases that do not rise to public notice, 
conditions requiring kind counsel, as well as mate- 
rial aid, that Mr. Galloway and his family have dis- 
tributed tlieir unsurpassed kindness and generous 
aid ; until their names and deeds are household 
words among the poor. 

Mr. Galloway was married November 5, 1850, to 
Maria H. Adams, by whom he has had two sons and 
three daughters, all of whom (except one son who 
died quite young) are still living. 

He has recently erected an elegant and conven- 
ient residence on his farm near the city, where he 
passes much of his time, surrounded by his family 
and enjoying tliose comforts he so richly deserves. 



WILLIAM H. LATHROP, 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of Man- 
chester, Bennington county, Vermont, was born 
on the 13th of July, 18 16, and is the son of Hubbel 
l.athrop and Laura nee Brownson. His father, a 
»ell-to-do farmer, was much respected in his com- 
munity. After receiving his primary education, he 
spent half a year in the Burr Seminary immediately 
after its opening in 1833, and at the expiration of 
that time accepted a clerkship in the dry-goods 
store of William G. Henry, of Bennington, Vermont. 
He remained here two years, and in 1835 went to 
North Bennington and clerked for Messrs. Robinson, 
Blackmer and Co. till 1837. He next formed a 
copartnership with William E. Hawk, and opened 
a general store, which he conducted till 1839, when 
he closed out his business, and in the following year 
removed to Wisconsin, and settled at Racine. Dur- 
ing the first year after his arrival he employed his 
time in the store of Charles S. Wright, and in the 
post-office under Dr. Elias Smith. In 1842, return- 
ing to his native place, he spent about a year in set- 



tling up his father's estate, he having died in the 
meantime; and, upon his return to Racine in the 
summer of 1844, he purchased a farm of two hun- 
dred and forty acres, three miles from the city, and 
engaged in farming and real estate operations. \\\ 
1S45, forming a partnership with Mr. R, S. King and 
Mr. J. G. Conroe, he began a forwarding business, 
under the firm name of King, Conroe and Co., 
and a lumber trade under the firm name of Lathrop 
and Conroe. At tlie end of one year Mr. C. A. 
Lathrop, a brother, and L. W. Munroe, purchased 
the interest of Mr. King, and the above first 
named firm changed to Lathrop, Munroe and Co. 
In 1852 Mr. Munroe sold his interest to his son, H. 
B. Monroe, and the firm became known as Lathrop 
and Monroe. In the following year Mr. Lathrop 
purchased Mr. Monroe's interest, and the firm name 
again changed to W. H. Lathrop and Co., C. A. 
Lathrop remaining in the business. In 1855 the 
business was discontinued, Mr. Lathrop selling his 
elevator, which he had erected in 1848, to the West- 



I02 



THE UNITED STATES R/OGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 



em Union Railroad Company. The next three 
years were occupied in closing up the business of the 
firm, and in 1858 he again engaged in the grain and 
general forwarding and commission business in the 
elevator known as the Norton and Durand elevator. 
Running the elevator on a joint interest with the 
owners till 1865, he then purchased and enlarged it, 
and continued its operation till 1870, when it was 
burned, being insured for about two-thirds its value. 
Since that time Mr. Lathrop, though not actively 
engaged in business, has dealt to some extent in real 
estate. 

Formerly a whig in his political views, he is now a 
republican, and has been honored by his fellow citi- 
zens with positions of public trust. He has been a 
director and vice-president of the First National 
Bank, of Racine since its organization, and was also 
director and vice-president of the Racine county 
Bank, organized in 1854, and elected a director of 
the same in 1855. He was also secretary and treas- 
urer of the Rock River Plank Road Company dur- 
ing its existence of thirteen years. In 1856 he was 



appointed receiver of the Racine and Mississippi 
Railroad, now known as the Western Union Railroad 
Company. 

In his religious sentiments Mr, Lathrop is identi- 
fied with the Episcopalians, and is a worthy member 
of St. Luke's Church of Racine. 

He was married on the 22d of June, 1842, to Miss 
Harriet Ann Munroe, by whom he has had one son 
and one daughter, neither of whom are now living. 

Mr. Lathrop, with his wife, has traveled and visited 
many of the States in the Union and gained a most 
valuable experience. In 1856 they visited Cuba, 
and, on their return, visited all the principal cities of 
the southern States, and were present at the inaugu- 
ration of President Buchanan. In 1872 thrv visited 
California, and spent the winter in the soutl.ern part 
of that State. 

As a business man he is widely known for his hon- 
orable dealing, financial ability and untiring enter- 
prise, while personally and socially he is possessed 
of those noble and gentlemanly qualities which must 
always command the respect and esteem of men. 



MANOAH D. MILLER, 



MADISON. 



MANOAH D. MILLER, the subject of this 
sketch, was born February 15, 181 1, in Eliz- 
abethtown, Essex county. New York, son of Manoah 
and Elizabeth Miller, whose exemplary lives made a 
lasting impression upon the future career of their 
son. His father was a public-spirited man, and held 
several ofiices of honor and of trust, among them 
those of member of the legislative assembly and of 
judge of Essex county. In his capacity of legislator, 
in 18 13, he was a warm advocate of that system of 
internal improvements inaugurated by Governor 
DeWitt Clinton which has made the State of New 
York, in population, enterprise and wealth, the first 
in the Union. His social relations with the governor 
were of the most cordial character, as evidenced by 
a letter from the governor to him which has been 
preserved as a sort of heirloom in the family. 

Manoah D. Miller received a common-school 
education in his native county and completed it at 
Madison University, in New York, in which institu- 
tion he qualified himself as a minister of the gospel. 
He entered the Baptist church as a clergyman, 
which position he held with credit to himself and 



advantage to his church during twenty- two years. 
During the early part of his life he worked on a 
farm. At the age of thirteen he commenced learn- 
ing the trade of cabinet making. At the age of 
nineteen he commenced business for himself, and 
, retired from it at the age of twenty-one. He again 
I resumed his studies for the ministry, and when com- 
pleted became pastor of the churches at Monkton, 
Springfield, Danville, Windham, Wilmington and 
Addison, all in Vermont. He received the honor- 
ary degree of A.M. from Middlebury College. He 
was no less distinguished for his ministerial abilities 
than for his business capacity, and his aid was fre- 
quently solicited in various sections of the country 
to build churches. 

Learning that there were th^ee thousand inhabit- 
ants in Madison, Wisconsin, and no Baptist church 
edifice, he could not resist the temptation to exert 
his talents on this new field of usefulness. He ac- 
cordingly came to Madison in January, 1853, and 
commenced the work of erecting a church edifice, 
in which he succeeded after encountering difficulties 
that at first seemed insurmountable, there being no 




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103 



railroads, and materials very scarce. But few men 
have contributed more to building up the city of 
Madison or to induce immigration, and with that 
view, besides the business houses he erected several 
private residences, some of them among the most 
desirable in the city. Notwithstanding his incessant 
labors in the erection of his church edifice, he was 
unremitting in his pastoral duties, and preached 
every Sabbath in the court-house. These arduous 
duties so impaired his health that he was unable to 
speak any longer in public, and by the advice of his 
physicians retired from the pulpit. Partially recov- 
ering his health, his aid was again solicited and ren- 
dered at Beaver Dam in erecting a university. 

In June, 1857, he organized the Wisconsin Bank 
of Madison under the State law, and closed it at the 
commencement of the rebellion. At this period he 
commenced the business of private banking, in con- 
nection with life and fire insurance, which terminated 
in 1870. In politics, he was a whig until the forma- 
tion of the republican party, but was never a parti- 
san. He has been chaplain of the Good Templars' 
Lodge in Madison a considerable portion of the 
time during fifteen years; has been president of the 
Dane county Bible Society for many years ; during 
all of which time he has led an irreproachable life, 
commanding the respect of all those with whom 
business brought him in contact, and winning the 
esteem and the affection of the virtuous. 

In November, 1831, he married Phoebe Ensign, 



daughter of Deacon John Ensign, of Essex county, 
New York. She has been to him what Providence 
designed all wives to be, a help-meet as well in 
jjrivate as in public business, during the last fprty 
years. 

Believing it a duty he owed to his Maker, to him- 
self and to his children, to bring them up in some 
useful employment, he has taken his eldest son, 
Charles B. Miller, a married man, to the farm on 
which he resides, in sight of the city of Madison. 
The second son, Carlton E. Miller, has learned the 
trade of a tinner. 

Mr. Miller's forefathers were among the early set- 
tlers of the United States, and participated in the 
revolutionary war. He was a warm Union man 
during the late rebellion, and sent his eldest son to 
the army. He knows the value of a good soldier, 
having been, and is yet, a soldier of the cross, en- 
listing at the commencement of his service for life. 

He is now enjoying in dignified retirement the 
reward of his labors in the consciousness of a well 
spent life, and in the hope that in the world to come 
he will be greeted with the salutation, " Well done, 
good and faithful servant; enter thou into tlie joy of 
thy Lord." 

It is gratifying to the patriot, the philanthropist 
and the Christian to become acquainted with the 
character of those individuals whose lives have illus- 
trated the utility as well as the purity and dignity of 
manhood. 



EDWARD O'NEILL, 

MILWAUKEE. 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of the 
county of Kilkenny, Ireland, was born March 
II, 1820, and is the son of Laurence O'Neill and 
Margaret ne'e Swift. Edward received his educa- 
tion in a parochial school of his native town, after 
leaving which his ambitious aspirations led him to 
leave his home and set sail for America, in hope of 
ameliorating his condition. Upon his arrival in 
New York in the spring of 1837, he found himself 
so short of money that he was obliged to seek im- 
mediate employment, which he gladly found in an 
opportunity to learn the tailoring business; and 
after an apprenticeship of two years he followed his 
trade upon his own account for nine years in the 
Stale of Vermont. During this time, by industrious 



and temperate habits, he succeeded in building 
up a prosperous business, and saving about three 
thousand dollars; and, having a natural taste for 
study, it became his custom, after performing his 
daily routine of business, to sit up far into the night 
in order to read historical and other instructive 
works, for the purpose of storing his mind with use- 
ful knowledge. In the month of October, 1850, he 
moved West and settled in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 
where he continued his former trade for one year, 
after which he engaged in the clothing business for 
several years, and then sold out his interest to hi.s 
partner. He subsequently established himself in 
the coal trade, but as the demand for coal was not 
sufficient at that early day to insure success, he 



[o6 



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He is tolerant of all religious creeds founded 
upon moral principles. His mental characteristics 
are quickness of perception, decision of purpose and 
energy of action. He reads the character of men 
readily and decides promptly upon their qualifica- 
tions. Such men seem born to command; Napoleon 
and Jackson were remarkable illustrations of this 
truth ; with them to perceive, to decide and to exe- 
cute were synonymous terms. 

Mr. Merrill's ceaseless vigilance, tireless exertion 
and sound judgment have given a high character to 



the road of which he is general manager, and have 
made it financially a success. Although he exacts 
a rigid compliance with his contracts and tolerates 
no dereliction from duty, he is just in his dealings 
with all men and kind to his employes. 

In the sacredness of home, in the society of wife, 
children and friends, he is the kind husband, the 
indulgent father and the genial host. 

The example of such men furnishes incentive to 
enterprise, encouragement to the hopeful toiler, and 
reflects honor upon our country. 



LEVI H. KELLOGG, 



MIL WA UKEE. 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of Sheffield, 
Berkshire county, Massachusetts, was born on 
the 24th of August, 1817, the son of Amasa Kellogg 
and Abiah nee Callender. When he was four years 
of age his parents removed to Oneida county, New 
York, and here he resided with them until he at- 
tained his sixteenth year, dividing his time between 
farm work and study in the common school, and 
also for a time was engaged in his brother's store. 
Independent in his nature, he early manifested a 
disposition to do something, and gladly anticipated 
the time when, by his own merit, he could take an 
honorable position among men. Conscious of his 
own ability to triumph over difficulties, he was not 
content to toil for a mere subsistence, and left his 
home with a firm determination to succeed, inspired 
with high hopes and incited by a worthy ambition. 
In 1833, joining the westward tide of immigration, 
he removed to Monroe, Michigan. Of his journey 
thither, long and tedious, he gives a most vivid de- 
scription. The Maumee swamp, of Ohio, was a 
formidable obstacle in the way of immigrants moving 
west. Over this dreary waste of mud and water, 
thirty-one miles in width, the gloomy silence of des- 
olation reigned supreme, and the joy of our subject 
may be imagined when, after struggling in the 
sloughs for nearly three days, he set his foot again 
on terra-firma. The whole journey occupied three 
weeks, and was accomplished alone with his team. 
He resided in Michigan fourteen years, engaged in 
enterprises of different kinds, but not, however, to 
the neglect of the cultivation of his mind. Carefully 
economizing his time, he eagerly employed every 
means for acquiring knowledge requisite to fit him 



for any position, public or private, to which he 
might be called. In 1847, having been financially 
successful, he closed his affairs in Michigan and 
removed to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, then a mere vil- 
lage, and employed his capital and energies in con- 
ducting a large business, comprising an elevator, 
milling, steamboating and produce commission. His 
tastes and experiences eminently fitted him for his 
work, and as a consequence success and prosperity 
continually attended him. He was always keenly 
alive to the interests of his city, and with the same 
zeal which he manifested in his own business, worked 
for her growth and welfare. His business relations 
gave to him a wide reputation, and throughout the 
Northwest he was esteemed as a man of superior 
business attainments, generous and honorable in the 
highest sense. In his own city he is remembered 
by young men whom he assisted and encouraged, 
and his name and deeds are cherished by hundreds 
who gladly acknowledge his bounty and advice. 

Preeminently a business man, he eschewed politics 
and devoted his life to the furtherance of worthy 
objects, and this, too, although his fellow-citizens, 
recognizing his worth, solicited his services for pub- 
lic trusts. In the spring of 1873, yielding to the 
wishes of his friends, he was elected mayor of Mil- 
waukee, but owing to some unimportant technicality, 
based upon the fact tliat when elected he was a 
member of the city council, with characteristic hon- 
esty and manliness he refused to qualify, believing 
that any irregularity in his official acts as mayor, at 
a time when matters vital to the interests of the city 
were to be passed upon, was sufficient reason for 
his declining to serve. The act was highly honora- 



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!07 



ble, and typifies a long life upon which there is 
neither spot or blemish, and indicates the purpose of 
a man whose name is the synonym of all that is 
good, honorable, noble and true. As a financier 
Mr. Kellogg was held in high repute. His extensive 
business, requiring all the skill and tact of an active 
brain, was managed with masterly ability, and his 
career furnishes an example most worthy of emula- 
tion. Beginning life with less than fifty dollars, he 
cast himself upon his own powers, and by energy 
working his way gradually up to his position of afflu- 
ence and honor, he may justly be called a self-made r 
man and the architect of his own fortune. 

A distinguishing characteristic of this man was his 
generous benevolence. It is said of him that no 
deserving appeal for charity ever passed unheeded ; ; 
that he gave bountifully of his riches, and always j 
had a kind word, a " God speed " and substantial | 
aid for the young man embarking in business. In ' 
the early days of Milwaukee he became connected j 
with the Odd-Fellows, and soon took a high position 



in that body. Deeply interested in promulgating the 
principles of the order, he himself established many 
lodges in the State, and scarcely a member of the 
order in Wisconsin is unfamiliar with liis name. and 
influence. Especially is he remembered and loved 
by the older members, for the struggles and difficul- 
ties attending the establishment of the order in a 
new State bound these pioneers in a brotherhood 
that death alone can sever. 

Mr. Kellogg united with the First Presbyterian 
Church of Milwaukee in 1858, and until his death, 
which occurred on the 12th of December, 1873, 
remained a zealous and faithful member. 

He was married December 25, 1839, to Miss Helen 
Barnard, of Monroe, Michigan. Of their children 
two sons are now living. 

Such is the life history of a truly noble man. 
Standing out prominently from corruption, dishon- 
esty, and all that tends to degrade and demoralize, 
he may truly be placed upon the roll of self-made 
men, a worthy example of generous manhood. 



MORITZ L. MORAWETZ, 



M7LU AUKEE. 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of Rand- 
nitz, Bohemia, a province of Austria, was born 
on the 15th of June, 1823, and is the son of Abram 
I. Morawetz and Amelia ne'e Iserstein. His father, 
though an unassuming man, was the recipient of 
many public honors. Moritz received his early 
education under private tuition at home, and later 
studied one year in the public high school of Prague. 
He early decided to follow a mercantile life, and 
during the first four years after leaving school was 
engaged in a wholesale grocery house. At the close 
of this engagement he accepted a prominent position 
in a wholesale silk, ribbon and notion house of 
Pesth, Hungary, which he occupied for four years. 
During this time his usefulness as a citizen gained 
the public recognition of the municipal authorities, 
and in 1847, on the occasion of his leaving Pesth for 
Vienna, he was made the recipient of a flattering 
testimonial, which bore the signature of the mayor 
and other officials. His going to Vienna was with 
the intention of entering into business on his own 
account, but he was precluded from this by the 
political revolution between Austria and Hungary 
which began in 1848. 



When in the following autumn Vienna was besieged, 
with no prospects of an immediate settlement of 
difficulties, Mr. Morawetz returned to his father, 
who had won high and honorable distinction among 
his people, and who, owing to the confused state of 
affairs and the uncertainty of entering into business, 
consented to his son's desire of immigrating to 
America. Arriving in Baltimore, Maryland, in July, 
1849, young Morawetz at once sought a situation 
where he might learn the language, customs and 
manners of his new home. His efforts, however, 
were unsuccessful, and not willing to remain idle he 
opened a small business on his own account. His 
nativity and affable manners soon secured to him a 
Jiigh social standing and drew around him a large circle 
of respectable and pleasant acquaintances and friends. 
His business prospered and in a few years became 
remunerative, and he saw before him a bright future. 
Learning of the superior inducements offered to 
young men by western cities, he followed the advice 
of an elderly merchant in whom he had found a true 
friend, and accepted an offer of an old acquaintance 
in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to associate with him in 
his already established business. Removing thither 



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in the fall of 1853, lie was j^reatly disappointed at 
not finding the condition of things what he had 
anticipated. Accordingly the arrangements with 
his friend for entering into business were never con- 
summated, and he passed the following winter in 
looking for another engagement and deciding upon 
what course to pursue. 

In the spring of 1854 he established himself in the 
dry-goods trade, and conducted a successful busi- 
ness, till he received from Messrs. Bremer and Co. 
overtures to become a partner in their wholesale 
grocery house, which had been established in 1850,' 
and was enjoying a high reputation. Closing up his 



own business he entered into the copartnership, and 

has since shared in the success that has attended 

the well known firm of George Bremer and Co. The 

house is the oldest of the kind in the city, and one 

of the most successful in the West. It has an 

unbounded credit, and during all the financial crises 

through which it has passed never failed to meet an 

engagement. Public-spirited and enterprising, they 

have taken an active interest in all enterprises con- 

I nected with the welfare of their city, and contrib- 

j uted liberally to benevolent and charitable objects. 

Mr. Morawetz was married in 1856 to Fanny 

I Morawetz, of Rundnitz, Bohemia. 



JOHN M. KEEP, 



JANESVILLE. 



JOHN M. KEEP, the subject of this brief sketch, 
J who was the second son of General Martin Keep, 
was born at Homer, Cortland county, in the State 
of New York, on the 26th of January, 1813. His 
parents were both from New England and among 
the first settlers of Cortland county. 

After obtaining the rudiments of education at the 
district school, lie at an early age entered the Cort- 
land Academy, at Homer, where he pursued the 
usual routine of academic studies, and prepared 
himself for college. He entered Hamilton College 
in 1832 and graduated in 1836, and was one of the 
first members of the Alpha Delta Phi Society in 
that institution. The same year he commenced his 
legal studies with Augustus Donnelly, a distinguished 
counselor-at-law, at Homer, New York, and com- 
pleted them with Horatio Seymour, Esq., at Buffalo. 
He was duly admitted to the bar and commenced 
practice at Westfield, New York, and in the year 
1845 lie removed to Beloit, in the State of Wiscon- 
sin, then a mere settlement, where he continued to 
reside until his death. Here he engaged not only 
in a large law practice but also took a very active 
part in all the enterprises that promised to promote 
the growth of the place and enhance the welfare of 
society. In the purchase and sale of lands, in the 
erection of buildings, in the iironiotion of institutions 
of learning and the construction of railroads he took 
an important part, and in many of these enterprises 
was the animating spirit. 

His mind seemed to gras[) every subject and his 
enterprise embraced every occupation. Though a 



lawyer by profession, and otherwise engaged in a 
variety of pursuits, agriculture did not escape his 
attention or want his fostering care, for he knew 
that upon it depended the wealth, independence 
and morality of his adopted State. Whatever was 
good or useful, whatever tended to elevate human 
nature or ameliorate the condition of mankind, was 
sure to find in him cordial support and efficient aid. 
The value of his labors are to be estimated chiefly 
by the results flowing from his great and active 
mind — a mind rich in the profession of every moral 
and intellectual quality. In the young and growing 
State and city of which he was a resident no man 
impressed his name on more enterprises of private 
munificence or public utility. 

His chief qualities of natural greatness were moral 
courage, great energy, ready decision and an indom- 
itable will. Few men possess these qualities in so 
remarkable a degree as John M. Keep, because few 
men are so profusely endowed with the omnipotence 
of genius. Systematic in the employment of his time, 
he was capable of doing rapidly and well what most 
persons could not perform without much time and 
great labor. Bred to the bar, his mind was too 
original and of too broad a cast to be bound by 
those narrow and confined views which bind the 
mere lawyer to former precedents and adjudged 
cases; he combined the more noble properties of 
justice with legal adjudications, commingling the 
principles of equity with legal rule, thus mitigating 
the too oft severity of legal despotism. 

In the spring of 1856 he was elected, without 




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109 



opposition, judge of the first judicial circuit of tlie 
State of Wisconsin, but at the end of two and a half 
years he was compelled to resign this laborious 
office on account of the loss of health and the press- 
ure of his private business. It soon became evident 
that consumption had fastened itself upon him, and 
from this time the wasting of his bodily powers went 
on gradually, although he retained to the last mo- 
ment of his life the full vigor of his mind. 

Upon the death of Judge Keep, meetings of the 
bar were held at Beloit, Janesville, and also of the 
first judicial circuit, and appropriate resolutions 
passed and eulogies pronounced upon the life and 
services of the deceased. 

At the meeting of the bar of the circuit, the Hon. 
H. S. Conger, the present presiding judge, on taking 
the chair, said, "Judge Keep, however regarded, 
was no ordinary man. As a citizen he was generouS) 
benevolent and public-spirited. Of great firmness 
of character, untiring resolution and indomitable 
energy, he was bold, fearless and independent in 
thought and action, more resolute in the accomplish- 
ment of whatever he regarded his duty than solicit- 
ous to win praise or favor at any sacrifice of princi- 
ple, however small." 

As a lawyer appreciating the responsibilities and 
duties of the profession, no man had a higher regard 
for its honor or reprobated more earnestly its pros- 
titution to base purposes. 

Elected circuit judge in 1856, and holding the 
office for two years until impelled to resign on ac- 
count of the pressure of his own private business, 
he carried to the discharge of the important duties 
of that office great ability, unwearied industry, and 
honesty and integrity never assailed. In the lan- 
guage of another who knew him well, " he dignified 
the bench rather than received dignity from it." 

The death of Judge Keep will be a great loss, not 
only to the profession but to the community at large. 
Calm, courageous, hopeful and trustful, he died as 
he had lived, confiding in a faith that had never for- 
saken him, resigned to that Providence in whom 
was his trust, in the full possession of all his mental 
faculties, vigorous even in death, and meeting the 
great change with the courage of a philosopher and 
the hope of a Christian. As much as there was in 
his life to emulate, there is in his death found in- 
struction equally valuable. 

In religion Mr. Keep was a Congregationalist, 
having united with that denomination at the age of 
sixteen years, and like it, he was liberal and tolerant 
15 



respecting the tenets of other denominations; he 
would tolerate every class of sincere professors and 
protect them in their ideas of divine worship. In ( 

all the relations of life and the connections which 
he formed with various classes of people, he pre- 
served unblemished his Christian character. 

His charities more than kept pace with his ability, 
and his pecuniary aid and legal advice were ever at 
the service of the poor and unfortunate. 

Perhaps no better perspective of his life and char- • 

acter can be given than is contained in the following 
e-\tract from a letter of recent date from the pen of 
the Hon. S. J. Todd, of Beloit, a long and intimate ; 

friend of Judge Keep. 

As long as his liealtli would permit, 
busy one, and unlike most men olacti\' 

mental processes are rapid, he had the faculty of steady, 
untirint; persexeranee. When he beL;an to do anything he 
never relinquished it until he had completed it or until it 
became impossible. This faculty I have usually found to 
exist only in slow men, which John M. Keep was not. 
When I first knew him he had been a resident of Beloit for 
six years. During this time he was engaged in the practice 
of the law and in the purchase and sale of real estate; con- 
sequently a very large number of men in Rock county, and 
the adjoining counties of Boone and Winnebago, Illinois, 
were living upon lands which they held under contract of 
purchase from him, and very many of these men — I think 
a majority of them — were always in arrears in the payment 
of principal and interest. He never declared a contract for- 
feited and never brouglit a suit against one of these pur- 
chasers so long as they stayed upon the land and exhibited 
a willingness to pay ; but un the other hand, whenever they 
had been unfortunate, from tlie loss of crops or sickness, 
they were sure of substantial sympathy, which did not con- 
sist wholly of kind words, and he had the rare faculty of 
being charitable without assuming the air of patronage. 
These charities were large and manifold, yet they were 
given with so little ostentation that no one, however proud 
or sensitive he might be, was ever embarrassed or humili- 
ated by receiving aid at his hands, and more than this, he 
never spoke of these things. 

And this reminds me of another peculiarity in his char- 
acter. He was the most reticent, self-reliant, self- con trolled 
and the bravest man I ever met, without a single element 
of fear or diffidence, and at the same time he was the most 
truly modest man I have ever known, never exhibiting 
vanity or egotism, and consequently no man ever heard 
him exalt or speak boastingly of himself or what he had 
done or inteiideil to do. In this regard he came fully up to 
L'lni-nn's de-i i-iiilion of Graltaii, in his reply to Lord Ers- 
kine- inieMi.-n, "What does Henry Grattan say of himself, 
my 1(11 l1 .' " .S;n s Curran, " Henry Grattan never speaks of 
himself. You could not draw an opinion out of him on 
that subject with a six horse team." Further, as a rule he 
never spoke of his enemies nor of his controversies with 
them. No matter what the gravity or magnitude of their 
charges or accusations might be, he was too indifferent to 
them, or too proud, to condescend to make any reply or 
explanation. The consequence was that he sometimes suf- 
fered in the public estimation, and his best friends were 
often embarrassed b^ the contemptuous silence with which 
he treated the ground of these accusations. 

It is hardly necessary to speak of him as judge, a position 
he filled with such eminent ability. As I remember him 
he nearly realized my ideal of a circuit judge. There as 
elsewhere he was composed, patient and impartial, always 
easy of approach by every one; quick in his perception of 



no 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



every case presented lor his decision, and never too proud 
to reconsider his own decisions when he found that lie was 
in the wrong. 

He died with the satne steady composure that character- 
ized him through life, thoughtful and considerate of those 
about him until his last moment of life, when he closed his 
eyes in death. 

" Like one who wraps the drapery of his couch 
About him, and lies down to pleasant dreams." 

That Mr. Keep had enemies no one i.s asked to 
doubt. All public men must have them, and the 
greater the man the more bitter and powerful his 
enemies, as a rule. The collision of claims and the 
collision of interests, an ardent zeal on one side or 
the other of a question, political antagonisms — all 
conspire to create opposition, denunciation and ill 
will. He was not one of those who feared to do 
anything lest he might do something wrong. He 
acted from principle, and when fully persuaded of 
the correctness of his position never wavered or 
faltered in his course. If difficulties increased, his 
energy and resolution increased with them. If the 
circle of his confidential friends was contracted it 
was not because he discarded friendships when 
they ceased to be profitable, but because he was 
reticent and self-engaged. He was never very com- 
promising or conciliatory in his deportment. There 
was austerity as well as frankness in his manner that 
sometimes made him bitter opponents, but he had 
the happy faculty of retaining through life a host of 
warm friends whose ardent love was proof of his 
private worth more honorable to his character than 
even the prominence of his great abilities. 

As a writer he was clear, terse and didactic. His 
great endowments of disciplined thought imparted 
to his hastiest compositions elaborate force, and the 
grace of perfection. Bold in his propositions, clear 
in his statements, rapid in execution, complete in 
demonstration, he was inexorable in his conclusions. 
Grant him his premises and the result was as inevi- 
table as fate. He did not fatigue himself with deli- 
cate metaphysical abstractions nor bewilder his 
mind with speculative theories, but like an arrow 
impelled by a vigorous power he shot directly to 
the mark. In all his qualifications as a judge it may 
be said without questioning that he had few equals 
and no superiors in this State. The dignity of the 
circuit court while he presided over it is still spoken 
of as a model of excellence, and his judicial opinions 
have established for him the reputation of an able 
lawyer. 

As a public speaker he was direct and logical, 
addressing himself to the reason and understanding 



rather than to the passions and prejudices of men, 
and his conversational powers when interested were 
of the highest order. Before a deliberative body he 
was a man of great influence, but he was too much 
a matter-of-fact man to indulge in popular harangues. 

His early political preferences and party associa- 
tions were with the whig, and later, with the repub- 
lican party, but he displayed at all times great 
independence and high-mindedness, never yielding 
his own deliberate judgment to popular applause or 
sacrificed his own convictions to the prevailing sen- 
timents of the day, nor was he ever a candidate for 
any political office. 

During his last days the excitement growing out 
of the disloyal and belligerent position of the south- 
ern States became more and more intense, yet not- 
withstanding his enfeebled condition, he watched 
with unusual interest all the proceedings in congress 
until his feelings were roused with all the ardor of 
an intense patriotism, and he frequently expressed a 
great desire to be restored to health that he might 
participate in the impending struggle on the part of 
the Union. 

In person Mr. Keep was tall, erect and rather 
slender, his manner dignified and graceful, his eye 
large, black and penetrating, and his whole counte- 
nance expressive of great energy and determination. 
His speech was pleasant and all his motions seemed 
to partake of the unceasing activity of his mind, and 
the most casual glance upon him in action, or repose, 
never failed to impress the beholder with an instinct- 
ive sense of his superiority. 

He was married in 1839 to Cornelia A. Reynolds, 
daughter of John A. Reynolds of Westfield, New 
York, a lady of rare culture and Christian virtues, 
who still survives him. 

In the family circle, the place of all others to test 
the value of genuine worth, Mr. Keep was tender 
and affectionate, very anxious for the welfare of his 
children and particularly solicitous about their edu- 
cation. He left four children, two sons and two 
daughters. 

He died on the 2d of March, 1861, aged forty- 
eight years, and although but in middle life few men 
have left such a record of private worth and public 
usefulness. 

His death was a very remarkable one. In fact 
death in its usual form never came near him. As 
said by Judge Conger, his end was indeed that of a 
philosopher, and his death the death of a Christian. 

For two years his strength wasted gradually until 




^'iJ/;^^^//'^' 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



he had not sufficient left to draw a breath, and so he 
ceased to breathe. The morning on which he died 
he was dressed and occupied his easy chair, on 
which he had reposed during his sickness, looked 
over papers from his safe, gave directions in regard 
to their disposition, conversed with his friends and 
neighbors, and the several members of his family 
separately, taking affectionate leave of each, but still, 
though his pulse had long ceased to beat, he was not 
ready to go, for he was waiting the expected arrival 
of his sister from Janesville, Mrs. Graham, who had 
been summoned to his side, and looking at his 
watch and noting the time of the arrival of the cars 



he remarked, " I fear she has not come ;" but watch- 
ing the window, in a moment he said, " Indeed she 
has come." After a few minutes' conversation with 
his sister he said, " I am now ready to depart," and 

" Death broke at once the vital chaia 
And freed his sonl the nearest way." 

This brief sketch of John M. Keep will be barely 
sufficient to give the reader a bird's-eye view of the 
excellency of his life, but the more secret and minute 
peculiarities which most endear him to his friends 
can never be known save to those whose personal 
relations to him were such as to enable them to form 
adequate estimates of his private virtues. 



HUGO MACK, 



MILWAUKEE. 



THE subject of this sketch was born in Alten- 
kundstadt, Bavaria, on the 25th of August, 
1840, the son of Solomon Mack and Henrietta nee 
Lowenthal. He attended the common schools of 
his native town, and later attended college at Bay- 
reuth and Bamberg, Bavaria. 

In July, 1854, induced by an elder brother, who 
was then visiting his old home, he immigrated to 
the United States, and settled in Milwaukee, Wiscon- 
sin. During the next three years he remained 
clerking in the employ of his brother, and at the 
same time attended the academy and Lincoln's 
College. After closing his studies he associated 
himself with Mr. P. Delahunt under the firm name 
of Mack and Delahunt, and opened a dry-goods 
store in La Crosse, Wisconsin, where he built up a 
substantial and prosperous trade, and became exten- 
sively known as an energetic and thoroughly quali- 
fied business man. Closing his affairs in i860 he 
visited his old home, and remained in his native 
country during the next two years, but at the expi- 



ration of that time returned to the United States, 
and going again to Milwaukee opened a wholesale 
fancy dry-goods and Yankee notion store. Owing 
to limited means he began on a small scale, but by 
constant energy, industry, economy and honorable 
dealing, gradually established a large and thriving 
business. 

Associating himself with his brother, Herman S., 
in 1867, he has since conducted a lucrative trade 
under the firm name of H. S. Mack and Co. 

\\\ 1870 he traveled through France, England, 
Germany and Switzerland, and gained a most valu- 
able experience and knowledge of men and things. 

He is a worthy member of the Masonic order, and 
in 187 I was elected high priest of Milwaukee Chap- 
ter No. 32, of F. and A. M., a position to which he 
has since been annually reelected. 

Mr. Mack was married on the 28th of June, 187 1, 
to Miss Bertha Herman, daughter of A. S. Herman, 
one of the oldest and most respected business men 
of New York city. 



O. W. WIGHT, M.D., 



MILWAUKEE. 



DR. O. W. WIGHT was born on the 19th of 
February, 1824, in the town of Centerville, 
Allegany county. New York. His parental ances- 
tor, Thomas Wight, emigrated from the famous Isle 
of Wight in 1637, and settled first at Dedham, 



Massachusetts. His father was, therefore, a native 
New Englander, but moved to New York at an early 
day. He married a lady whose maiden name was 
Van Buren, a member of that family so famous, not 
only in the political annals of New York, but of the 



T12 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



nation. 'I'lie subject of this sketch was the first 
fruit of that marriage. At the time of his birth his 
father was a farmer, and from infancy up to boyhood 
his home was upon the farm, and with the toils and 
tasks incident to that condition in life he was made 
familiar. His education was begun in the district 
school, to which he was sent at such odd times as his 
manual services were not needed at home on the 
farm. He was apt to learn, and even with these 
limited opportunities, before he was ten years of age 
he had acquired all the knowledge the district school 
teacher was able to impart. He had a natural taste 
for mathematics, and among the few books which 
his father possessed he one day discovered a trea- 
tise on algebra, and with no instructor but his own 
genius, he had made himself thoroughly familiar with 
its contents before he was eleven. At the age of 
twelve he was sent away to a distant village to attend 
what was called a select school. At this institution 
his opportunities for study were greatly enlarged by 
the assistance of a liberally educated teacher, and 
he made such rapid progress that in a terra of six 
months he had added the entire West Point series 
to his stock of mathematical acquisitions. From 
this time until he was fifteen he continued his stud- 
ies at home, without the aid of a teacher, at which 
period he removed with his father to Westfield, in 
the county of Chautauqua, where he was employed 
as a teacher for a short term. In the village of 
Westfield, four miles distant from his father's house, 
there was an academy of some considerable note, 
and to this institution he walked daily during a 
period of several months for the purpose of taking 
his first lessons in Latin and Greek. Having thus 
laid the foundation for his knowledge of the ancient 
languages, he continued the interesting pursuit alone 
until he had finished more than a university course 
of reading. Being still employed upon the farm he 
made the study of the classics his recreation, often 
spending half the night in delightful converse with 
them. Indeed he was seldom without either one or 
the other of his favorite authors; they were required 
to take turns in accompanying him to the field, and 
instead of whistling for want of thought as he fol- 
lowed the plow, his active mind was busily employed 
in contemplations upon the warlike scenes before 
the walls of Troy, or occupied with the more sooth- 
ing reflections inspired by the peaceful songs of 
Horace. In 1844, when he was twenty years of age, 
the subject of our sketch graduated at the collegiate 
institution in Rochester, New York, and soon after 



this he became connected with Genoa Academy, in 
Cayuga county, New York, as a teacher of Latin and 
Greek. This position he held for one year, and then 
resigned it for the purpose of accepting the profes- 
sorship of mathematics and languages in Cayuga 
Academy, located at Aurora, in the same county. 
In 1847 he relinquished his professorship for the 
purpose of accepting the presidency of Auburn 
Female Seminary, to which he had been elected by 
the board of trustees. That he should be selected to 
fill a position of such delicate responsibility at the 
age of twenty-three sufficiently shows the high es- 
teem in which he was then held as a man of worth, 
ability and learning. He did not, however, retain 
the situation, in consequence of a difference in relig- 
ious sentiments between him and the trustees of the 
institution. Finding that he could not retain his 
position consistently with his own ideas of liberty of 
thought, and knowing full well that religious differ- 
ences admitted of no compromises, he sent in his 
resignation to the trustees of the seminary, and soon 
after wentto New York city, with a view of entering 
upon a literary career. He did not remain long in 
the metropolis of the nation before he found work 
to do. He was employed in the literary department 
of the "Democratic Review," and subsequently held 
a similar position on the editorial staff of the " Whig 
Review." His contributions to both periodicals at- 
tracted marked attention, and soon won for their 
author a high reputation as a scholar and a vigorous 
writer. At about this period in his life he began a 
serious and thoughtful investigation of the religious 
question, first reading Leibnitz, and never pausing in 
his inquiries until he had completed a thorough and 
systematic course in theology. Beginning his inves- 
tigations with liberal sentiments, reading, reflection 
and study into the great mystery served but to con- 
firm his impressions and deepen his convictions, and 
the final result was that he arose from his theolog- 
ical, task with many doubts removed, but wholly 
emancipated from the shackles of creeds, sects and 
dogmas, and at the same time settled in the logical 
conclusion that the best religion was that which 
taught the philosophical doctrine that everything 
was ordered for the best. After having completed 
his theological studies he was ordained a minister 
by the Rev. Dr. E. H. Chapin, but true to his opti- 
mistic views, he declined to unite with any church 
or subscribe to any creed. During the three subse- 
quent years he followed his new vocation, having 
accepted the position of religious instructor to a 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



"3 



society in Newark, New Jersey, which was composed 
of a mixed congregation of Universalists, Unitarians 
and Swedenborgians. Dr. Wight's discourses, which 
were more like philosophical essays than sermons, 
attracted the attention of the intellectual classes. At 
the end of three years he terminated his engagement 
at Newark, and went to the city of Boston, where he 
remained for two years, occupying his time in read- 
ing, writing and lecturing on a variety of topics. As 
he had from boyhood up been governed by system 
in his literary pursuits, he now devoted his reading 
hours to the subject of metaphysics. During these 
two years he also wrote the lives of Abelard and 
Heloise, translated and published M. Cousin's " His- 
tory of Philosophy," collected and published in book 
form Sir William Hamilton's philosophical papers, 
with an introduction and explanatory notes. His 
edition of the last-named work is still used as a text- 
book in several of our colleges. 

In the spring of 1853 Dr. Wight crossed the At- 
lantic for the first time, on a literary visit to the old 
world. He divided the summer months between the 
three kingdoms of Scotland, England and Ireland, 
reaching London in the early part of the autumn, 
where he remained until the last of December. 
While there he was employed by a British publish- 
ing house to translate " The True, the Beautiful and 
the Good," a work written by M. Cousin. The ex- 
cellent manner in which he accomplished his literary 
task showed his perfect familiarity with the French 
language, and gave him a high reputation at once as 
a translator. His employers expressed their satis- 
faction in flattering terms, as the work commanded 
a rapid and very extensive sale. He crossed the 
channel early in January to winter in Paris. Having 
letters of introduction from distinguished sources in 
England, he had no difficulty in gaining admission 
into the best society of the Fubourg Saint Germain, 
where are to be found the most polished circles in 
the politest city of the world. It is rare that stran- 
gers meet with such opportunities for social enjoy- 
ment, cultivation and observation. Having spent an 
exceedingly profitable and pleasant winter in the 
French capital, he returned to America in the spring 
of 1854, where he remained but a short time before 
he recrossed the ocean for the purpose of a more 
extended tour on the continent of Europe. He was 
absent this time four years; although occupied in 
traveling in France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, 
England, etc., they were years of labor, study, thought 
and reflection. He strove not only to perfect him- 



self in the languages of the countries he visited, but 
to make himself familiar with their history, laws and 
customs, and the characteristics of the people. Dur- 
ing these four years he wrote a book in two volumes, 
which was published anonymously in London. Hav- 
ing completed his European tour, he once more re- 
turned to his native shore, settled in the vicinity of 
New York and resumed his literary labors, which he 
continued steadily to pursue for several subsequent 
years. He became a regular contributor to the 
" New Englander," the " North American," and 
other periodical publications. Original articles were 
not the only fruits of his literary efforts ; several 
translations from the French fell from his active 
and easy pen. Among those was a splendid edition 
of " Montaigne," " Pascal's Thoughts and Provincial 
Letters," "Germany," by Madame de Stael, "Cha- 
teaubriand's Martyrs," " Selections from Balzac," etc. 
In 1 86 1 he had an opportunity to return to Europe 
as a diplomate, the mission to Switzerland having 
been tendered to him by Mr. Seward, a position 
which he however declined. Soon after his first 
return from Europe Dr. Wight was married. 

Somewhat late in life Dr. Wight began the study 
of medicine, and having once turned his attention 
to the subject, his habit of investigation and tenacity 
of purpose forced him onward until he had added a 
full medical course to the sum of his mental acqui- 
sitions, and taken his regular degree as an M.D. 
The two years immediately preceding the close of 
the war Dr. Wight resided in the State of Pennsyl- 
vania upon an estate which he had purchased. Dur- 
ing this time he took quite an active part in politics. 
Soon after the war ended he came to Wisconsin; 
settled first at Oconomowoc, and for four years prac- 
ticed medicine in that locality. In 1871 he removed 
to Milwaukee, where he still resides. Notwithstand- 
ing his extensive literary labors, his study of lan- 
guages, his thorough investigations into the subjects 
of theology, metaphysics, philosophy and medicine, 
he has still found leisure to read through a regular 
course of legal studies and gain admission to the 
bar, although he has never made any practical use 
of it except in the management of his business. In 
the fall of 1873 Dr. Wight took an earnest and lead- 
ing part in organizing the elements of opposition to 
the republican party in Wisconsin, a movement which 
resulted in the nomination and election of Governor 
Taylor and his associates on the ticket. In the 
midst of the great variety of his other literary pur- 
suits he has not neglected the subject of politics, and 



114 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



his contributions to the political literature o.f the day, 
both on the stump and through the press, have been 
numerous and able. His life has been active and 
laborious, and very few men of his age have accom- 
plished more in results. His reading has been sys- 
tematic and thorough, and has familiarized him with 
almost every conceivable branch of knowledge and 
system of philosophy. His writings have been 
extensive, and some of his works have received 
favorable notice from transatlantic critics, and have 
been republished in England. At home his literary 
fame has won him honorary degrees from Yale Col- 
lege and other first-class institutions. He has also 
been offered the chair of modern languages in one 
New England College, the chair of history in another, 
and the chair of metaphysics in a third. Dr. Wight 
is a man of strong convictions, ardent temperament, 
and he always fulfills to the letter the scriptural in- 
junction, whatever he finds to do, to do it with all 
his might. But his title to honorable distinction 
does not rest solely upon the foundation of mere 
learning. In no sense can he be regarded as a 
book-worm, for nature has endowed him with the 
faculty of common sense in a large degree. Inherit- 



ing a strong and healthy constitution, which he has 
never impaired by intemperance or excess, he is 
capable of great endurance, both physical and men- 
tal. His retentive memory enables him to repeat 
long passages from ancient authors which he has not 
read for many years. 

Physically, Dr. Wight presents a fine specimen 
of mature manhood. He is six feet high, perfectly 
erect, and weighs one hundred and sixty-five pounds ; 
is quick in his movements, graceful, pleasing and 
social in his manners. The generosity of his nature 
not unfrequently leads him to acts of liberality 
which his means would hardly justify. In private 
life, and especially in the social circle when sur- 
rounded by a few chosen friends, his colloquial tal- 
ents make him a very interesting companion. 

Dr. Wight is now surgeon-general and State 
geologist of Wisconsin. His life has been one of 
unremitting activity, and if a man's actions are the 
unerring criteria of his character, and which, if in- 
spired by pure principles, are also the best commen- 
tary upon his life, then Dr. Wight's position in the 
literary and scientific world is as definite and fixed 
as any man's can be. 



WILLIAM C. E. THOMAS, 

GREEN BAT. 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of Muncy, 
Lycoming county, Pennsylvania, was born on 
the 2ist of November, 1818, and is the son of Arthur 
Tliomas, a merchant, and Susan lu'e Gillespie. His 
boyhood, very like that of others, presented no 
marked characteristics. He received a good Eng- 
lish education in the public schools, and in an acad- 
emy at Milton, Pennsylvania, and after closing his 
studies, served an apprenticeship of four years, learn- 
ing the printer's trade. In 1839, being then twen- 
ty-one years of age, he left his home, and removing 
to the West, settled at Galena, Illinois, where, four 
years later, he engaged in the publication of the 
" Galena Gazette." At the expiration of six years 
of successful work, he was forced by impaired health 
to close out his interests here, and removing to Green 
Bay, Wisconsin, erected a large tannery, and built up 
an extensive business. In 185 1, having accumulated 
sufficient capital, he established himself in the mer- 
cantile trade, opening a store of general merchan- \ 
dise, and continued thus employed during a period I 



of six years, in which time he became widely known 
as a thorough, reliable business man. Selling his 
mercantile interests in 1857, he spent the next two 
years as a forwarding and commission merchant, 
and at the same time engaged in the steamboat 
business. He was next employed as express agent, 
and in this, as in all other capacities in which he 
had acted, showed himself most worthy of the 
trust reposed in him. Aside from his regular busi- 
ness, he has been honored by his fellow-citizens 
with many responsible positions, and in no single 
instance has he failed to acquit himself with credit. 
Mr. Thomas, thus beginning life with no capital 
other than his own native powers, has so turned 
the circumstances into which he was thrown, that 
he has accumulated a competence, and by strict 
adherence to principle, has gained the reputation 
wherever he is known, of being a conscientious, 
prompt and true man. Coming to Wisconsin at an 
early day he has grown up with the State, and in 
all matters pertaining to its growth, and especially 




"%o 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



115 



to the development of liis own city, he has heartily 
lent his influence and support. He has traveled 
extensively throughout the United States, and gained 
an experience and a fund of knowledge which, com- 
bined with his excellent social qualities, render him 
a most agreeable companion. 

In 1854 he was elected the first mayor that Green 
Bay ever Jiad ; five years later he was chosen city 



clerk and justice of the peace, and was reelected to 
the office of clerk for each year till 1872. In 1871 
he was appointed postmaster by President Grant, 
and still holds that office. His political sentiments 
are republican. 

He was married on the 8th of March, 1846, to 
Miss Jane Eames, and by her has one son and one 
daughter. 



HON. LLEWELLYN BREESE, 



PORTAGE. 



LLEWELLYN BREESE was born May 13, 1833, 
^ at Abermynach, in the parish of Mallwyd, 
Meirionwethshire, North Wales. The name of his 
father, who is still living, is Edward Breese, and that 
of his mother, who died in April, 1873, was Mary 
Breese. He immigrated with his parents to this 
country in the month of May, 1846, and the family, 
consisting of father, mother, brother and himself, 
settled during the following summer on a farm in 
the town of Randolph, Columbia county, in this 
State. This was when Wisconsin was a territory 
and before the towii was organized. His education 
was academic. Lip to the age of twenty-five he was 
engaged most of the time with his parents in culti- 
vating the farm. In the fall of 1858, owing to im- 
paired health, which was brought on by severe ill- 
ness, he accepted the position of under sheriff of 
Columbia county, which was tendered him by Ben- 
jamin Williams, Esq., hoping thereby to improve his 
health and to extend his knowledge of business and 
the circle of his acquaintance. Previous to this he 
had held the offices of school district clerk, town 
supervisor, justice of the peace and town treasurer. 
When he removed to Portage to take the position 
of under sheriff, it was his intention at the expiration 
of his term, provided his health was restored, to 
return to the farm and devote the remainder of his 
life to the pursuit of agriculture ; but at the close of 
the term, in the fall of i860, he received from the 
republican county convention the nomination for 
county treasurer, and was elected the following No- 
vember. He held tlris position for three consecutive 
terms, in all six years, having no competitor for the 
office except in the first instance. In January, 1867, 
at the close of his third term as treasurer, he entered 
as a partner the dry-goods firm of N. H. Wood and 
Co., which was the most extensive business estab- 



lishment in the city. The firm was then composed 
of N. H. Wood, R. O. Loomis, C. R. Gallett and 
himself. This connection was continued until Jan- 
uary, 1869, when Mr. Wood disposed of his interest 
to the other partners and retired from the firm, 
which thereafter stood and was styled Loomis, Gal- 
lett and Breese. The firm as then constituted has 
never changed, and is still doing a large and suc- 
cessful business. In the summer of 1869, at the 
urgent solicitation of friends, especially those of his 
countrymen, he became a candidate for the office of 
state treasurer at the State convention held that fall. 
On the first informal ballot he received a plurality 
of the votes, but owing to local combinations the 
nomination fell to his competitor. In about a month 
after this convention, Hon. E. A. Spencer, the nom- 
inee for secretary of state, resigning the position 
upon the ticket, made it necessary for the State 
central committee to fill the vacancy by appoint- 
ment. Without solicitation on his part, or even 
knowledge of the vacancy, the committee tendered 
him the nomination for that place, communicating 
their action by telegraph. Had it not been for the 
persistent entreaty of a few intimate friends, promi- 
nent in the party, the appointment would have been 
declined. He was elected the following November. 
Under the organization of the State government 
of Wisconsin, the office of secretary of state is by 
far the most important of the State offices ; besides 
involving the duties of secretary of state proper, this 
officer is also cx-officio auditor of state, and school 
land commissioner, and also ex-officio commissioner 
of insurance. The last position was created by the 
legislature in 1870, soon after the commencement of 
his first term. In a majority of the other States 
these positions are distinct and separate offices, filled 
by persons elected or appointed for that purpose. 



ii6 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



In May, 1870, he represented Wisconsin as com- 
missioner of insurance at the national insurance 
convention, held in the city of New York. This 
convention was composed of those officers in the 
different States who had charge of the insurance 
departments therein. He was elected vice-president 
of the convention for the term of one year, and was 
also appointed chairman of the important standing 
committee on taxes, fees and deposits. This con- 
vention held its second session at the same place in 
the following October, when he was reelected to the 
same position for the year 1872. At its third session, 
held this year, he was elected president, and pre- 
sided at its fourth session, held in the city of Boston 
in September of the following year. After the ex- 
piration of his second term as secretary of state, he 
returned to his former residence at Portage and 
resumed his former occupation as a merchant. In 
addition to this he also held the positions of presi- 
dent of the City Bank of Portage, president of the 
Portage Iron Works and president of the board of 
education. He has been engaged in farming more 
or less extensively throughout his life. 

Religiously, he is a member and an elder of the 
Presbyterian church. His parents were members 
of the Welsh Calvinistic Methodist church, a denom- 
ination holding the same doctrines and having very 
nearly the same form of government. It was in this 
church that he was baptized in infancy and brought 
up ; he became a full member of it at the age of 
fourteen, maintaining this relation until he came to 
Portage in January, 1859, when, taking his letter of 
membership with him, he connected himself at once 
with the Presbyterian church of that city, with which 
he is now united. He received during his minority 
a very faithful and strict moral and religious training 



and education, both from his devoted parents and 
from the church, of which he was chosen superin- 
tendent of the Sabbath school at the age of twenty- 
one years, and labored in every department of relig- 
ious work in which it was proper for a layman to 
engage. Soon after removing to Portage he was 
elected deacon, and was shortly afterward elected 
an elder, holding the position until he removed to 
Madison. Shortly after taking up his residence'in 
Madison he was elected by the Presbyterian church 
of that city as one of its elders, which position he 
held while he remained with them, and after return- 
ing to his former residence at Portage he was re- 
elected to the same position in the Presbyterian 
church of that city. From an early age he has 
always been engaged either as a superintendent of 
a Sabbath school or as teacher of a class therein. 

The character of Mr. Breese very happily illus- 
trates the truth of the maxim that character is 
formed by circumstances. The most efficient agen- 
cies in the formation of character are the teachings 
by precept and example of parents to their children. 
Natural affection inspires the child not only with 
confidence in the ability of the parents, but with 
reverence for their virtues and faith in their religion. 
Mr. Breese's character for honor, integrity and piety 
are but the outgrowth of those qualities which dis- 
tinguish his parents, whereas men less favored in 
their birth and education have, lured by the beauty 
of virtue and the life of holiness, attained high 
moral excellence, but it has been a life-long struggle. 
The characters may be alike in moral beauty, yet 
the man who has struggled is the superior in mental 
strength. There is a majesty in the lives of the 
virtuous which awes the licentious into reverence. 
Pure morals are the basis of all true greatness. 



GEORGE W. OGDEN, 



MILWAUKEE. 



C-^ EORGE WHITFIELD OGDEN, a native of 
y Milwaukee, Wisconsin, was born on the 2Sth 
of October, 1844, and i« the son of John Ogden and 
Jane E. «/<? Gray. His parents were among the 
pioneers of Wisconsin, having settled there in 1835, 
and much esteemed by all who knew them. 

George's boyhood, presenting few marked charac- 
teristics, was very like that of other boys. Indus- 
trious, enterprising and energetic, he early laid the 



foundation of his subsequent success as a business 
man. After the close of his studies in the public 
schools of Milwaukee, at the age of sixteen, he was 
five years a clerk in the clothing store of P. G. 
Ogden, and afterward for one year in the same 
capacity w'ith a Mr. J. F. Wage. Subsequently he 
spent some time traveling in the West, with a view 
of settling, but finally returned, and engaged in 
clerking at Chicago, and there remained eight 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



117 



montlis. At the expiration of this time, his father, 
who had been engaged in a carriage manufacturing 
establishment since 1849, was about to retire from 
the concern, and the son, seeing in the enterprise a 
fine opening, at once assumed the business, which at 
that time was very much run down, and by bringing 
to it his best energies, soon established a most 
flourishing trade, — to give a full history of which 
would require more space than we have at our 
disposal, hence the following brief outline. The 
business was established by his father, who had 
purchased a small concern on West Water street, in 
1849. Remaining there till 1852, he removed to 
the present premises on Spring street, and in con- 
nection with his own manufacture of carriages and 
wagons, introduced eastern made carriages. After 
several years a partner was admitted, and the man- 
ufacturing confined to carriages, buggies and sleighs. 
The firm was dissolved in 1857, and during the suc- 
ceeding ten years his father conducted it in his 
own name, and at the end of that time turned it over 
to its present proprietor. Without any practical 
knowledge of the business, but with fine executive 
ability, and a capital of four thousand dollars, he 
started out in his new enterprise. The number 
of hands employed has, in the nine years during 
which he has been in charge of the establishment, 



increased from ten to over thirty, and the amount 
of work in like proportion. The present annual 
product from the sale of his own work is fifty 
thousand dollars. The extent of the premises is 
two hundred by fifty feet, and the quality of the 
work unsurpassed by any in the East or West, having 
in all of its several lines been awarded the first pre- 
miums at various State fairs. Mr. Ogden owes his 
success entirely to his own effort. When entering 
upon his enterprise his first object was to establish 
a reputation, which he did by producing a superior 
quality of work, and thus meeting the highest de- 
mands of the trade. He has given his personal at- 
tention to the management of his business, and by 
industry and untiring effort has become known, far 
and near, for the beauty, utility and durability of his 
work. 

In political affairs Mr. Ogden has never taken 
any active part, finding in his vocation ample scope 
for the employment of all his time and talents. His 
views, however, coincide in the main with the repub- 
lican party. 

His religious sentiments are orthodox. 

He was married on the 28th of October, 1873, to 
Miss M. Elizabeth Noxon, daughter of Judge James 
Noxon, and granddaughter of Judge B. Davis Noxon, 
of Syracuse, New York. 



EUGENE F. WARREN. 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of Fort 
Covington, New York, was born June 30, 
1833, and is the son of Lemuel Warren, Montpelier, 
Vermont, and Betsy R. ne'e Richardson, of Washing- 
ton county, New York. When Eugene was but five 
years of age his family started for the West to regain 
the fortune which the father had unfortunately lost 
through speculation and sickness. Landing at Mil- 
waukee, Wisconsin, on July 5, 1838, they proceeded 
thence to Janesville, Wisconsin, a small town situ- 
ated upon Rock river. Here, although "times were 
hard," his father and mother, with the assistance of 
his three eldest brothers and eldest sister, succeeded 
in making a living. Three years subsequent to their 
arrival at Janesville they settled upon a farm in the 
town of Union, now known as Center, situated on the 
Madison road at a distance of twelve miles from 
Janesville. Here Eugene first commenced those 



minor duties of farm life which his extreme youth 
could compass, and in which he displayed great 
energy and facility. When he had attained the age 
of thirteen, his three elder brothers, William, Zeb- 
iner and John, having left home to battle with the 
world on their own account, great grief and affiiction 
came upon the family in the death, first of the father 
and subsequently of the three sisters, Maria, Louisa 
and Elizabeth. Those of the family who remained 
could scarce recover from such a blow, but putting 
their trust in God they struggled on and finally suc- 
ceeded in paying for their 'farm by hard work and 
prudent economy. As the care of the farm naturally 
devolved upon Eugene, he found little time or op- 
portunity to devote to school, spending but three 
months each winter in this manner ; but, thanks to 
the fact that his mother had formerly been a teacher, 
he received from her the most important elements 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



of early instruction. At the age of twenty-one, with 
a capital of five hundred dollars, he went to Albany, 
Wisconsin, and there entered into a copartnership 
with his brothers, John and Lemuel, in the mercan- 
tile business, which he pursued for sixteen years in 
their company, when he bought out their interest 
and continued in the business alone for five years. 
Meanwhile, in 1861, it had been thought advisable 
for either himself or one of his brothers to enlist in 
the service of their country, which was at that time 
so much in need of men; and as he had always had 
military aspirations and had commanded an inde- 
pendent company of artillery for three years, he 
thought that he was naturally the one to go, and 
accordingly, on the 28th of August, enlisted in Com- 
pany B, 13th Regiment Wisconsin Volunteers, of 
which he was soon appointed first lieutenant. In 
the year 1862 he was in the army of Kansas, where 
there was no fighting, but long and tedious marches 
to be accomplished over the ice and snow-clad prai- 
ries, and the following year, being sent to the army 
of the Tennessee, was engaged in fighting " bush- 
whackers," and scouting, most of the time, at Forts 
Henry and Donelson. While here he was detailed 
as judge advocate of a general court martial which 
continued in session for three months, fifty-two cases 
being tried and five men receiving the sentence of 
death. In the fall of 1863 he was ordered to Hunts- 
ville, Alabama, and thence to Stephenson, Alabama, 
where, after a long and weary march on short 
rations, he remained until November, when he pro- 
ceeded to and encamped in the village of Edgefilla, 
opposite Nashville, Tennessee; here he remained 
until the summer of 1864, and then returned to his 
family and business. He had been at home but one 
week, however, when he received from the secretary 
of war an appointment to a captaincy in Major-Gen- 
eral Hancock's corps, but as one of his brothers had 



accepted an appointment to the position of United 
States revenue collector, and the other was in very 
poor health, and his business was, in consequence, 
left entirely in the hands of employes, he was obliged 
to decline the appointment. 

In the year 1869 he built a large flouring mill on 
the site formerly occupied by one which his brother 
Zebiner had built, but which had been carried away 
by high water. This has proved to be a fine invest- 
ment, as' it produces a thousand barrels of flour, 
together with tons of feed, yearly. He has also been 
engaged with his brothers in the mail and stage bus- 
iness; running from eight to fifteen routes in 1871, 
they increased their business until 1874, when he 
sold out his mercantile business, and at present gives 
his entire time to the management of his mail lines, 
employing hundreds of men and horses. 

Mr. Warren's religious views are broad and lib- 
eral, and he still holds to that belief in universal 
salvation which he early imbibed from the teachings 
and precepts of his mother. 

He was married at Oregon, Wisconsin, September 
9, 1855, to Miss Sarah S. Gleason, whose father and 
mother removed to Wisconsin from Oswego, New 
York, when she was but a little girl. Her father 
died shortly after, leaving his wife with very limited 
means to support and rear seven children. In the 
year 1863 Mrs. Warren shared equally with her 
husband the hardships and privations of camp life, 
thus showing that constancy and affection which 
have rendered their union one of happiness. They 
have been blessed with five children ; Mary, Nelly, 
Willie, Grace and Charles, all of whom are still liv- 
ing, save Willie, who died in 1867 at the age of three. 

Mr. Warren's business success is thus attributable 
to no advantages of education and wealth, but rather 
to honesty, industry, perseverance and the good 
advice early given him by his parents. 



HON. HORATIO N. DAVIS, 



THE parents of H. N. Davis were Boswell and 
Clarissa Davis, descendants of families of early 
settlers in New England, but had been long residents 
of the town of Henderson, Jefferson county. New 
York, where Horatio was born, June 17, 1812. He 
was brought up on a farm, and inherited a good con- 
stitution which was strengthened by healthful occu- 



pations. His educational advantages were quite lim- 
ited, such only as were then afforded in a common 
school and a period of three months at the age of 
fifteen at academic studies. At this age, finding 
himself entirely unfitted to commence the battle of 
life on an equal footing with many of his associates 
who were more favorably circumstanced by reason 




^.Oyf^^^ 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIUNAliV. 



119 



of their educational advantages, he sought to make 
up, by appropriating such time as could be spared 
from domestic duties, in acquiring a knowledge of 
such branches as would (|ualify him for business 
pursuits only. 

Believing that the West afforded better opportuni- 
ties than the East for a successful career, he came to 
Wisconsin in 1838, bought a farm in Waukesha 
county, and cultivated it for fifteen years with good 
success. During this time he filled many public 
offices. For several years he was chairman of the 
board of supervisors of the town and village where 
he resided, and was frequently elected chairman of 
the county board. In 1847 he was elected county 
treasurer of Waukesha county, which position he 
held by subsequent elections for six years. In poli- 
tics, he had been a whig until the formation of the 
republican party, which organization he joined with 
a conscientious zeal. In 1862 he was commissioned 
captain in the commissary and subsistence depart- 
ment by President Lincoln. Was subsequently bre- 
veted major by President Johnson for faithful and 
efficient service, and remained in the army until the 
close of the war. 

Returning home, he moved to the city of Keloit, 
Wisconsin, the same year being elected president of 



the Beloit National Bank, which position lie licld by 
subsequent elections for eight years. For three 
successive years he was elected mayor of the city of 
Beloit, and for four years he has represented the 
county of Rock in the State senate. In fact Mr. 
Davis has built up an honorable name in his locality, 
which commands respect. His public spirit, liberal 
disposition, and genial manners, have won for him 
the regard and esteem of a large circle of friends, 
and the faithful discharge of the duties in his many 
offices of trust, has given liim an enviable reputa- 
tion. 

Mr. Davis was married in 1837 to Miss Clarissa F. 
Cushman, a lady of e.xcellent characteristics, refine- 
ment and intelligence ; they have had eight chil- 
dren, five still living, two sons and three daughters. 
The eldest son, Cushman K. Davis, is now gov- 
ernor of Minnesota. The second son, Francis N. 
Davis, is at the head of the large paper house of 
F. N. Davis and Co., Beloit. Two daughters are 
married, and the youngest is still living with her 
parents. 

Mr. Davis is one of tiie many men in the State 
who from humble beginnings, by force of character, 
untiring energy, and good understanding, has raised 
himself and family to distinction. 



FRANCIS N. DAVIS, 



FRANCIS NEWCOMB DAVIS, a native of 
Waukesha, Wisconsin, was born on the 5th of 
October, 1840, and is the son of Horatio N. Davis 
and Clarissa ne'e Cushman. After completing his 
preparatory education he entered Carroll College, at 
Waukesha, pursuing a thorough business course. 
His taste for a business life developed at an early 
age, and after closing his studies in the above place, in 
order the more perfectly to fit himself for a successful 
business career he pursued a course of study in the 
Lincoln Commercial College, of Milwaukee. After 
his graduation he spent six months as clerk in the 
post-office, and was also for some time engaged in 
the railroad ahd express offices, and at the close of 
his engagement accepted a position in the Kenosha 
County Bank. kx. the end of four years' successful 
work, owing to impaired health, he spent six months 
in traveling, visiting Central America and Califor- 
nia. Upon his return to the North he accepted a 



position as cashier in the wholesale house of Web- 
ster and Sage, of Chicago, where he remained, how- 
ever, but a few months, before he was called to the 
position of cashier in the bank at Kenosha, Wiscon- 
sin. Accepting the situation he remained in it till 
January, 1865, and during that year removed to 
Beloit, and organized the Beloit National Bank. 
He also became largely interested in the building- 
paper business, and in 1873 this branch of enterprise 
had become so extensive and claimed so much of 
his attention that he was obliged to discontinue his 
banking interests, and devote himself entirely to it. 
The enterprise is one that is wholly due to his own 
inventive genius and energy, he having invented 
not only the aluminous and ornamental building 
paper and the figured carpeting paper, but also the 
machinery for manufacturing it. He is also engaged 
in the manufacture of paper barrels and the 
McPherson steam vacuum pump. Mr. Davis hns 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



the happy faculty of seizing opportunities and turn- 
ing them to the interests of his business ; and though 
he is known as a shrewd manager and careful finan- 
cier, he has made for himself a most worthy reputa- 
tion for honorable, open and fair dealing. His 
career has been prosperous from the beginning, and 
as a reward of his industry and enterprise he is now 
in the enjoyment of an ample fortune and public 
esteem. He has always been a practical, close- 
observing man, and in his extensive travels through- 
out the United States and Canada he has gained a 



most valuable experience and thorough knowledge 
of men and things. 

In his religious communion Mr. 1 )a\is is identified 
with the Episcopal church. 

In political matters he has never taken any active 
part, and is in no sense a partisan. Independent in 
his opinions, he supports for office him whom he 
considers best fitted for the place. 

He was married on the ist of February, 1864 to 
Miss Helen Dunlap, by whom he has two children, 
namely, Walter Dunlap and Genevieve. 



EDWARD FERGUSON, 



MIL WA UKEE. 



EDWARD FERGUSON was born January 9, 
1843, in Hannibal, Oswego county, New York, 
son of Mary and George Lester Ferguson. His 
family removed within two or three years after his 
birth to Oswego, New York, v/here the mother died 
when he was but eight years old ; and until the age 
of twelve he was kept at the ward schools of that 
city, when he began work in a store. After two 
years of such employment, his health failing by rea- 
son of close confinement, he was entered as student 
in the Fulton Academy, New York, which he at- 
tended but one term. This ended his scholastic 
advantages, as he was constantly employed there- 
after in contributing to his own maintenance. His 
eldest brother was at that time proprietor and pub- 
lisher of the "Oswego Daily Times," and Edward 
was employed by him as collector for a short time 
after leaving school ; after which he served as clerk 
for about two years, first in a book-store and after- 
ward in a drug-store. This eldest brother having 
by this time married and settled in Milwaukee, Ed- 
ward was induced to remove there also, which he did 
in May, i86o. Soon after his arrival he was employed 
as book-keeper in the office of L. Cutler and Son, 
commission merchants, where he remained until the 
first news of the firing upon Sumter was received, 
when he immediately enlisted in the Milwaukee 
Light Guards, which were then being organized for 
active service, and which were assigned as Company 
A of the ist Regiment Wisconsin Volunteers. After 
serving through this three months term, and passing 
safely through that dreaded ordeal — the first time 
under fire — in the engagement with Stonewall Jack- 
son's brigade at Falling Waters, Virginia, he re- 



turned to office work, but not to remain. The pre- 
parations for reorganizing the " Old First " rekindled 
his desire to assist in suppressing -the rebellion, and 
he reenlisted in Company A, of the ist Regiment 
Wisconsin Volunteers, for three years or during the 
war. Feeling too young and inexperienced to as- 
sume the responsibilities of a commissioned officer 
— being not yet nineteen — -he accepted the appoint- 
ment of first sergeant of his company, and served in 
that capacity about a year, frequently taking the 
place, however, of officers temporarily absent from 
command, acting part of the time as sergeant-major 
of his regiment in the army of the Cumberland, and 
during the march of four companies with a division 
in a feint movement on Chattanooga (across the 
Cumberland mountains) was appointed as acting 
adjutant and quartermaster of the battalion. The 
ist Regiment, though constantly in pursuit of the 
enemy, performing most honorably the duty assigned 
to it by being almost continuously on the march, 
took part in no general engagement until the latter 
part of 1862. Their record was therefore unevent- 
ful until, in pursuit of Bragg's army through Ken- 
tucky the engagement known as the battle of Chap- 
lin Hills was brought on by McCook's corps attack- 
ing the enemy near the village of Perryville. The 
details of this fight are well known, as well as the 
part borne by the ist Wisconsin. Its record upon 
that field was written in the blood of about one half 
its effective force; and though the sacrifice seems 
out of proportion to the results secured, yet all was 
gained that could have been, under the circum- 
stances. In that battle Mr. Ferguson received a 
buckshot wound through the cheek and a musket 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTION Ain: 



ball through his left shoulder which paralyzed his 
arm. While lying on the field between the fires of 
his own regiment and the enemy's, he received an- 
other gunshot wound through the right foot. He 
was carried to the field hospital, and from thence to 
the village of Perryville, where he was given a room 
in a private' house, and nursed with the greatest 
care for two months by his brother Thomas, who 
secured permission to take him home as soon as he 
could be removed on a cot. With this permission 
came his commission as second lieutenant of Com- 
pany C, in his own regiment. After reaching Mil- 
waukee Lieutenant Ferguson spent nearly two years 
in confinement to bed and room, suffering the am- 
putation of his right leg mid way between knee and 
ankle, eight months after the wound was inflicted. 
For the first year it was scarcely thought possible 
that he could survive from week to week ; but a 
naturally strong constitution, which the hardships of 
service had strengthened, added to a cheerful and 
abiding trust in the future, carried him safely through 
the trying period, and restored him to as full a 
degree of health as can be hoped for in view of his 
severe wounds. Being unable to return to duty he 
was honorably discharged by reason of " wounds 
received in action," June 17, 1864. As soon as 
health would permit he was appointed clerk in the 
general land office at Washington, which position 
he resigned in 1866 to return to Milwaukee. Upon 
the death of his old employer. General Lysander 
Cutler, he was appointed by Governor Fairchild to ! 
the office of State Fish Inspector, this office being 
rendered vacant by the death of General Cutler. 
In November, 1868, he was appointed secretary of 
the National Asylum for Disabled Volunteers, north- 
western branch, located near Milwaukee, which posi- 



tion he held till January i, 1869. On the 28th of 
December, the same year, the appointment of ])en- 
sion agent at Milwaukee was conferred upon him 
by President Grant, which was confirmed by the 
senate, and renewed January 17, 1874, which posi- 
tion he still holds. He was also secretary of the 
Forest Home Cemetery for one year, and aid-de- 
camp, with the rank of colonel, on the military staff 
of Governor Washburn during his term of office. 
Was a member of the board of directors of the 
Young Men's Library Association of Milwaukee for 
two years, vice-president for one year, and is now 
president. In May, 1873, he was elected at New 
Haven, Connecticut, junior vice-commander-in-chief 
of the Grand Army of the Republic, and was treas- 
urer of the Young Men's Republican Club, which 
was organized and did efficient work during the 
campaign of 1872. In politics he is a republican, 
and as such attended the soldiers' convention held 
in Pittsburgh in 1S66, to give expression to the sol- 
diers' views of reconstruction as proposed by Presi- 
dent Johnson ; and in November of that year, as a 
candidate for the position of clerk of the circuit 
court received forty-four hundred and twenty-five 
votes, his competitor being elected by about nine 
hundred and seventy-five majority. 

Mr. Ferguson is a member of the Episcopal 
church, having been confirmed at an early age, and 
now holds the office of vestryman in St. Paul's 
Church, of Milwaukee. He was married at this 
church, August 14, 1867, to Marcia B. Brocan, and is 
the father of three children. The second child, a 
daughter, died in October, 1871, at the age of eight- 
een months. The eldest, a son, now living, was 
born May 17, 1868, and the youngest, also a son, 
still living, was born May 3, 1875. 



WILLIAM M. TALLMAN, 

JANESVILLE. 



WILLIAM Mt)RRISON TALLMAN, of 
Janesville, lawyer and real-estate owner, was 
born in Lee, Oneida county, New York, June 13, 
1808, and is the son of David and Eunice Tallman, 
both of whom were natives of Woodbury, Litchfield 
county, Connecticut. The family immigrated from 
Litchfield county to Oneida county in 1806, and 
resided there until 181 6, when they removed to 
Brooklyn, Kings county. New York. 



In 182 1 Mr. Tallman began the study of law in 
the office of the late Hon. F. A. Talmadge, in Vesey 
street. New York, then on the site of the Astor 
House. After studying law one year, he determined 
upon a more complete preliminary education, and in 
1822 began to prepare for college at the academy in 
Norwalk, Connecticut. He remained here four 
years, and then, in September, 1826, entered the 
freshman class of Yale college, where he continued 



TUB UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY: 



four years more, going through the entire collegiate 
course, and graduating with his class in September, 
1830. Immediately after graduation he entered the 
law school connected with Yale, and was there two 
years, completing the full course of legal studies. 
He was admitted to the bar in New Haven in tlie 
fall of 1832. 

Never intending to remain or practice in Connec- 
ticut, although his family had meanwhile become 
residents of New Haven, he at once returned to the 
city of New York and commenced anew there the 
study of law, and the practice then peculiar to the 
courts of that State, in the office of Hon. James 
Talmadge and W. H. Bulkley, in Wall street. He 
was admitted to the bar of New York State in Albany 
in October, 1833. Immediately thereafter he entered 
upon the practice of law in his native county, at 
Rome, New York, and continued so engaged until 
1850. when he removed with his family to Janesville, 
Rock county, Wisconsin, where he has ever since 
(1875) resided. He resumed practice at Janesville, 
and continued it until 1854, when he relinquished 
the profession entirely — having been in the practice 
twenty-one years — and has not since transacted 
business for others. 

In October, 1848, he purchased at public auction, 
at the Philadelphia Exchange, of the trustees of the 
old United States Bank, numerous tracts of rich, pro- 
ductive, agricultural and mineral land, situated in 
the counties of Green, Lafayette, Grant and Iowa, 
in the State of Wisconsin, and during the four or 
five subsequent years he added other large purchases 
of lands in those counties, and also in Rock county, 
Wisconsin, exceeding altogether ten thousand acres. 
These lands rapidly rose in value, and he disposed 
of many of them within a few years at a very large 
advance, seldom less than (juadruple their cost, and 
generally much more than that. In 1849 he laid out 
an addition to Monroe upon land purchased from 
said trustees and others, and lands which cost him 
six dollars and fifty cents per acre at the sale, 
produced as much as fifteen hundred dollars per 
acre when sold in town lots. Thus a purchase 
which was regarded by many at the time of the auc- 
tion as extremely improvident and reckless, became 
one of extraordinary profit, as he foresaw it would 
be. He had acquired, as early as 1854, a sufficient 
competency, and did not therefore deem it desirable 
to pursue the practice of law, but he has notwith- 
standing been always actively employed. He is the 
possessor of a valuable landed estate, and has devoted 



most of his time during the past twenty-five years to 
the developing, improving, and disposing of the 
same. He has also expended much of his means 
and time in building and making improvements in 
the city of Janesville. Always strictly temperate in 
his habits, exemplary, conscientious, economical and 
industrious, he has prospered in most of his en- 
deavors, and in view of the objects and purposes 
with which he set out in business in early life, he has 
been reasonably successful. 

Very early in his professional life he concluded 
that neither political distinction nor official position, 
even if attainable by him, were desirable objects of 
pursuit or congenial to his tastes, and he has uni- 
formly declined such distinctions. Notwithstanding 
which, during a considerable portion of ten or 
fifteen years, without solicitation on his part, and 
really against his wishes, at the urgent request of his 
fellow citizens of both political parties, he has oc- 
cupied the position of alderman of Janesville, and 
has also been one of five county commissioners for 
Rock county, in which he had in common with 
other citizens large pecuniary interests to be cared 
for and protected. 

In politics, he was a whig from 1S33 to 1838 ; ever 
afterward an active and zealous abolitionist. He 
has acted and voted with the liberty party, the free- 
soil party, and has acted with the republican party 
since its organization in Wisconsin, in July, 1854. 
He ever, for more than twenty years, performed his 
share in preparing the popular mind for the conflict 
which at length ensued. The dominant principle of 
his political creed has always been "equality of 
human rights for all men," and he has conscien- 
tiously endeavored to discharge the duties which as 
a patriot and a Christian he owed to his country and 
fellow-men. Having witnessed the triumph of the 
great principle of his political creed, he feels that 
he has been a successful politician without the vex- 
ations and disappointments of office. 

In 1 83 1 he married, at New Haven, Emeline, 
second daughter of Norman and Ruth Dexter, of 
Hartford county, Connecticut, by whom he has had 
two sons and one daughter, named respectively, 
William Henry, Edgar Dexter, and Cornelia Au- 
gusta. His sons are both married and successfully 
engaged in business in Janesville. His eldest son, 
William Henry, early established at Janesville, 
and has carried on during ten or fifteen years 
the first and most extensive manufactory of per- 
fumery and fancy goods in the Northwest. The 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



123 



goods nianufactured by him have become staple 
goods in that line, and are extensively sold by all 
the leading wholesale and jobbing drug-houses in 
ten or twelve States of the North, as well as in New 
York, Boston and San Francisco, and in some fabrics 
he has no successful competitor either in the United 
States or abroad. 

This industry is the product of his individual 
mind and personal labor and indefatigable persever- 
ance, and entitles him to the distinction of having 
created, in a new country, a new and unusual manu- 
facture, which had hitherto been confined to the old 
and more highly civilized communities of Europe. 



His only daughter was married to John P. Beach, 
in 1865, and settled in Chicago, where she died with- 
out issue in 1866, aged twenty-eight years. She was 
a Christian, a model woman, and an ornament to her 
sex. 

In 1837, Mr. Tallman, with his wife, joined the 
Congregational church, at Rome, on profession of 
their faith in Christ, and are members of the church 
of that denomination in Janesville. In private life 
they have endeavored to be exemplary in a quiet 
way without ostentation; and they have neither 
sought nor acquired any distinction outside of their 
home circle. 



OTTO ZWIETUSCH, 



MILWAUKEE. 



IN tracing the history of successful self-made men, 
nothing can interest us more than to discover 
the secret of their success ; and while many may 
attribute this to the working of native genius or the 
favors of fortune, study and observation teach us 
that in the great majority of cases success is the 
result of continued and persevering effort, applied in 
the direction of one's natural tastes. This fact is 
fully illustrated in the life of him whose name heads 
this sketch. A native of Quedlinburg, Prussia, he 
was born on the 30th of March, 1832, and is the son 
of Frederick William Zwietusch and Johanna ne'e 
Fielitz. His father spent eleven years in the mili- 
tary service, including the war of 1813-15, under 
the King of Prussia. Until his fourteenth year Otto 
attended the public schools at Magdeburg, and at 
that time turned his attention to mechanics, learning 
all the various branches of blacksmithing, mould- 
ing, pattern making, locksmithing, turning and finish- 
ing. During the years of his apprenticeship, being 
of a studious disposition and ambitious for the 
acquisition of knowledge, he spent his evenings and 
Sundays in the school of polytechnics, and in 1850 
received from the King of Prussia the silver medal 
award of merit. At the age of nineteen years he left 
home and traveled through Germany, working in 
several southern cities, and in 1854 sailed for the 
United States. For sixteen weeks after his arrival 
in New York he was without a dollar in his pocket 
and unable to get employment. Removing to She- 
boygan, Wisconsin, in 1855, he was employed in the 
machine shops for one year, and. in 1856 settled in 



Milwaukee. After following his trade for two years, 
having accumulated a small capital, he established 
the white beer brewery, a branch of business not 
represented in the city at that time. Beginning in a 
small, one-story frame building, employing one boy 
to assist him, his product for the first year was be- 
tween four and five hundred dollars, while at the 
same time he continued his work in the machine 
shop of Messrs. Menzel and Stone. Soon afterward 
he began the manufacture of soda water and fount- 
ains, and in 1869 commenced manufacturing Amer- 
ican champagnes. By aid of his mechanical genius 
he has made some valuable inventions connected 
with his business, among which may be mentioned 
the glass faucet, the first in the United States, the 
patent generator, double stream draught tubes, the 
self-regulating beer preservers, and at last the com- 
bined soda water apparatus, beer preserver and chem- 
ical fire extinguisher, the result of three years of 
study and experimenting. He holds twelve patents 
for his own inventions, all of which are applied to 
his imn-iediate business. 

His trade has been prosperous from the first, and 

I has gradually grown to its present dimensions. In 

j 1875, in place of one boy, it employed over twenty 
men ; the small frame building had given place to 

I extensive brick structures, while the original capital 
of three hundred dollars had increased to thirty 

' thousand dollars, producing annually nearly fifty 
thousand dollars. The nature of his goods has been 
such as to meet a popular demand, while their 

I quality has secured to him an enviable reputation. 



124 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARi: 



Politically, Mr. Zwietusch was formerly a repub- 
lican, casting his first presidential ballot for Fremont 
in 1856. In 1872 he became identified with the 
liberal movement, supporting Horace Greeley for 
tfie presidency, and is at the present time independ- 
ent in his views. 

He was married in June, 1857, to Miss Louisa 



Ehlert, of Hagen, Westphalia. Mr. Zwietusch is the 
only member of his family and the only person of 
this name in the United States. 

He began life with no capital other than his own 
native abilities, and by steady application has at- 
tained to financial success and reached an honorable 
standing among his fellow-men. 



GENERAL FRANCIS H. WEST, 

MIL WA UKEE. 



FRANCIS H. WEST was born at Charlestown, 
New Hampshire, October 25, 1825. His father 
was in easy circumstances, and lived upon his estate. 
His paternal grandfather was a soldier in the revo- 
lutionary war, and was a cousin of Benjamin West, 
the great artist. The family were among the first 
settlers of Boston. The maiden name of his mother 
was Lydia C. Fitch. She was born on Nantucket 
Island, and was a lineal descendant of Peter Folgar, 
the first male born on that island, and who was 
grandfather of Benjamin Franklin. Mr. West's 
father was a man of strong prejudices, had a great 
antipathy to educational institutions, and conse- 
quently his son, Francis, received only a common 
school education, at Charlestown. 

Young West, being of an adventurous spirit, left 
home at the age of twenty years, and came to Wis- 
consin. His first winter in this State was spent at 
the lead mines near Platteville. In the spring fol- 
lowing he went to Monroe, and there he entered 
into mercantile pursuits, dealing in general merchan- 
dise and lumber. His lumber trade led him to the 
Upper Wisconsin river, where he spent most of the 
three succeeding years. At that time the region of 
the Upper Wisconsin was a dense wilderness, where 
civilized man had but little penetrated. But this 
was not exciting enough for our adventurer. 

In the year 1859 he organized a large amigrant 
party, which he conducted across the plains to Cali- 
fornia, returning by way of Panama and New York. 
During the spring of i860 he organized a second 
party to make the same perilous journey, this being 
the year of the Indian war. They were much 
harassed by the savages, and on several occasions 
had skirmishes with them. He succeeded, however, 
in conducting his party in safety to their destination, 
and he in the following autumn returned, as before, 
by way of the isthmus, to New York. 



In the year 1862 he began his military career as 
lieutenant-colonel of the 31st Regiment of Wisconsin 
Volunteers. His regiment was sent down the Mis- 
sissippi river, and in 1863 he was promoted to col- 
onel. After the battle of Chickamauga they were 
sent to reinforce the army of the Tennessee. Before 
going to the front they were stationed for a time at 
Nashville, and afterward at Murfreesboro. While 
the regiment was stationed at this point Colonel 
West was appointed president of a commission for 
the e.xamination of officers with regard to their qual- 
ifications. 

At the battle of Peach Tree Creek he, with his 
command, joined Sherman's army at the front, and 
remained with him during the siege of Atlanta, and 
was with him on his march to the sea, and also on 
his subsequent march through the Carolinas and 
Virginia to Washington, participating in all the en- 
gagements of that campaign. 

When the left wing of the army of Georgia had 
advanced within nine miles of Savannah they were 
delayed nearly a day by two redoubts, erected on 
the opposite side of a nearly impassable swamp or 
lagoon, the redoubts being strongly manned with 
artillery. After various ineffectual attempts by dif- 
ferent brigades to dislodge the enemy. Colonel West 
was directed to take the 31st Wisconsin and 8ist 
Ohio regiments, ford the lagoon, and make a flank 
movement and charge the redoubts. This was done 
with great gallantry, the men plunging through the 
swamp, often waist deep. The movement was 
quickly executed, the assault was vigorous, and after 
a brief resistance the garrison fled, leaving all their 
camp equipage, which fell into the hands of the vic- 
tors. For this daring assault Colonel West and his 
little band were publicly thanked, in presence of 
the officers of the division, by General Slocum, 
commander of the left wing. 







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THE UNITED STATES h'/OGRAPH/CAL DICTIONART. 



125 



At the battle of Bentonville, March 19, 1865, the 
last engagement of General Sherman's command, 
Colonel West's brigade was stationed across a road 
which was the key to the whole position. This they 
persistently held through the day, repulsing five 
fierce assaults of the enemy, made en colonne. For 
his gallantry in defending this position Colonel West 
was promoted to brigadier-general by brevet. 

General West remained in the army to the close 
of the war, and was mustered out at Madison in 
July, 1865, having never, since he entered the army, 
been off duty a single day, except a short leave of 
absence while his command was in garrison at At- 
lanta. 

At the close of the war he became a resident of 
Milwaukee, entered into the grain trade, and was a 
member of the Chamber of Commerce, was vice-pres- 
ident for two terms and was then elected president, 
and was a second time elected to that office. 

General West has never been a zealous partisan 



in politics; was originally a whig, but acted with 
the republican party from the time of its organiza- 
tion until the nomination of Horace Greeley for 
the presidency, since which time his sympathies 
have been with the liberal reform party. 

In 1874 he was member of the State assembly, 
and has also been a member of the State senate. 

He is opposed to the excessive power of aggre- 
gated capital, and has by both pen and speech 
labored to aid the working people, with whom he 
has always been in sympathy. His motto is, " The 
greatest good to the greatest number." 

General West was married in 1848, to Miss Emma 
M. Rettenhouse, daughter of William Rettenhouse, 
one of the earliest settlers of Green county, and at 
one time State senator. Her mother was sister to 
Eli Moore, formerly member of congress from New 
York city, and subsequently collector of that port. 
They have nine children living, three sons and six 
daughters. 



LEWIS B. ROCK, 

MIL WA UKEE. 



LEWIS B. ROCK was born in Drummondsville, 
_/ Canada East, August 13, 1825, son of Lewis 
and Mary Rock. His father was by trade a carpen- 
ter, and soon after the birth of this son removed his 
family to the town of Durham, Canada East, into a 
very sparsely settled region. Living in the midst of 
vast forests almost primeval in their solitude, this 
pioneer family had no other means of obtaining 
money than by the manufacture of black salts from 
the ashes of the trees cut down and burnt; for 
although their produce was abundant, there was no 
market for it only to exchange it for labor. 

Lewis was kept at school until nine years old. 
This, with the exception of three months after he 
was nineteen, comprised all the instruction he ever 
received. He learned to write by copying, with 
patient perseverance, the addresses of letters which 
lie carried to and from the post-office for his em- 
ployers, and at last became a good penman. 

At the age of eleven he left home, and for the 
four subsequent years worked for Captain John 
Plogart as chore boy. On the 4th of March, 1844, 
being then nineteen years old, he left the Dominion 
with only two dollars and fifty cents in his pocket, 
and carrying all his earthly possessions in a small 
17 



bundle, he walked to Bristol, New Hampshire, a 
distance of two hundred miles. Here he was en- 
gaged by S. S. Merrill, proprietor of a hotel and 
also of a wholesale cloth store, to make himself 
generally useful, for the sum of one hundred dollars 
per year, with the privilege of attending school 
three months out of the twelve, of which, however, 
he never availed himself. He remained in the 
employ of Mr. Merrill four years; part of the time 
serving as clerk in the wholesale house, and after- 
ward having charge of a branch store in the adjacent 
village of Bridgewater. Thence he went to Lowell, 
Massachusetts, where for one year he remained as 
clerk and barkeeper at the Merrimack House. 

On the loth of January, 1850, he sailed from 
Boston to San Francisco, and was two hundred and 
one days in making the voyage. After four years of 
varied fortunes on the shores of the Pacific, during 
which he engaged in mining, dam building, mer- 
chandising and various other pursuits, he returned 
to Lowell. After some months spent in visiting old 
friends, he came to Milwaukee in July, 1854, where 
he was employed as baggage master by his old 
friend, Mr. S. S. Merrill, who was now conductor on 
the Milwaukee and Mississippi railroad. He re- 



126 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



tained this position two years, until promoted to that 
of conductor on a mixed train, and afterward on a 
passenger train, where he remained thirteen years. In 
1866 James Spencer, manager of the road, appointed 
conductor Rock assistant superintendent of the 
same line, the name of which has since been changed 
to the Milwaukee and Prairie du Chien railroad. 
After filling that position for one year to the entire 
satisfaction of all concerned, he was promoted to 



that of superintendent of the northern division of 
the Milwaukee and St. Paul railroad (of which the 
Milwaukee and Prairie du Chien became a division), 
where he remains to this day. 

About six months after his arrival in Milwaukee — 
December 3, 1854 — he married Miss Hannah W. 
Sanborn, by whom he has had three sons. 

In politics, he is a liberal democrat ; and is also 
liberal in his religious views. 



EDMUND L. RUNALS, 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of Arcade, 
Wyoming county. New York, was born on the 
28th of December, 1826, and is the son of Ezekiel 
D. Runals and Rebecca nee Parker. His father, a 
farmer by occupation, was an influential man in his 
community, and highly respected by all who knew 
him. Edmond received a common school educa- 
tion in his native town, and later attended the acad- 
emy in Bethany and Strykersville, and after closing 
his studies spent two years on his father's farm. In 
1846, being then twenty years of age, he left his home 
in the East, and removing to the West, settled near 
Ripon, Wisconsin, and for five years engaged in 
agricultural pursuits, and in the meantime began the 
study of law, practicing in the justice courts. Upon 
leaving the farm in 1851 he removed into Ripon, 
and in 1855 was admitted to the bar at Fond du 
Lac. During this same year he began the publica- 
tion of the " Ripon Home," and continued it with 
good success till 1857, when he sold his interest and 
devoted his entire attention to the practice of his 
profession. He soon became known as a skillful 
attorney, and by constant and close application to 
study and careful and judicious management of his 
business, made it both professionally and financially 



successful. In 1864 he was elected judge of the 
municipal court and served in that capacity for four 
years. Aside from his professional duties, he has 
been a large operator in real estate, and by careful 
investments has amassed an ample fortune, and lives 
in the enjoyment of a pleasant home and enjoys the 
high regard of a host of friends, being most esteemed 
by those who know him best. Beginning life with- 
out means, his present standing is wholly the result 
of his own effort, and he may most appropriately be 
called a self-made man. In his political sentiments 
he is identified with the republican party, and has 
been honored with many positions of public trust. 
In 1857 and 1858 he represented his county in the 
State legislature, and has also been elected alderman 
of his city for several terms. Among other local 
positions he has held the offices of commissioner of 
schools, town superintendent of schools, assessor, 
and city attorney. He is not a member of any 
church, but in his religious opinions holds to the 
principles laid down in the golden rule. 

He was married on the loth of July, 1847, to Miss 
Dorlesca R. Avery, and by her has one son, W. T. 
Runals, now engaged in manufacturing carriages at 
Ripon, and of the firm of Goodall and Runals. 



HEMAN B. JACKSON, 

OSHKOSH. 



HEMAN B. JACKSON is a native of Naper- 
ville, Illinois, which place at the time of his 
birth consisted of a "handful of huts," and was a 
mere settlement among the savages who then roamed 
through that country, watered by the Dupage river. 



He was born on the 24th of July, 1837, and is the 
son of William Jackson and Lucy nee Babbitt. His 
father, a blacksmith by trade, was a man of moder- 
ate means, and his mother was an earnest Christian ; 
both were much respected in their community. 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPIirCAL DICTlONARr. 



127 



While Heman's boyhood presents {t\\ phases in 
distinction from that of other boys, it was yet 
marked by an earnestness and determination that 
were very notable, and which have characterized 
his maturer life and deeds. 

In his boyhood at school he became early noted 
for his declamatory powers, and seemed to be a 
natural and forcible speaker, and to possess that 
([uality and manner of speech and action which stirs 
the emotions of the listener. He generally came to 
the front on what was then called "exhibition day" 
at school. As a boy he had many warm friends 
whom he always stood ready to befriend, ardently 
and forcibly, if necessary, when he believed them to 
be right — and it was not difficult to convince him 
that they were right. 

Of these qualities in the boy many of his school- 
fellows, — including the author of this sketch, — 
have a painful remembrance; in fact they always 
])referred to be on his side when the matter was 
to be fought out. He never knew when he was 
whipped, and would never cry "enough." This 
spirit which so signally marked him as a boy has 
become characteristic in his legal practice. The 
more difficult the case the more it claims his atten- 
tion, until victory usually crowns his work. Oppo- 
sition is only the signal for greater effort. 

The subject of this sketch was educated in the 
seminaries at VVarrenville and Elgin, Illinois, and 
later he attended the \\estern Reserve College at 
Hiram, Ohio. He states, with pride, that he suc- 
ceeded in attending college by means of his own 
personal efforts and the practice of the most rigid 
economy. While at college he boarded himself at 
an expense not exceeding seventy-five cents per 
week. At the close of his studies there he engaged 
in teaching two terms of district school, and then 
began the study of law with Messrs. Joslin and 
Clifford at Elgin, Illinois. 

At the early age of twenty years he was admitted 
to the Illinois bar in 1857. Going from Elgin to 
Crystal Lake, Illinois, he first " hung out his shingle " 
there. That field proving too limited for his ener- 
gies and ability, he removed in the spring of 1859 to 
his present home in Oshkosh, Wisconsin, and entered 
upon a practice of his profession which has since 
become very extensive and remunerative, and in 
which he has gained a wide reputation as a success- 
ful and skillful attorney. The present firm of Jack- 
son and Halsey was formed in 1865, and is widely 
and worthily known. Mr. Jackson was admitted to 



practice in all the courts of record in Illinois while 
a resident of that State. In 1863 his practice first 
called him to the bar of the supreme court of Wis- 
consin, and in the same year he was admitted to the 
United States circuit and district courts. His prac- 
tice is general, and largely in the supreme court. A 
reference to the court reports shows that in a large 
majority of his cases he has been successful. He 
is an ardent and earnest advocate, and zealously 
makes his client's cause his own. He presses the 
salient point of his case in an impassioned and 
forcible manner that can only come from the heart 
and an honest purpose. His manner as an advocate 
is that of a man who means what he says. Before 
attempting to induce others to think his client's 
cause is just, he first convinces himself and then 
speaks forcibly what he really believes. At the 
opening of the war he was deeply interested in the 
Union cause, and, prompted by his ardent nature, 
and a disposition which always induced him to make 
the cause he espoused his own, he was among the 
very first to enlist for the war. On the 21st of April, 
1861, he enlisted at Oshkosh, and entered the army 
as second lieutenant of Company E, 2d Regiment 
Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry. Afterward he was 
promoted to a position on the staff" of General W. T. 
Sherman. He acted in the capacity of staff-officer 
at the battle of Bull Run, and continued on General 
Sherman's staff until on account of a serious and 
permanent injury he was compelled to quit the 
service during the same year. This was regretted 
the more by himself and his friends for the reason 
that he had already attained a position in the line 
of promotion which afterward placed his chief on 
the very pinnacle of military fame. Nothing re- 
mained for him on leaving the army but to resume 
his legal practice, which he did at the same place 
from which he entered the service. 

In politics he was reared a democrat, but since 
attaining his majority he has been identified with 
the republican party. 

Mr. Jackson never held any public office, with the 
exception of such as was connected with the practice 
of the law. He was twice elected city attorney of 
Oshkosh. In 1864 he became district attorney, and 
was reelected to that office in 1868. In 1875 he 
was nominated by the republican party of his dis- 
trict as its candidate for member of the State legis- 
lature, but through local causes was defeated. He 
has always identified himself with movements tend- 
ing to promote the welfare of this city. 



128 



THE ITNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



Previous to the great fire of Oshkosh in 1875 he 
had erected several large blocks, which, together 
with millions of projierty of his neighbors, were 
destroyed. He'suflered then a severe loss in prop- 
erty, but none in energy or native pluck. Since 
that time he has continued his building operations 
to some extent, still having great faith in the future I 
growth and prosperity of his city. 

He has always joined heartily with his fellow- 
citizens in public enterprises inaugurated for the 
benefit of Oshkosh. He was one of the original 
incorporators of the Wisconsin and Lake Superior 
Railroad Company, organized for the purpose of 
building a railroad north from Oshkosh. His public 
spirit has ever kept him foremost among those who 
sought to promote the public good by supplying ^ 
public libraries, establishing lecture courses, etc. 

He is now in the prime and vigor of life, and 
emphatically a man of action, and those who best 



know him have reason to believe that his record 
will become brighter, and his life one of more marked 
success in the future than in the past. 

Mr. Jackson was married on the i4tli of June, 
1862, to Miss Annett L. Harwood, by whom Ire has 
three daughters. 

Such is a brief outline of the early life history of 
one who, beginning without means, educating him- 
self by his own work, relying upon his own re- 
sources, has established himself among strangers 
in the practice of the law, and worked his way up 
step by step, until he has already achieved an en- 
viable reputation as a lawyer, and reached a posi- 
tion of high public regard and social standing, and 
is living in the enjoyment of an ample fortune, sur- 
rounded by all the comforts of a happy home, but 
who, still believing that life is action and that work 
is the normal condition of all, is pressing on to new 
achievements. 



THOMAS H. LITTLE, M.A. 



JANES VILLE. 



THOMAS HENRY LITTLE, a native of Au- 
gusta, Maine, was born on the 15th of Decem- 
ber, 1832, and was the son of Thomas Little and 
Elizabeth P. nee Howard. He traced his ancestry 
back to the Plymouth Colony, when one Thomas 
Little married the daughter of Richard Warren, vvho 
came over in the Mayflower. Always of a quiet, 
studious disposition, he graduated from Bowdoin 
College in 1855 with honors, and soon after accepted 
a position as teacher in the high school at Gardiner, 
Maine. One year later, turning his steps westward, 
he was providentially drawn ipto a work which, 
though he then regarded it as only temporary, so 
engaged him that he afterward resolved to devote 
his life to it. Arriving at Columbus, Ohio, he 
engaged to teach in the Institution for the Blind. 
Remaining till 1859, he accepted a similar situation 
in Baton Rouge, I.,ouisiana, but owing to the trou- 
bles in the South he remained but one year, and 
returning to Columbus, he taught there till August, 
1861, at which time he received a call to the super- 
intendency of the Institution for the Education of 
the Blind at Janesville, Wisconsin, a position which 
he accepted and filled till his death, which occurred 
on the 4th of February, 1875. 

He was married in 1862 to Miss Sarah F. Cowles, 



daughter of Rev. Henry Cowles, D.D., of Oberlin, 
Ohio, and became the father of four daughters. 

Mr. Little was thoroughly and conscientiously 
devoted to his work. By close study and careful 
observation of institutions for the education of the 
blind, in our own and other countries, he became 
master of the most advanced theories of his profes- 
sion, and gained such a reputation that when the 
institution for the blind in Batavia, New York, was 
opened, in 1868, he was invited to its superintend- 
ency. He declined the offer, however, feeling that 
he could accomplish more where he was. By con- 
stant work and close application to study he so over- 
taxed himself that in 1873, by the advice of his 
physicians, he took a sea voyage, and spent several 
months in Europe, visiting different institutions, and 
conferring with the most experienced educators of 
the age. The relief from care and labor so im- 
proved his health that he returned with renewed 
vigor and enthusiasm, and an added experience of 
great value to his work. 

Upon the destruction of the main building of the 
institution by fire, in April, 1874, in his forgetfulness 
of self, and devotion to his pupils and the interests 
of the State, he periled his own life, receiving in- 
juries from which he never recovered, and which 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 



129 



probably hastened the termination of his life. An 
intimate friend has written of him as follows : 

As a private citizen he was quiet, unassuming and up- 
right; as a public officer he was thorough, untiring, efficient, 
and jealously watchful of the interests committed to his 
care; as an instructor, he was a recognized leader in liis 
profession, a disciplinarian who knew how to govern with- 
out seeming to govern at all, and who was to his pupils far 
more like a kind and wise father than like a superintendent; 
and as a Christian, he was manly, generous, humble, full of 
faith, given alike to prayer and good works, seeking to 
know and to do the Master's will, and trusting for salvation 
only in the merits of a crucified and personal Saviour. In 
his death the community has lost an upright and useful 
citizen, the State has lost a faithful, honest and valued serv- 



The following tribute was paid to his memory by 
the trustees of the institution : 

The board of trustees, desiring to place upon the record 
a simple and affectionate testimonial of their appreciation 
of Thomas H. Little, M.A., do unanimously adopt the fol- 
lowing resolution: 

Resolved. That in the death of Superintendent Little our institution 
has lost its best friend, the State an eminent Christian citizen, and the 

man of varied and e.\tensive learning, of great executive ability, of inde- 
fatigable industry; and his d.iily life was a continued testimonial of the 



REV. MILO P. TEWETT, LL.D. 



MILWAUKEE. 



MILO P. JEWETT, a native of St. Johnsbury, 
Vermont, was born on the 27th of April, 1808, 
and is the son of Calvin Jewett and Sally ne'e Parker. 
His father, an eminent physician, was a man of lite- 
rary tastes, and possessed a valuable collection of 
books, the reading of which had a great influence in 
moulding the tastes of the son. His mother, a highly 
endowed and accomplished lady, was educated at 
the Female Academy in Canterbury, Connecticut, 
tinder the direction of her relative, Mr. John Adams, 
afterwards the distinguished principal of Phillips 
Academy at Andover, Massachusetts. Milo received 
his preparatory education at the Bradford, Vermont, 
Academy, and in the year 1828 was graduated from 
Dartmouth College. He spent the next year as 
principal of Holmes Academy at Plymouth, New 
Hampshire, and also employed a part of that and 
the following year as a student at law, in the office 
of the Hon. Josiah Quincy of Rumney, New Hamp- 
shire. Abandoning the law in the summer of 1830, 
he entered the theological seminary at Andover, 
Massachusetts, remaining three years. Having spent 
his winter vacations during his college course, in 
teaching school, he had gained considerable reputa- 
tion as a successful educator, and upon the invitation 
of Josiah Holbrook of Boston, founder of the lyceum 
system, he spent his vacations during his theological 
course in lecturing on common schools in parts of 
New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Connecticut. 
His work produced the happiest results. His ad- 
dresses on these subjects are believed to have been 
the first of a popular character delivered in the 
United States, and such was the interest taken in 
them by the people wherever he went, that parents, 



children and teachers alike flocked to hear them. 
Through J. Orville Taylor, a fellow-student of Pro- 
fessor Jewett's, who became interested in the matter, 
a movement was inaugurated in New York city that 
resulted in the establishment of the present common 
school system of the Empire State. Such had been 
Mr. Jewett's success in teaching that he resolved to 
devote himself to it as a profession instead of enter- 
ing the ministry, and accordingly before graduating 
from the theological seminary, he accepted an ap- 
pointment as one of the first professors in Marietta 
College, Ohio. Before entering upon his duties, 
however, he spent several months among the Con- 
gregational churches of New England, soliciting 
funds for the college, basing his plea for aid on "the 
perils which threaten our civil and religious liberties 
from the progress of Roman Catholicism in the val- 
ley of the Mississippi ;" being the first to sound the 
alarm on this subject in a series of popular addresses. 
Professor Jewett entered upon his work in Marietta 
College in 1834. In the autumn of 1835 or 1836, at 
the first State educational convention of Ohio, held 
at Cincinnati, he, with Professor Calvin E. Stowe 
and William Lewis, was appointed a committee to 
urge upon the State legislature the establishment of 
a new common school system. They were not only 
successful in their undertaking, but also procured an 
appropriation to send Professor Stowe to Europe to 
investigate the Prussian school system. His report 
awakened universal interest, and led to Horace 
Mann's famous mission, with its grand results. Wil- 
liam Lewis became the first State superintendent of 
public schools in Ohio. A change of views on bap- 
tism led Professor Jewett to resign his position in 



I30 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



Marietta College, and in January, 1839, he estab- 
lislied the Judson Female Institute, in Marion, Ala- 
bama. This soon became the most flourishing insti- 
tution for young ladies in the Southwest, comprising 
among its pupils many daughters of wealthy planters 
in Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Florida and 
Texas. In connection with his school he established 
the "Alabama Baptist," a paper which was adopted 
as the organ of the denomination in that State, and 
which is still published. In the summer of 1855, 
leaving his school in a prosperous condition, and 
taking such of his servants as were willing to accept 
their freedom, he returned to the North, receiving 
from his pupils and patrons the most flattering 
tokens of confidence and affection. In the following 
autumn he purchased the Cottage Hill Seminary at 
Poughkeepsie, New York, and at that time entered 
on the most intimate and confidential relations with 
Matthew Vassar, senior, the well known brewer. 
Finding him wealthy, childless and ambitious to per- 
petuate his name. Professor Jewett suggested to him 
the idea of a college that should be for young 
women what Yale, Harvard and Brown are to young 
men. As the result of this suggestion, Mr. Vassar 
revoked his will, in which he had left the bulk of his 
estate to create a hospital at Poughkeepsie, and re- 
solved to build and endow the proposed institution 
for young ladies during his life-time. Thus " Vassar 
College " came into existence, being incorporated in 
the year 1861, and was then the only endowed insti- 
tution for young ladies in the world. Professor 
Jewett, who had been the trusted counselor and the 
constant inspirer of Mr. Vassar in this noble enter- 
prise, planned and organized the college, and was 
chosen its first president. In April, 1862, at the re- 
quest of the trustees, he visited Europe, spending 



eight months inspecting the universities, libraries, 
art galleries, etc., in all the principal cities of Great 
Britain and the continent. Two years later he re- 
signed the presidency of the college, and in 1867 
removed to his present home in Milwaukee, Wiscon- 
sin. Here he has found congenial occupation in 
devoting himself to the interests of education, phi- 
lanthropy and religion, as commissioner of public 
schools ; trustee of the Milwaukee Female College ; 
chairman of the board of visitors of the University 
of Wisconsin ; president of the Milwaukee board of 
health; president of the Wisconsin State Temperance 
Society ; president of the Milwaukee County Bible 
Society; member of the Western Advisory Commit- 
tee of the American Baptist Educational Commission, 
and chairman of the State Baptist Centennial Com- 
mittee. 

In the midst of his active duties. Professor Jewett 
has not neglected self-culture, and aside from his 
contributions to papers and magazines, has issued 
several publications, and has a wide and worthy 
reputation as a scholar and reformer. In 1840 he 
issued "Jewett on Baptism;" in 1863, "Report of 
the President's Visit to Europe," and " Report on 
the Organization of Vassar College;" in 1874, "Re- 
lations of Boards of Health to Intemperance," and 
"A Plea for Academies;" in 1875, "The Baptist 
Centennial," an address to the Baptist churches of 
Wisconsin, and "The Model Academy." 

Politically he was formerly a whig, and is now 
identified with the republican party. 

He was married in 1833 to Miss Jane Augusta 
Russell, daughter of Hon. Moor Russell of Plymouth, 
New Hampshire, the founder of what is now the 
oldest mercantile house in the northern part of that 
State, which still flourishes under the family name. 



HON. EPHRAIM BOWEN, 



BRODHEAD. 



EPHRAIM BOWEN, a native of Evans, Erie 
county. New York, was born on the 14th of 
January, 1824, and is the son of Pardon and Maria 
Bowen. His father, who was of Rhode Island stock, 
cleared a farm on the "Holland Purchase," in 
western New York, and there reared a large family, 
giving them such educational advantages as could 
be afforded by the common schools. When eight 
years of age, Ephraim was bereft of his mother, and 



of his father at the age of fifteen, and being thus 
early thrown upon his own resources, he developed 
that spirit of self-reliance, independence and deter- 
mination that have marked his entire career. After 
conducting the farm for one year after his father's 
death, he engaged to work as a farm hand for three 
years at ten dollars per month. At the expiration of 
this time he spent one year traveling as a dealer in 
patentrights, for eighteen dollars per month. He 




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THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



i3t 



had long clierished a desire for mercantile life, and 
at the age of twenty-one years, with a capital of three 
hundred dollars from his hard-earned savings, he 
removed to Wisconsin and settled at Exeter, Green 
county, and there accepted a clerkship in a store at 
fifteen dollars per month. Later he became a part- 
ner in the business, and after six years of successful 
trade found himself in possession of three thousand 
dollars. With this then large sum he removed to 
Albany, Wisconsin, in 1853, erected a building and 
established himself in the mercantile and produce 
business, and also engaged in real-estate operations. 
Here he conducted his business with uniform good 
success till iS67,at which time he removed to Green 
Bay and there purchased two thousand acres of pine 
land in connection with a mill, and with that energy 
that had characterized his mercantile career con- 
ducted a successful lumber trade for a number of 
years, and added largely to his already ample for- 
tune. Returning to Green county, he established 
the First National Bank of Brodhead, of which he is 
both president and principal stockholder. He also 
erected a fine residence, surrounded it with comforts 
and luxuries, and lives now in the quiet enjoyment 
of the fruit of his industry, economy and honorable 
dealing. As a business man, Mr. Bowen possesses 
remarkable financial ability, and is widely known for 
his shrewdness, cautiousness, and his decided, vigor- 
ous and confident action. 

In political affairs he holds decided views, and 



though an earnest worker, has no desire for official 
honors; formerly a whig, but now a rejuiblican. 

His early religious training was under Baptist 
influences, but he is now liberal in his theological 
sentiments. Sympathizing with all enterprises cal- 
culated to better the condition of men, he liberally 
contributes of his means, regardless of sect. He has 
traveled extensively with his family throughout the 
southern and Pacific States, and is thoroughly con- 
versant with all matters of public interest. 

Mr. Bowen wasmarried on the 8th of June, 1853, 
to Miss Mary Ann Pearsons, of Sheldon, Wyoming 
county, New York, a lady of excellent family, amia- 
ble and refined, and possessing in an eminent degree 
those delicate sensibilities and noble impulses that 
combine with fidelity and devotion to make the true 
wife and mother. She has contributed largely to 
her husband's success in business, while for moral 
and intellectual improvement he is no less indebted 
to the air of purity and intelligence that has daily 
surrounded his home, inspiring all the diviner attri- 
butes of his nature. They have had three child- 
ren, two daughters and one son. The eldest, Ella 
Amanda, a most amiable and beautiful girl, died in 
September, 1864, at the age of ten years. The other 
daughter, seventeen years of age, is now a student 
of high promise in the University at Madison. The 
son, Myron Pardon, a bright and promising boy of 
fifteen years, is now attending school, and bids fair 
to become a worthy representative of his parents. 



JAMES McGEE, 

OCONTO. 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of St. An- 
drews, Charlotte county, New Brunswick, was 
born on the i8th of June, 1845, and is the son of 
Charles McGee and Ann Jane nee Rodgers, both of 
whom were of estimable character, devoted piety, 
and careful in the training of their children to habits 
of honesty and uprightness. 

James received his education in the common 
schools of his native place, and after closing his 
studies, in accordance with the desire of his father, 
entered a printing office; finding, however, that the 
work was impairing his health he closed his engage- 
ment at the end of seven months, and resumed his 
studies and spent the next six years in school. At 
the expiration of that time he went to sea, making 



an eight months' voyage; but it being against his 
father's wishes that he should follow this life, he ac- 
cepted a clerkship in a store of general merchandise 
and held it for three years. Wishing for a wider 
field of action, and drawn by its superior induce- 
ments to young men, he removed to the West in 
1866, and settled at Oconto, where he has since con- 
tinued to reside. Not being able to find employ- 
ment suited to his tastes, upon his arrival, he spent 
the first winter in felling trees in the Oconto woods. 
In the ensuing spring he obtained a clerkship with 
the " Oconto Company," a lumber-dealing firm, and 
remained in that position four years, and then be- 
came a clerk in the hardware store of a Mr. Barlow. 
Remaining here till the spring of 1874, he then 



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opened the drug trade in which he is at present 
occupied. Public-siiirited and enterprising, lie has 
taken a deep interest in all matters pertaining to the 
growth and welfare of his town and State, and has 
been honored by his fellow-citizens by positions of 
responsibility and public trust. In 1872 he was 
elected city clerk of Oconto, and reelected in the 
following year, and in 1874 was chosen treasurer of 
his county, receiving a majority of four hundred and 
forty-two votes. In his political sentiments he is 
identified with the republican party. His religious 
training was under Episcopalian influences, and he is 
now a worthy member of that church. He has been 
a careful, observing man, and in his travels, which 
have extended over most of the States in the Union, 



he has gained a most valuable experience, and is 
well versed in many interesting and important topics. 

Mr. McGee was married in May, 1872, to Miss 
Anna J. Juneau, daughter of the late Paul Juneau, 
a prominent citizen of Juneau, Dodge county, Wis- 
consin, and grand-daughter of Solomon Juneau, the 
founder of Milwaukee. 

Their happy union has been blessed by one son 
and one daughter. 

Though still a young man, Mr. McGee has estab- 
lished a worthy reputation as a business man of 
worth, integrity and principle. From a comparative- 
ly obscure beginning he has rapidly advanced to his 
present high social and business standing, and is still 
growing in wealth and popularity. 



IRVING M. BEAN, 

MIL \VA UKEE. 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of Willsboro, 
Essex county. New York, was born on the 27th 
of April, 1838, and is the son of J. L. Bean and Jane 
E. ne'e McCoUough. His maternal grandfather was 
a commissioned otificer in the revolutionary war. 
His mother was a cousin of the poet, J. G. Saxe. 
His father, an influential business man, after remov- 
ing to the West, was connected with many public 
enterprises in Wisconsin. He took an active part 
in railroad affairs and was the first president of the 
Milwaukee and LaCrosse Railroad Company. His 
remarkable executive ability secured to him the 
highest respect of the public, while his excellent per- 
sonal qualities made him the center of a large social 
circle. He died at the early age of forty-six years, 
leaving to his family the legacy of a true character 
and spotless reputation. Irving received his early 
education in Milwaukee, and in 1857 graduated from 
Carroll College, having pursued a regular classical 
course. Soon after leaving college he began the 
study of law, and in the summer of i868 entered the 
law school at Poughkeepsie, New York, and there, 
in addition to his regular studies, he gave especial 
attention to elocution and literary culture. Leaving 
the law school, he entered the office of Messrs. Jack- 
son and Wilkinson, of Poughkeepsie, and in 1869, 
after a rigid and prolonged examination, was admit- 
ted to the bar from a class of twenty, of whom twelve 
were rejected. Returning to his home, he became a 
partner of Mr. Calvert C. White, and began the' prac- 



tice of his profession. In the fall of i860, associat- 
ing himself with Mr. Totten, under the firm name of 
Bean and Totten, he continued his practice a few 
months and was doing a successful business, when, 
by reason of both he and his partner entering the 
army, the firm was dissolved. Enlisting as a private 
in the sth Regiment Wisconsin Volunteers, he was 
soon transferred to the army of the Potomac. In 
November, 1861, he was promoted to a captaincy, 
and, serving in General Franklin's corps, participated 
in all the battles in which it was engaged up to 
April, 1863, when he resigned. He was soon after- 
ward appointed provost marshal for the first district 
of Wisconsin and held that office till October, 1865, 
when he was mustered out. As a soldier and officer 
he made for himself a most worthy record, and while 
in the discharge of his duties in the last-named posi- 
tion had the satisfaction of knowing that his services 
were appreciated and approved by the government 
and the people. In the summer of 1863 he was 
elected president of the Forest City Bank, and acted 
in that capacity for over two years. Visiting the 
South in 1866, his intention was to resume his pro- 
fession, but the unsettled condition of both political 
and business affairs caused him to abandon his pur- 
pose, and returning to Milwaukee, he turned his 
attention to business pursuits. In the spring of 1867 
he was elected president of the Northwestern Iron 
Company, and still continues to act in that capacity. 
On the ist of July, 1875, he was appointed collector 



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133 



of internal revenue for the first district of Wisconsin, 
a capacity in which he has rendered most efficient 
service. He is at the present time president of the 
Young Men's Library Association. 

His career, though varied, has been marked by 
upright and fair dealing, and he has become known 
as a careful manager and a man of fine executive 
and financial abilities. 

In his political sentiments Mr. Bean is identified 
with the republican party. 

Though orthodox in his religious principles in all 



essential points, he is liberal in his views and not 
connected with any church organization. 

Personally and socially he possesses excellent 
qualities, and by his polite manners, gentlemanly 
demeanor and generous actions, does not fail to im- 
press all with whom he has to do with a sense of his 
genuine worth. 

He was married in November, 1868, to Miss Alice 
H. Blossom, and lives in the enjoyment of a happy 
home, surrounded by a host of true and substantial 
friends. 



SAMUEL JOHNSON GOODWIN, 

BELOIT. 



THE ancestors of Samuel Johnson Goodwin were 
of old New England stock, and were early 
settlers of Hartford, Connecticut. His grandfather 
took part in the revolutionary war. His parents 
were Samuel and Abigail Goodwin, both born in 
Hartford, Connecticut, from where they removed in 
the year 1810 to Madison, Madison county. New 
York, where his father was engaged in business as 
hotel keeper, mail contractor, stage proprietor and 
merchant, for over twenty years, a thorough business 
man, and to his example and teachings his son Sam- 
uel attributes much of his success. 

Samuel Johnson Goodwin was born at Madison, 
Madison county. New York, August 19, 181 2. He 
received a common school education in his native 
town, and when he was fifteen years old he entered 
the store of E. F. Gaylord, in Madison, as a clerk, 
where he remained for two years, and then went to 
Utica, Oneida county. New York, where he was en- 
gaged in a dry-goods store for about four years 
when he returned to his native town and bought out 
his former employer, and remained in trade there 
for five years. He then sold out, and in the fall of 
1838 he landed in St. Louis with a stock of cloths, 
prints, etc. He there purchased a pair of horses, 
wagon, etc., loaded his goods upon the same, and 
started for Galena, stopping at all intermediate set- 
tlements to dispose of his goods. He continued in 
that business until May, 1840, when at the urgent 
solicitation of his father and brother he returned to 
Waterville, Oneida county, New York, where his 
father and brother had removed, where he became 
connected with the firm of Bacon, Tower and Co., 
woolen manufacturers and merchants. He was soon 



placed in charge of the woolen mill, which was then 
manufacturing about two hundred and ten yards per 
day, which was a losing business. He at once com- 
menced an increase of speed to every part of the 
machinery, and in less than six months the same 
machinery was turning out four hundred and fifty 
yards of the same cloth daily, and he so continued 
for sixteen years. He then sold out, and in 1858, in 
connection with Dean Richmond, Hamilton White, 
John Wilkinson and Charles B. Sedgwick, formed a 
company called the Moline Water Power and Manu- 
facturing Company, of which he was elected secretary 
and treasurer. The company purchased the entire 
water power at Moline, Illinois, and erected the first 
stone dam and other improvements, costing some 
one hundred thousand dollars. He sold out his in- 
terest in that enterprise in the fall of i860; then 
came to Rochester, and soon after purchased the 
farm of three hundred and twenty-five acres which 
he now owns, and commenced the growing of hops 
and the manufacture of butter, having the most com- 
plete arranged creamery in the Northwest. In the 
fall of 1868 he purchased at Beloit, of Professor J. J. 
Bushnell, the hotel property then known as the Bush- 
nell House, now known as the Goodwin House. 
The property was then in a bad state of repair and 
in poor reputation as a hotel. He at once com- 
menced putting the place in a perfect state of 
repair, adding all the modern improvements to make 
it a first class hotel in all its appointments, and it so 
remains to this time. In 1869 he erected, adjoining 
the hotel on the north, a beautiful opera house, mod- 
ern and complete in all its appointments, and in 
1875 he added on the east of the hotel a block of 



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three very handsome brick front stores, and he iden- 
tified himself fully with the best interests and growth 
of the city, and in 1870 was elected its mayor. 

He has been a stockholder in the American 
Express Company since its organization, also of the 
Western Union Telegraph Company. Mr. Goodwin 
has always been found ready to take part in all that 
tends to the improvement of the city, and although 
not a member of any church, he has helped liberally 
for their support ; in fact he is distinguished for his 



liberality and excellent business capacity. In poli- 
tics he has been a republican since the organization 
of the party. In 1840 he was married at Waterville, 
Oneida county, to Miss Margaret Bacon, daughter 
of Reuben Bacon, Esq., in whom he has found a 
good and faithful wife, whom he has ever consulted 
in his different enterprises. She has been to him a 
good counselor and always a cheerful companion. 
They have had two sons, one of whom, the younger, 
survives. 



OTIS HARVEY WALDO, 



MIL WA UKEE. 



OTIS HARVEY WALDO was born in Pratts- 
burgh. New York, April i, 1822. His father, 
Otis Waldo, was one of eight children whose parents 
very early emigrated from Connecticut, and settled 
in Prattsburgh, where their children were brought 
up, and where most of them remained during their 
lives. Otis, the second son, grew to be an honest, 
industrious, strong-minded, clear-headed man. His 
occupation was that of farmer, his faith that of a 
Christian of the old New England type. Two sons 
were born to the earnest Christian parents, the 
eldest of whom is the subject of this memoir. 

Otis Harvey lived to the age of seventeen on his 
father's farm, his time being divided between labor 
on the farm and in an old fashioned saw-mill, and 
attendance at the neighboring district school and 
academy. He very early showed a decided incli- 
nation for study, and for studies of the severer kind, 
the classics and mathematics. This tendency was 
perhaps intensified by the circumstances of his 
youth. His mother was for nearly all her life, after 
the birth of her children, an invalid, his father was 
a quiet and very sedate man, and his brother 
eight years his junior. Of course he had little com- 
panionship or amusement in his home, which he 
seldom left. To know, to understand, to do, to per- 
severe, whatever the difficulties, thus became the 
characteristics of his youth, proving the boy 
father of the man. 

Through their earnest desire to consecrate their 
son to the most useful life, it is probable, he was 
designed by his parents for the ministry, and hence 
every facility their circumstances allowed was 
afforded for his education, and he was prepared for 
college at the early age of seventeen. Previous to 



this, a circumstance of sufficient importance to have, 
in some serious manner, affected his character, 
occurred. Under powerful excitement from the 
preaching of the revivalist Boyle, at the susceptible 
age of eleven, he was persuaded that he had met 
with a change of heart, and was induced to unite 
with the Presbyterian church. Afterward, having 
abandoned the hope or belief that he had been the 
subject of a radical change, he requested to be 
allowed silently to withdraw from the communion 
of which he deemed himself an unworthy member. 
This, from the rules of the church, was denied him, 
and with no charge against him except that he con- 
scientiously absented himself from the communion 
services of the church, he was publicly excommuni- 
cated on the first Sabbath of May, 1839. The same 
week he left home and entered Union College in 
the middle of the freshman year, for both the clas- 
sical and the literary course. A class-mate writes of 
his college life : " He was an untiring student, cor- 
rect in his deportment and in his morals, and was 
what we termed in college a max scholar in all 
respects during the whole of his course. His marks 
for scholarship, attendance and deportment were 
the highest then given in college. Mr. Waldo often 
talked with me in admiring terms of Dr. Nott, then 
the president of the college, and of Dr. Alonzo Pot- 
ter, professor of moral philosophy and rhetoric." 
Later friends know that he continued to admire 
these instructors of his youth, to whom he was 
doubtless indebted for some valuable and graceful 
modifications of his earlier character. 

During his last year in college the eyes of the 
zealous young student failed, and, unable to read 
himself, he learned his lessons from the reading of 




fii^nyJohiCU'RaillY 




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135 



his room-mate. He graduated in both courses with 
honor in 1842, and returned to his father's house 
an invalid, suffering much for two years from weak 
eyes and feeble health. During this time he did 
some light work on the farm and interested himself 
in organizing a literary society, which became quite 
noted ; and he was also very active, for so young a 
man, in the elections of 1844. 

With the hope of benefit to his health, and of 
making a start in the world, in the fall of that year 
Mr. Waldo a second time left home. A gentleman, 
whose acquaintance he made on the way, induced 
him to go to Natchez, where he arrived well nigh 
destitute of funds. He soon became a member of 
the family of General John A. Quitman, on whose 
premises he taught a small school with much suc- 
cess, at the same time employing his leisure hours 
in reading law with General Quitman, and in " dis- 
cussing with him, in the most thorough manner, not 
only the elementary principles of law, but also the 
principles of government." 

He was admitted to the bar in Natchez in the 
spring of 1849, and had many inducements set 
before him either to remain with General Quitman 
or open an office in New Orleans. Had it not been 
for slavery, to which he was conscientiously opposed, 
and whose evil fruits were the more apparent to him 
from his near observation of its workings, he would 
doubtless have heeded the southern call, but as it 
was, he took a map and studied the western States 
which he believed offered the best promises to an 
energetic and aspiring young man. He very soon 
decided upon Wisconsin, and at once came to Mil- 
waukee, but before regarding himself settled made 
a tour of the State. From this he was satisfied, and 
returned to make Milwaukee his permanent home in 
the autumn of the same year which had witnessed 
his admission to the bar. He came a stranger, but 
his industry and ability soon brought him friends 
and clients. 

In the spring of 1850 he married the daughter of 
the Hon. J. Van Valkenburgh, of Pontiac, Michigan, 
and henceforth labored with the clearly defined 
plan, first, of securing a competency which as a citi- 
zen and a man with a family he regarded a solemn 
obligation ; second, in the struggle for this compe- 
tency, and as a distinct aim, to secure the highest 
excellence in his profession. Beyond these imme- 
diate objects, he had high ambitions for place and 
power, that he might do more and better work for 
his country and his race. For seven years he went 



on prosperously, according to the programme marked 
out by himself. Then the financial crisis of 1857 
threw him into serious embarrassment. With the 
aim already alluded to, he had bought ground on 
the principal street of the city, and commenced 
building a block of stores in the best manner. Real 
estate was solid and permanent; he had faith in it 
and in the future of Wisconsin and Milwaukee. 

Mr. Waldo borrowed considerable money at a 
high rate of interest to build the stores. The strug- 
gle to finish the work and pay his debts, although 
not the noblest of his life, yet shows very forcibly 
some of his best characteristics — integrity, courage, 
perseverance. Nothing of his plan and puri)ose 
would he yield ; every dollar of his indebtedness 
would he pay, and that by his own honest exertions. 
Through the future ho still saw financial victory, 
and though at the cost of retrenchment and un- 
wearied labor for ten years, he bravely fought the 
battle, and won. Meantime he was gaining excel- 
lence, his other aim, and was ijroving himself one 
of the most public-spirited and useful citizens in 
his adopted city and State. Far and wide he was 
known as the well read, the clear-headed, sound- 
judging, industrious and persistent lawyer. The most 
difficult cases were confided to him, and seldom did 
he lose a case. A brother lawyer writes : " Shortly 
after Mr. Waldo's coming here a great humbug 
spread over the land like a cloud, known as the 
' land limitation measure ' ; on that subject he made, 
I think, his first speech, but it was a speech that 
electrified us all, and he actually burst the bubble so 
far as Milwaukee was concerned." Another writes 
as follows : " He was always interested, and inter- 
ested in an intelligent way, in public affairs." A 
citizen writes thus : " There has been scarcely any 
prominent enterprise for the public good during the 
past twenty years which Mr. Waldo has not aided. 
After the break-down of 1858, when the credit of 
Milwaukee was all shattered and torn, he, in con- 
nection with James T. Brown, then mayor, acted as 
attorney for the city in adjusting our then pressing 
indebtedness. By representing to the creditors the 
true facts in the case, and what equity demanded on 
both sides, Mr. Waldo succeeded in adjusting that 
indebtedness on long bonds at four per cent per 
annum, and that wise adjustment was the foundation 
of the present good credit of Milwaukee." 

His labors in behalf of the Northern Railroad 
were marked by the same energy, good sense and 
practical foresight, and though not a capitalist him- 



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self, he succeeded in interesting others largely in 
that project, and it is no exaggeration to say that the 
construction of that important road was as much 
due to Otis H. Waldo as to any other man. But 
his life was really that of a lawyer, and we consid- 
ered him, beyond a doubt, one of the greatest law- 
yers in the northwestern States. 

In educational affairs he was always specially in- 
terested, and labored unweariedly for some of the 
schools of his own city. 

As a politician, Mr. Waldo was first a whig. He 
was always opposed to slavery, yet never identified 
himself with the abolitionists, because he regarded 
them as extremists and men of one idea. Since its 
formation he has been identified with the republican 
party, and when the great rebellion came he was 
found decidedly and heroically on the side of the 
Union and freedom. His fortune, time, strength and 
talents were consecrated to his country. He penned 
some of the ablest papers upon the questions in 
dispute that exist in the literature of that stirring 
period. Among these may be mentioned a " Letter 
addressed to Governor Salomon on the Conduct of 
the War," also several letters addressed to Senator 
Doolittle upon " equal suffrage," and a speech, de- 
livered at Burlington, entitled " The Legal Conse- 
quences of the Rebellion." 

Mr. Waldo was a student, a man of careful and 
wise discrimination, and thus intellectually and con- 
scientiously tended to the wise middle course on 
most subjects. He possessed the excellences, and 
to some extent the severities, of the Puritans, and 
for these reasons was not qualified to be a popular 
man with the crowd, although he was always their 
staunchest friend. 



He was, in the strictest sense, democratic in poli- 
tics, a believer in universal education and universal 
suffrage, but his carefully drawn arguments and 
guarded statements, though lucid, were tedious to 
the many who jump at conclusions ; his fairness and 
charity, even, wearied them, and so, though a gen- 
eral conviction of his intellectual and moral fitness 
and the obligations the community were under to 
him forced that community to regard his claim to 
public honors, yet he was not a successful candidate 
for office. Weaker and less honorable men were 
more successful ; but a change was coming, for the 
people have grown weary of selfish greed and reck- 
less extravagance and unfaithfulness, and doubtless, 
had Mr. Waldo's life been spared, the honor which 
six years ago he sought — a seat in the United States 
senate — would have been his, and he would have 
been one of the most capable and faithful members 
of that august body. 

In private, Mr. Waldo's life was spotless. He 
was devoted to his home and family, and interested 
in the education of his children as though these 
were his only obligation. 

He was Congregational in his idea of church, as 
he was democratic in his idea of state, but never, 
after his youthful experience before recorded, united 
with the church ; yet was he through life reverent 
and earnest in his regard for the Christian religion. 

Through manifold labor, manifold thought, mani- 
fold affections, the subject of this memoir, overtax- 
ing his life force, passed the years 1873 and 1874 in 
great feebleness and weakness, yet, till overpowered, 
would not yield the struggle. Worn out in the 
prime of his life, he fell asleep October 30, 1874, in 
the fifty-third year of his age. 



JOHN H. WARREN, M.D., 

ALBANY. 



JOHN HALDEN WARREN, a native of Hogans- 
burg, Franklin county. New York, was born on 
the 23d of August, 1825, and is the son of Lemuel 
Warren and Betsey n^e Richardson. His grand- 
father served in the revolutionary war, and his 
father, a descendant of the New England Warren of 
very early date, was a soldier in the war of 1812. 
John attended the common schools of his native 
place until thirteen years of age, and after removing 
to Wisconsin attended the first school taught in 



Janesville ; later he was a pupil in a school which 
was kept in a log cabin in the town of Centre, and 
there completed his early education. Having 
decided to enter the medical profession, he began 
his studies at the age of twenty in the office of Dr. 
Nichols, of Janesville, and afterward studied with 
Dr. Dyer, of Chicago, and at the same time attended 
a course of lectures at Rush Medical College, from 
which he graduated in 1849. Immediately after 
graduation he established himself in his profession 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



m 



at Lodi, Columbia county, but in 1851, at the urgent 
request of a brother, relinquished his practice, and 
removing to Albany engaged in milling and mercan- 
tile business, cgntinuing in the same with uniform 
success till 1870. Aside from his regular business 
he has been honored with many public trusts, and 
in all his active career has been a leading and 
influential man. In 1857 he was elected to the 
State senate, and was afterward chief clerk of the 
same. He was appointed collector of internal 
revenue in 1862 by President Lincoln, and held 
the office during a period of seven years, and was 
also appointed by Secretary Stanton receiver of 
commutation during the rebellion. He was also at 
one time a director of the Sugar Valley Railroad 
and a stockholder in the same. At the present 
time he is the largest mail contractor in the United 
States, having over one hundred mail routes. His 
business has caused him to travel extensively over 
the different States and Territories, by reason of 
which he has become well acquainted with the 
character of the Indians, and heartily favors every 
movement that tends to further the interests of the 
peace policy. In the discharge of all his public 



trusts his conduct has been marked by that energy 
and spirit of enterprise that ever characterized him 
in his private affairs, and by an honorable and up- 
right course in all his dealings he has become 
known as one of the leading and prominent men of 
his State. 

In his political sentiments he was formerly a whig 
but is now identified with the republican party. 

Dr. Warren was reared under Presbyterian influ- 
ences, and although not connected with any church 
organization is a firm believer in the principles of 
Christianity, and still adheres to the doctrines 
taught him by his mother. 

He was married on the i8th of December, 1854, 
to Miss Louisa M. Nichols, daughter of his old pre- 
ceptor, the pioneer of Albany, Wisconsin, and by 
her has two sons and five daughters, Herbert N., 
Julia, Lissie, Gertrude, Lulu, Benjamin, and Fannie. 
The eldest son is now a student at Rusli Medical 
College. 

Domestic in his habits, Dr. Warren finds his chief 
enjoyment in his own home, surrounded by his 
happy family, by whom he is respected and esteemed 
as a devoted luisband and indulgent father. 



HERMAN S. MACK, 



MILWAUKEE. 



HERMAN S. MACK was born in Altenkund- 
stadt, Bavaria, June 7, 1835. He was a son 
of Solomon Mack. His father was a merchant and 
manufacturer of broadcloth. Herman received his 
early education in the schools of his native town, 
until he attained his thirteentli year. 

During the revolution of 1848 and 1849 in Ger- 
many, his parents, seeing no prospects for liim, ad- 
vised him to leave his native place, and go to the 
United States. In March, 1849, he came to this 
country, and went to Cincinnati, at which place he 
commenced his business career as errand boy in a 
wholesale dry-goods house; at the same time he 
attended Gundy's Commercial College in the even- 
ings. 

In October, 1850, he came to Milwaukee, where 
he was clerk until 1854, when he entered into part- 
nership with his brothers, under the firm name of 
Mack Brothers, who were widely known throughout 
the Northwest, and were for many years at the head 
of the retail dry-goods business of the State 



In 1867 he associated himself with his brother 
Hugo, under the firm name of H. S. Mack and Co., 
for the purpose of carrying on the wholesale fancy 
dry-goods, yankee notions and furnishing goods busi- 
ness, and the firm, through unceasing efforts, energy 
and enterprise, have succeeded in building up an 
immense business, now occupying the large and 
commodious building, Nos. 369 and 37 1 East Water 
street, and enjoy a high reputation, equal to any in 
the State. 

In 1872 he imported knitting looms from Europe, 
and started the Northwestern Knitting Works, for 
the purpose of manufacturing scarfs, sashes, jackets, 
mittens and fancy knit woolens. The manufacture 
of these goods has increased from year to year, and 
sales and shipments have been made to nearly all 
the States of the Union. 

In the early days of Milwaukee lie was an active 
member of the fire department, and belonged to 
staunch old "No. i." In 1867 he was appointed by 
Governor Fairchild to represent the State of Wis- 



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THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



consin at the Universal Exposition at Paris, and in 
1873 Governor VVashburne appointed him commis- 
sioner to the World's Exposition at Vienna. He 
has lately traveled quite extensively through the con- 
tinent of Europe. 

He is now, and has been since he was twenty-one 
years of age, a zealous member of the order of Odd- 
Fellows, and has been honored by the State grand 
bodies with the highest offices, having been grand 



patriarch of the grand encampment, and he repre- 
sented the Grand Lodge of Wisconsin in the Grand 
Lodge of the United States, at New York in 1867, 
and at Baltimore in 1868. 

Mr. Mack was married on the 3d of June, 1868, 
to Jennie Wolf, daughter of Hon. Daniel Wolf, coun- 
selor and member of the board of public improve- 
ments in Cincinnati, Ohio, and one of the most 
prominent and influential men of that city. 



WILLIAM MEACHER, M.D., 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of Bungay, 
Suffolk county, England, was born on the 27th 
of May, 1833, and is the son of William Meacher, 
senior, and Sarah Ann Brown, the former born on the 
28th of August, 1808, at No. 9 Page's Walk, Grange 
road, Bermondsey, London, and the latter on the 
Grampian Hills in Scotland. At the age of ten 
years William attended a part of a winter school of 
three months and one summer term of the same 
length in Monroe county. New York. Later he 
spent a little less than two years in school in Wis- 
consin, wliither he moved with his father in the 
summer of 1844, and settled in the town of Lake. 
At the age of twenty-two years he conceived a desire 
for literary culture, and giving himself with avidity 
to the work, at once began the arduous task of edu- 
cating himself. Beginning with grammar, arith- 
metic and spelling, he spent the forenoons in study 
and devoted the afternoon to work on the farm or 
carpentering during the summers, and in the winter 
employed his evenings and Sundays with his books. 
After one year's diligent study he spent two months 
in a select school in Portage city, and in the follow- 
ing winter taught the school of his district, receiving 
a compensation of eighteen dollars per month, and 
boarding himself. In early life his desire had been 
to become a physician, but it seemed beyond his 
reach. During this winter, however, he determined 
to accomplish his purpose and gratify his desire. 
Accordingly in the ensuing spring, with the encour- 
agement of Dr. O. D. Colman, of whom he borrowed 
books, he began his studies at home, dividing his 
time between them and his work to support his 
family. At the exjjiration of two years thus spent 
he mortgaged his farm of forty acres for two hun- 
dred and fifty dollars, and with this money pursued 



a course of study at Rush Medical College of Chi- 
cago, and in the following summer began practice 
in Washara county, Wisconsin. Meeting with little 
success he sold his land in the fall for five hundred 
dollars, paid his former loan, and with the balance 
attended another term at the medical college and 
graduated in the spring of 1862, six years from the 
time when he first began his private study of 
grammar and spelling. It had been a long and 
tedious work, but as he compared his condition now, 
the master of a noble profession, with his former 
state, when, as a boy, he was obliged to toil as a 
day laborer, or when a sailor upon the lakes he was 
thrown .into the company of those whose influence 
tended only to degrade, he did not regret his course, 
and felt that he had made a noble sacrifice, and that 
what he had gained repaid him a thousand fold for 
all that it had cost him. It is worthy of mention 
that during all his former varied career, though at 
times associated with reckless and abandoned 
characters, he had never contracted any of the 
habits of drinking, gambling or using tobacco. 
After his graduation, without means. Dr. Meacher 
began his practice in the village of Pardeeville, and 
by the aid of his friend and benefactor. Dr. Colman, 
managed to make a living. He engaged in this 
work because it was his natural preference, and he 
considered it the noblest of all professions. Begin- 
ning at the bottom his career has marked a gradual 
growth, and each year has added to his practice 
and re]JUtation. Thoroughness in his professional 
work has always been his motto, and to this may be 
attributed his remarkable success. He has been a 
constant and diligent student, and when not engaged 
with his patients has found most agreeable employ- 
ment with his books, finding little time for games or 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



139 



ordinary amusements. Of late years he has devoted 
himself especially to surgery, and in all his surgical 
operations his constant practice is to make a careful 
study of his case, both by reading and observation, 
before beginning it. During the war Dr. Meacher 
was commissioned assistant surgeon of the i6th 
Regiment of Wisconsin Volunteers, and later served 
for four months as contract surgeon. He was at the 
siege of Atlanta, and participated in the famous 
march to the sea. 

Aside from his professional duties he has shown a 
public-spiritedness and been honored by his fellow- 
citizens with positions of trust. About his first 
office was that of school superintendent of Marcel- 
low in i860; in 1870 he was elected president of 
the board of trustees for the village of Randolph, 
Dodge county, Wisconsin; and in 1872 declined a 
nomination as candidate for the State legislature. 
He was elected supervisor for the second ward of 
Portage city in 1874, and reelected in 1875. His 
ambition, however, has never led him to desire 
political honors, he finding in his profession ample 
scope for his best talents. 



His political views are democratic, though he is 
not a partisan. 

In his religious sentiments, Dr. Meacher has 
always been a " free thinker." A disciple of Dar- 
win, Huxley, Tyndal, and Draper, he looks with the 
deepest interest upon the impending conflict between 
science and religion. He believes in the nebulous 
origin of the earth, and firmly holds to the teachings 
of geology in reference to its formation and develop- 
ment. In regard to God, he believes in an intelli- 
gence pervading the universe "as the great unknown 
and unknowable." As to the future existence he 
holds no opinion, further than that it is unknown 
now, but may in the order of progress be found out. 

He is a prominent member of the Masonic fra- 
ternity, having taken thirty-two degrees, and makes 
the principles that underlie this brotherhood his 
religion. 

Dr. Meacher was married in the winter of 1854 
to Miss Jane E. Clayton, an orphan, of Oak Creek, 
Milwaukee county, and by her has had two sons 
and three daughters, of whom the eldest, a son, died 
in infancy. 



DANIEL A. OLIN, 



DANIEL A. OLIN, was born June 3, 1826, at 
Canton, St. Lawrence county, New York. His 
grandfather, Caleb Olin, settled in Addison, Ver- 
mont, at an early day, and was a captain in the revo- 
lutionary war. His father, Joseph Olin, was married 
in Vermont, to Huldah Smith. Soon after they 
removed to Canton, at that time almost an unbroken 
wilderness. He was a captain in the war of 181 2, 
and took part in the battle of Plattsburg. After 
the war he divided his time between farming and 
operating in real estate. Daniel A., the subject of 
this sketch, was the youngest of ten children. His 
mother died when he was three years of age. In 
1831, his father married Hepsebeth B. Andrews, 
who bore to him two children, making twelve in the 
family. She was in the best sense of the .term a 
true woman, intelligent, just and affectionate, and 
making no distinction between her husband's chil- 
dren, but treated them all with a mother's solicitude 
and kindness. 

To her influence Daniel ascribes whatever is 
praisewortliy in his own character. Such was his 



appreciation of her character, that she has been 
heard to say that Daniel never spoke an unkind 
word to her. Daniel received his education at the 
public school of his own town, and at Canton Acad- 
emy, which was at that time a flourishing institution 
of its kind. He remained with his father on the 
farm, teaching school during the winter, until 1849, 
when he was married to Sarah S. Sweet, who died 
in May, 1852, leaving one daughter. In June, 1854, 
he was again married to Mariette Teall. One 
daughter was born of this union. In 185 1, he re- 
moved to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, entering immedi- 
ately into the service of the Milwaukee and Missis- 
sippi Railroad Company, which road was not then 
completed to Waukesha, in the capacity of foreman 
of the men employed in the construction of the 
road. After the completion of the road to Eagle, 
in 1852, he took the position of conductor of a pas- 
senger train, and continued in that capacity until 
the spring of i860. He was conductor of the 
first passenger train that ran from Milwaukee to 
the Mississippi river. In i860 he was appointed 



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THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



assistant superintendent of the same road, which 
was then called the Milwaukee and Prairie du 
Chien railroad. He held this position until the 
spring of 1865, when he was appointed to the posi- 
tion of assistant superintendent of the Milwaukee 
and La Crosse railroad. In 1866, at the consoli- 
dation of this road with the Milwaukee and Prairie 
du Chien road, he was appointed superintendent of 
the La Crosse division of the Milwaukee and St. 
Paul railway, which position he held until July, 
1869, when he was appointed general superintendent 
of the Western Union railroad, which position he 
now holds. 

Mr. Olin's religious views are liberal, although he 
was educated in a strictly puritanical school. 

During the war he was a war democrat, and used 
his influence for the suppression of the rebellion. 

He was a member of the common council of 
Milwaukee five years, three years of which time he 
was president of the board. Mr. Olin is a man of 
unquestioned natural and acquired ability, of prac- 
tical common sense — the basis of all genuine merit — 
of sound judgment, of accurate knowledge of men, 
and of their capabilities of usefulness. He is firm 
in his convictions of duty, and thorough in execu- 
tion. His firmness does not amount to obstinacy, 
for he is always open to conviction. He is cautious 
in all his relations to others, obsequious and syco- 



phantic to none. He pays no homage to wealth 
and power. He sympathizes with the poor and the 
weak. He observes in his daily life the golden rule 
of doing unto others as he would have others do 
unto him. He has great reverence for deity, and 
contributes liberally to religious and benevolent 
institutions. An incident in the life of Mr. Olin 
equally honorable to his head and his heart was 
exhibited in his affectionate tenderness to his wife's 
mother, who spent the last years of her life in his 
family, and the tears he shed over her grave were - 
an eloquent tribute to the characters of both. 

Mrs. Olin, his wife, is a woman of genius, learning 
and literary taste. Her contributions to the press 
have been much admired for their originality of 
thought, their freshness of sentiment, and especially 
for their naturalness and simplicity. Her transla- 
tions from the German authors are critical and just. 
Her literary pursuits do not conflict with her 
domestic duties. They are relaxations from the 
labor of life; order and economy prevail in her 
household. She is a loving wife, kind mother and 
genial companion. Such qualities of head and 
heart as characterize Mr. Olin and wife are rarely 
found in any of the relations of life. They are 
especially interesting when they characterize hus- 
band and wife, between whom there should be har- 
mony of opinions and congeniality of sentiment. 



JAMES SPENSLEY, 

MINERAL POINT. 



THE life-history of him whose name heads this 
sketch presents many varied and interesting 
experiences, and well deserves a place among the 
number of Wisconsin's self-made men. A native of 
Yorkshire, England, he was born on the 17th of 
April, 1833, and is the son of Richard and Alice 
Spensley. When he was six years old his parents 
immigrated to America and settled at Dubuque, 
Iowa, where he passed his early life, receiving a 
common English education and assisting in his 
father's work. Being of an adventurous turn of 
mind he left home at the age of seventeen, and with 
an ox team started across the plains for California. 
Owing to the large immigration of that year (1850) 
the feed of every kind on the way was consumed, 
and when within six hundred miles of Placerville, 
his point of destination, he was obliged to abandon 



his team and walk the remainder of the way. 
Having only about four pounds of flour and one 
and a half pounds of bacon to subsist upon, he 
endured the severest perils, but with a stout heart, 
and finally at ten o'clock on Thursday, the 24th of 
August, reached the end of his long journey. He 
worked for his board until Saturday night, and dur- 
ing the next week engaged in mining, having met 
with some friends who supplied him with an outfit 
of tools. Continuing thus employed for nearly three 
years with varied success, he, in April, 1863, left the 
rnines and went to San Francisco, intending to em- 
bark for Australia. He, however, changed his 
purpose, and took passage for New York via 
Panama, and arrived at his home in Dubuque in 
July. About this time his father moved to Galena, 
Illinois, and engaged in the smelting business at that 




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141 



place. His health having become greatly impaired 
by exposure, he was unable to attend to any regular 
business during the following three years, more than 
to assist in keeping his father's accounts. At the 
expiration of this time, having recovered his health, 
he removed to Mineral Point, Wisconsin, and form- 
ing a copartnership with his father and brother, 
established himself in the smelting business under 
the firm name of James Spensley and Co. In 1861 
the partnership was dissolved by mutual consent, 
and from that time till the present (1876) he has con- 
ducted the business in his own name; and by care- 
ful and judicious management and close application 
has made it a financial success. He is, besides, 
largely engaged in farming interests. 

His political sentiments are republican, and 
although he has no ambition for political emolu- 
ments he was elected to the State legislature in 
1866, and there rendered good service. All worthy 
matters of public interest readily enlist his sympa- 



thies, and he heartily supports any enterprise tending 
to the welfare of his State or town. 

He is a leading member of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, and has always lent a willing hand in 
furthering the cause of religion in his community. 

Mr. Spensley was first married on the 24th of 
September, 1856, to Miss Elizabeth Ann Todd, 
daughter of George and Isabella Todd, of Jo 
Daviess county, Illinois. Mrs. Spensley died on 
the nth of June, 1873, leaving a family of eight 
children. 

Visiting England in 1874 he married his second 
wife, Elizabeth Ann Spensley, daughter of Thomas 
and Elizabeth Spensley, of Reeth, Yorkshire, on the 
1 2 th of May. 

Mr. Spensley 's many excellent personal qualities 
have secured to him many warm friends, and he 
lives in the enjoyment of an ample competence, 
commanding by his upright life the highest respect 
of all with whom he has to do. 



JAMES B. BOWEN, M.D., 

MADISON. 



TAMES B. BOWEN, the son of Jabez Bowen, 
J was born at Killingly, Connecticut, August 19, 
1816. His father died in 1822, having lost all of 
his property shortly before his death. The widow 
and ten children were left to their own resources 
for a living. James was kept at school until his 
eleventh year, when he entered into a contract with 
a cotton manufacturer to work for four years, during 
the usual hours and until ten o'clock at night, re- 
serving four hours a day for study in school. After 
another engagement for one year, he was placed in 
charge as superintendent, with the control of one 
hundred hands. In his eighteenth year he entered 
an academy at Pleasant Valley, New York, defray- 
ing his expenses by performing manual labor at 
night. He returned to Connecticut, walked thirty 
miles to Stafford to rent a cotton mill, thence to 
Hartford, thirty miles further, to procure a stock of 
cotton on credit (for he was without money), and 
succeeded also in hiring hands to perform the labor 
without money for the first six weeks. Afterward 
the hands were paid monthly. He ran the mill 
night and day for eight months, and derived large 
profits. At Warren, Massachusetts, he purchased a 
mill for ten thousand dollars, and commenced an 
19 



independent business. He was now accumulating 
a handsome fortune, when by the failure of his 
agents in New York, he lost everything he had made. 

Previous to his failure he had married Miss Susan 
Tucker, whose womanly qualities and excellent 
counsels have contributed materially to his pros- 
perity and personal happiness. 

He removed to Auburn, New York, and com- 
menced the study of medicine. Without relinquish- 
ing his studies he moved to Rochester, New York, 
and with a partner purchased a cotton mill, running 
it day and night for two years, clearing thirty thou- 
sand dollars, when he sold out, devoting his entire 
attention to the study of medicine. Becoming secu- 
rity for others, he again lost all the money he had 
accumulated, and was indebted for large amounts 
over and above his resources. In 1848 he gradu- 
ated at Central College as M.D., and commenced 
practice in Providence, Rhode Island. In 1852 he 
moved to Madison, Wisconsin, where his career has 
been in all respects successful. He practices the 
homceopathic system, and is considered the father 
of that system in Madison. If success is evidence 
of merit, Dr. Bowen has rare skill in his profession. 
As a business man he has few equals — clear in his 



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THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



perceptions, of sound judgment, prompt in reaching 
his conclusions, and decisive in action. His views 
in relation to public matters are broad and liberal. 
In 1872 he was elected maycJr of the city by a hand- 
some majority, during his absence at the East. In 
1874 he was elected president of the Park Savings 
Bank, and still holds that position. 



Dr. Bowen has been scarcely less fortunate in his 
daughters than in his wife. Susan, the eldest, edu- 
cated at Troy, New York, is married to Wayne Ram- 
say, cashier of the First National Bank ; Sarah, the 
younger, educated at Elmira, New York, is married 
to Dr. Ingman, the partner of Dr. Bowen. Both 
ladies are exemplary wives and admirable women. 



PATRICK CONNOLLY, Junior, 

MILWAUKEE. 



AS an example of patient industry under difficul- 
. ties, and an exemplification of the axiom that 
every life must find its own level in spite of untoward 
surroundings, the record of Patrick Connolly, junior, 
is unsurpassed. He was born of poor but honest 
parents, in Ireland, county of Leitrim, February 14, 
1836, and attended the common school of his native 
village until ten years old. At the early age of 
eleven he bade adieu to the " Emerald Isle," and 
crossing the ocean, came to seek his fortune in the 
new world. By chance he located first in Montreal, 
Canada, where he served as cash boy in a commis- 
sion house, attending school during the winter 
months. Becoming impressed with the idea that 
the republic of the United States was the El Dorado 
for the advancement of ambitious youth, he aban- 
doned the Dominion in the autumn of 1850 and 
settled in Greenfield, Milwaukee county, Wisconsin. 
His insatiable thirst for knowledge had always im- 
pelled him to read much and improve every oppor- 
tunity for study, and in his new home he applied his 
mind with renewed energy, spending the winters of 
1850 and 185 1 at school. 

His education at this time, though gained by his 
own efforts, w^as far in advance of many more favored 
students. Being thrown entirely upon his own re- 



sources, he determined to prepare himself for the 
vocation of a teacher. Before the close of 1851, 
when only fifteen years old, we find him engaged in 
teaching one of the public schools of Milwaukee 
county. As an instance of his filial devotion and 
early habits of prudence w'e will mention that before 
the age of nineteen, he had bought with the savings 
of his limited salary a homestead, which he presented 
to his parents. In 1859 Mr. Connolly received the 
appointment of principal in the intermediate depart- 
ment of a school in Milwaukee city, and in 1863 was 
principal in full of all the departments of the same 
school, which position he retained till called by the 
voice of the people to serve in a more important 
public office. He became early identified with the 
interests of the democratic party, but was never in 
favor of human slavery. In 1872 he was elected 
clerk of the circuit court, and subsequently reelected 
by the flattering majority of forty-five hundred votes. 
Mr. Connolly was married in 1862 to Miss Julia A. 
Vanghey, and is the father of six children, four of 
whom are now living. He was brought up a Roman 
Catholic, and has conscientiously adhered to the 
faith of his ancestors. He is still under forty years 
of age, and is eminently worthy of imitation by the 
youth of his native and of his adojited country. 



H. STONE RICHARDSON, 

MADISON. 



H STONE RICHARDSON was born in 1829, 
. in the town of Nelson, Madison county. New 
York. His father, Asa Richardson, was an active, 
prominent citizen, known far and near as the " old 
honest cattle buyer; " a democrat after the straight- 
est sect, prominent as a politician, supervisor of his 



town, a justice of the peace for nearly thirty succes- 
sive years. He was a poor man, and being the father 
of nine children, six girls and three boys, was only 
able to give them a home and a common-school 
education. At the age of eleven years, H. Stone 
Richardson had the use of a neighbor's library, but 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



143 



before he had read half the books he determined to 
leave home and work his way through Union Col- 
lege. That resolution was never abandoned. His 
father doubted its practicability, but his mother laid 
her thin white hand on his boyish head, and said, 
"Go, my boy; and in answer to your mother's pray- 
ers God will bless you." His mother tied up his 
wardrobe in a handkercliief, and on foot and alone 
he walked to the little village of De Ruyter, and 
secured the position of bell-ringer in the De Ruyter 
Academy, for which service he received tuition in 
the school, the use of a room in the building, and 
school books. He paid his board and earned money 
enough to buy his clothing by sawing wood for the 
students and citizens in the town. In this manner 
he paid his vi^ay until the winter of his sixteenth 
year, at which time he engaged a district school, and 
met with great success as a teacher. From this date 
his pursuit of knowledge was less difficult, and at the 
age of eighteen he was prepared for Union College. 
At this time he fell into the hands of unwise friends, 
who advised him to give up his college course and 
go to Albany and study practical surveying, civil 
engineering, etc. After finishing his studies at Al- 
bany he immediately proceeded to carry out the 
determination of his boyhood to see the world. 
Nearly four years were spent in travel, visiting in the 
meantime nearly every State and every noted local- 
ity in the United States, and spent thirteen months 
in a trip to Italy and among the islands of the Atlan- 
tic. He crossed the continent, going from San 
Antonio, in Te.xas, through upper Mexico to Pueblo, 
Los Angeles, to San Francisco, and finally, in 1850, 
found himself in Mariposa county, on the tract of 
land then owned by J. C. Fremont, and his near 
neighbor. In the fall of this year he was nomi- 
nated for the assembly, and was elected by a very 
large majority. When the legislature convened at 
San Jose, he took his seat and served the State with 
great acceptability. Near the close of the session he 
received a letter from his father, informing him that 
his mother was not expected to live. He at once 
asked the legislature for leave of absence. In grant- 
ing his request, the members of the house and sen- 
ate, together with the officers of the State, took the 
occasion to express to him their very high respect 
for his ability and integrity as a member of the 
assembly, and their esteem for him as a gentleman 
and friend. His constituents at this time invited 
him to return to the State and represent them in 
congress. He came home. His mother was gone ; 



home was desolate; the rapidity of his long journey 
and its consequent severity upon his physical system 
threw him into a severe illness. During that illness 
he experienced the change through which Paul 
passed on his way to Damascus, and upon his re- 
covery to health, instead of going back to California 
and the life of a politician, he received from the lips 
of the Divine Master this command: " Go, preach 
my gospel." He immediately united with the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church, and in four years from that 
time was ordained elder by Bishop Simpson, with 
authority to " preach the word." His fifth appoint- 
ment was to the pastorate of the church at New York 
Mills, a church which was considered of the first 
importance in the interior of the State, thus show 
ing his standing as a young man. At this time (1861) 
the first notes of the rebellion were heard, and ob- 
taining leave of absence from his church, he gave 
his life for four years to the preservation of the 
country, not as a partisan. He was instrumental in 
raising the 76th New York Volunteers, and enlisted 
by his own personal effort four hundred and fifteen 
men for the 2d Harris Light Cavalry. He was 
chaplain of the 76th New York Volunteers; was 
breveted major and finally appointed by Governor 
Fenton military -agent for New York. As chaplain 
he did most unexceptionable service, and was alike 
loved by the boys in blue and the sick boys in gray, 
to whom he gave loving ministry as he found them 
wounded on the field or dying in the hospital. As 
military agent he handled hundreds of thousands of 
dollars, and received from the governor a letter say- 
ing that he had served the State with faithfulness 
and perfect integrity. 

On his return from the army he was solicited by 
friends in Wisconsin to commence again his ministry 
in that State in the Methodist Episcopal church. 
He is now pastor of the church at Madison, the 
leading church in the conference, a church demand- 
ing talent of the best order. 

Mr. Richardson is a lover of nature, and loves 
with an intense and absorbing passion a pebble, a 
mountain, a bee gathering honey and the flower 
from which he gathers it, the bird building her nest 
and the eagle cleaving the upper air. He is a 
painter, and has always in his heart and the halls of 
his memory ten thousand pictures. He is a poet 
when the thunder is abroad in the sky and the blue 
lightning is tangled and caught on the edges of the 
clouds. He is a poet and a child when the summer 
wind is south and all the future is full of flowers 



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THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



and hope and millennial light. He has been for 
twenty years a hard student of history, biography 
and general literature, and also of man in all his 
sameness and in all his variety. He prepares his 
sermons thoroughly, and preacht;s to make men 
better, broader, more loving, more ^haritable, more 
like Jesus the Christ, and means that his life shall 
be his most convincing sermon. He loves the study 
of oratory, and has struggled to become master of 
the art. His sermons are highly spiritual, and he is 
able at times to move an audience as only they can 
who have the gift divine. He is no bigot, no sec- 
tarian, no miser. His knowledge of the world and 



of man, obtained by extensive travel, has taught him 
to regard all men as his brethren. 

Believing himself commissioned from above to 
proclaim the glad tidings of salvation to a perishing 
world, imbued with fervent piety, endowed with zeal, 
learning and eloquence, he can scarcely fail to fulfill 
the ends of his mission here and to receive a crown 
of glory hereafter. 

Mr. Richardson was united in marriage to Miss 
Lottie L. Curtis, of Madison, New York. She was 
an accomplished and beautiful girl and is now an 
honored and beloved wife, the mother of two sons, 
and a woman of wide influence in the church. 



FRANK GAULT, 

MIDDLETON. 



FRANK GAULT was born January 31, 1826, in 
the county of Down, near the city of Belfast, 
Ireland. He is the eldest son of Francis Gault and 
Debarah McCall. His father was the youngest son 
of Francis Gault, senior, a stern and uncompromis- 
ing Presbyterian, and one of the united Irishmen 
who engaged in the rebellion of 1798, and to show 
his zeal in the cause carried a pike against the 
almost invincible armies of England in several bat- 
tles. The family, including the above named Frank, 
immigrated to the United States in the year 1839, 
and settled in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, when he 
was immediately sent as an apprentice to learn the 
business of an engineer and machinist. In the year 
1848 he removed to Wisconsin, the pioneer of the 
family, and was followed by them in the following 
spring. He landed in Milwaukee on November 
21, and the following morning set out on foot and 
walked to Madison, arriving there on the 23d. After a 
short survey of Madison and vicinity, he concluded 
to make Middleton his future home. In the latter 
town he engaged in the manufacture of lumber for 
about three years, and in the year 1851, in company 
with W. A. Wheeler, he built the flouring mill in 
the village of Pheasant Branch, and continued to 
run the same until the year 1861, when they sold 
their interest in the mill to Hon. T. T. Whittlesey. 
He then engaged in farming, in which business he 
has remained up to this time, with the exception of 
an interval of three years' residence in Kentucky. 

On the 30th of November, 1850, he was united 
in marriage to Miss Mary Ann Eyre Gyles, a daugh- 



ter of Robert Ross Gyles, Esq., of Carlingford, 
county Lauth, Ireland, the result of this marriage 
being a daughter, now married to Robert L. Win- 
tersmith, junior, of Elizabethtown, Kentucky, and 
a son, Frank Gault, now living with his parents. 

In politics, as might be expected from the grand- 
son of a man who had the courage to face the united 
armies of England with a pike, he is an uncompro- 
mising democrat. If he has a strong point in his 
character it is opposition to oppression in all things, 
particularly in politics and religion. 

In religion he inclines to Presbyterianism, his 
father being of the same persuasion, and his mother, 
to whom he was tenderly attached, was a consistent 
member of the Episcopal church. He is willing to 
accord to all others the enjoyment of their opinions 
as he is determined in maintaining his own. 

He was elected to represent his district in the 
legislature in the fall of 1857, and in the fall of 1858 
he was elected treasurer of the county by a very 
large majority. In 1863 he was the democratic 
candidate for senator in his district, and was de- 
feated by the all-powerful administration party. In 
1867-8 he represented his district in the legislature; 
and has at various other times held the office of 
chairman of the town board, justice of the peace, 
supervisor, and other offices. He is still to be 
found doing service in the ranks of the democracy 
or reform party, and intends to continue to do so 
while there is despotism or corruption to root out. 

Mr. Gault in person is about five feet ten inches 
in height, of well developed form, muscular, active, 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



H5 



and is capable of enduring long continued labor. 
His temperament is sanguine bilious. He is ardent 
in his attachments, and but for a controlling judg- 
ment would be equally so in his animosities. Nature 
endowed him with rare mental faculties, and if they 
had been disciplined by education and study, he 
would have been distinguished in literature or the 
mechanic arts, especially the latter, as his knowl- 
edge of them seems to be intuitive. He is one of 
the best historians of the day, and occasionally in 
his fanciful moods coquets with the poetic muse. 



He has been peculiarly fortunate in securing a 
good deal more than his better half in the choice of 
a wife, who in all the relations of daughter, wife, 
mother and neighbor, has but few equals and no 
superior. She is highly intelligent, hospitable, kind, 
charitable .and pious; these qualities she has trans- 
mitted to her daughter, who possesses also that 
loveliest of all female qualities, gentleness. The 
son, Frank Gault, junior, has natural capacity equal 
to that of his father, has received a better educa- 
tion, and bids fair to be a useful citizen. 



J. C. DUNDAS, M.D., 



CAMBRIDGE. 



HIGH up in the northern part of Norway, in 
the district of Helgeland, Dr. J. C. Dundas, 
of Cambridge, was born in 1815, the last of eleven 
children then living. His father, Isaac George 
Dundas, was a lineal descendant of the renowned 
poet and bishop, Peter Dundas, and he was^a son of 
the Scotlander, Robert Dundas, who in the sixteenth 
century went over from Scotland with his sister, 
Maria Dundas, to the district of Helgeland, in Nor- 
way. The Doctor's father was a man of large means, 
including islands, vessels and a great variety of per- 
sonal property. He was a man of liberal educa- 
tion and social and literary tastes. He was gener- 
ous to the poor, but careless of his property, and 
lost the greater portion of it. The Doctor's mother, 
Connelia Strom Dundas, was a woman of exem- 
plary character, and strong mental qualities. She 
was careful, economical and affectionate, inspir- 
ing her children with filial reverence. The dis- 
trict of Helgeland is celebrated in the old Nor- 
wegian sagas as the original home of the first 
settlers of Norway. The common occupation of 
the inhabitants was that of farming, but the Doctor 
having but little taste for agriculture, went to the 
city of Bergen to study medicine and surgery. He 
remained there three years, thence to Christiania, 
continuing the same studies during the years 
1837-8-9, thence he went to Copenhagen, remain- 
ing two years, thence to Vienna one year. He was 
examined by the different medical faculties in the 
University of Helsingfors, in 1844. Studied in 
Berne, Switzerland, in 1845, also in Dorput, in 1844, 
and thence to Holland to be examined as surgeon 
for the Dutch East India service. After returning 



from Java and other East India islands, he attended 
the St. Bartholomew's, the London, and the Royal 
London Ophthalmic Hospitals in the year 1849. 
Afterward he traveled through Europe, visiting 
many medical institutions and others of a scientific 
and literary character. In 1850 or 1851 he sailed 
from Rotterdam, Holland, in the English emi- 
grant ship Northumberland, as surgeon, for New 
York. But the ship foundered on the coast of 
France and went to pieces. He lost all of his med- 
icines and the greater part of his instruments. He 
subsequently came to New York, visited the hospi- 
tals, made the acquaintance of several eminent phy- 
sicians, and finally concluded to travel west, and by 
the advice of the Norwegian consul in New York, he 
visited Wisconsin, thence to St. Louis, Missouri, 
thence to New Orleans, and returning from the 
South he visited Chicago, Buffalo and New York 
city. He remained in America over two years, and 
then returned to Rotterdam in Holland. He ob- 
tained a desirable position on board a vessel bound 
for Canton, China, and made the voyage, remaining 
absent from Europe two years, after which he again 
returned to America and to Wisconsin, where he 
now resides, practicing medicine and surgery with 
great success. 

He married his present wife, Malinda Tracy Dun- 
das, some years ago, and has two promising daugh- 
ters. 

The Doctor has had rare opportunities for acquir- 
ing a knowledge of science and of the world, and 
he has improved these opportunities in such a man- 
ner as to give him an extended fame and a lucrative 
practice. 



146 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



The Doctor's political sentiments are in harmony 
with the genius and character of the American gov- 
ernment, and hence he prefers it to the European 
governments. He believes in the equality of all 
men before the law, and their unrestricted right to 
the jnirsuit of liberty and hapjiiness. He believes 



that America can proudly claim that she is the home 
of the immigrant and the asylum of the exile. In 
her ample philanthropy she embraces all nations 
and kindred and tongues, and knows no distinctions 
except those which do equal honor to the head and 
to the heart. 



HON. E. C. LEWIS, 



JUNE A U. 



ELI C. LEWIS, a native of Greenfield, Huron 
county, Ohio, was born on the 24th of August, 
1822, and is the son of Philip and Louisa Lewis. 
His father, a well-to-do farmer, was a man of good 
standing in his community and much respected by 
all who knew him. Eli passed his boyhood and 
youth on his father's farm, receiving a good English 
education at Norwalk in his native county. He 
early developed a taste for professional life, and after 
leaving school began the study of law, and in 1844 
was admitted to the bar at Tiffin, Ohio. Removing 
to Rising Sun, Indiaiia, he spent a short time in the 
practice of his profession, and in 1847, drawn by 
the superior inducements which it offered to young 
men, removed to Wisconsin and established himself 
in his profession at Oak Grove, in Dodge county. 
In 1850, after three years of varied success, he re- 
moved to Juneau, and continued that practice in 
which he has become so widely known as a suc- 
cessful attorney. His habit has always been to ac- 
quaint himself thoroughly with all the various phases 
of his case in hand, and to his thoroughness may be 
attributed much of his success. Shrewd and enter- 
prising, and possessing the happy faculty of seizing 
opportunities and turning them to the interests of 
his business, he has made it a success, not only pro- 



fessionally, but also financially, and is now one of 
the wealthiest men in Dodge county. 

Politically, he is a democrat, and on this ticket 
was elected district attorney in 1848, and held the 
office during a period of twelve years. He was 
appointed circuit judge in 1873, and for twenty 
years has held the office of court commissioner. 
During eight years past he has been a member of 
the board of supervisors. His career from the first 
has been marked by a gradual growth, and from 
comparative obscurity he has risen by his own 
effort to his present high social and professional 
standing. 

Judge Lewis is not connected with any church 
organization, but, unsectarian in his views, cherishes 
a spirit of charity and goodwill toward all men, and 
governs his life by principles of honorable, upright 
and open dealing. 

He was married on the 9th of June, 1856, to Miss 
Jerusha L. Grover, by whom he has two sons. 

His large and varied e.xperience, gained from 
travel, and his thorough acquaintance with all ques- 
tions of public interest, combined with his excellent 
personal and social qualities, render Judge Lewis a 
most agreeable companion, and gain for him the 
highest regard of all who know him. 



JARED C. GREGORY, 

MADISON. 



TARED COMSTOCK GREGORY was born Jan- 
J uary 13, 1823, in the town of Butternut, Otsego 
county. New York. His parents were natives of 
New England, and descended from highly respecta- 
ble families. He was educated at Gilbertsville 
Academy, read law with Judge Noble of Unadilla, 
was admitted to the bar in Cortland county, New 



York, in 1848, was m.nrried the same year to Miss 
Charlotte C. Camp, his present wife. A daughter 
and two sons are the blessings of this union. In 
ancient Rome they would be styled jewels. He was 
elected a justice of the peace when quite young, 
was a candidate for corrgress in 1856, and removed 
to Wisconsin in January, 1858, settled in Madison 




^ 7 ^ ^ I 



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THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



147 



and formed a partnership in the practice of the law 
with S. U. Pinney, which still continues. Ability 
and learning in his profession, industry in his habits, 
punctuality in his engagements, have commanded 
the respect and secured the confidence of the com- 
munity; hence his continued success. In religion 
he is an Episcopalian, and his family are members 
of the church. In politics he is a democrat in the 
sense in which Jefferson and Madison were demo- 
crats — as much removed from radicalism as from 
centralism. Mr. Gregory's intellectual and moral 
character is very manifest to a close observer of men, 
and is equally honorable to his head and to his 
heart ; the basis is that of plain, practical " common 
sense," honesty of purpose, and sympathy with his 
fellow men. These qualities are illustrated in his 
daily life, whether in his public or private capacity. 
The obligations of government and society rest 
lightly upon him, and he discharges the duties they 
impose with cheerfulness. In his social and family 
relations his qualities are most estimable as neigh- 
bor, friend, husband and father. No one with cul- 
tivated taste ever entered that family circle without 



perceiving its moral beauty or being impressed with 
its sacred influence. His perceptive powers are 
very marked ; he not only perceives the subject under 
consideration in its essential elements, but he per- 
ceives it in all its kindred relations to other subjects. 
He discriminates carefully previous to forming his 
opinions, which, together with his accurate knowl- 
edge of men, render his conclusions almost unan- 
swerable. When his opinion is thus formed, and 
presented to the jury at the bar of the court in his 
usual respectful, frank and kind manner, the im- 
pression is deep and lasting; but when the subject 
matter involves human rights or human sufferings, 
his zeal, always conspicuous in his client's cause, is 
kindled into enthusiasm, which occasionally rises to 
the highest order of eloquence, that of the heart. 

No man was ever truly eloquent with a bad heart ; 
he may e.xcite envy, jealousy and hate with such in- 
tensity as to exclude every virtuous emotion, he 
may stimulate ambition until the desire to rule or 
ruin absorbs every other, his imagination may paint 
the loveliness of virtue, but his soul cannot breathe 
into it the breath of life. 



GUSTAVUS STONE, 



THE subject of this sketch is preeminentl) :i 
self-made man, and affords a most worthy ex 
ample of that class of men who make their lives a 
success by sturdy industry and untiring persever- 
ance. A native of Canton, Norfolk county, Massa- 
chusetts, he was born on the 27th of August, 182 1, 
of Jonathan and Elizabeth Stone. 

His ancestors, among the early settlers of New 
England, participated in the revolutionary struggle, 
and his father was a soldier in the war of 1812. He 
was a man of very decided character, a physician 
by profession, and for thirty-four years conducted a 
practice in Canton, Massachusetts. A rigid temper- 
ance man, he was so conscientious in carrying out 
his principles that he even cut down his apple trees, 
that the fruit might not be made into cider. With 
the advantage of such home influences and a thor- 
ough English education, Gustavus left his native 
State, and began life on his own account. With 
three other young men, and with seven dollars in his 
pocket, he went south, and engaged in teaching, em- 
ploying his spare time in study and self-culture. 



In 1850, wishing for a wider field of action, he 
removed to the West, and settled at Beloit, Wiscon- 
sin, and, associating himself with Mr. Parker, began 
the manufacture of reapers and mowers, under the 
firm name of Parker and Stone. The business prov- 
ing very successful, has continued up to the present 
time, 1876, and is still prosperous and growing. If 
we seek for the secret of Mr. Stone's success, we 
shall find it not alone in his native abilities, but 
rather in the continuity of action that has charac- 
terized his life. The principles of honorable deal- 
ing instilled into his early life have had their influ- 
ence on all his subsequent career, and in all his 
varied intercourse with men he has maintained that 
frankness that has never failed to gain for him the 
esteem and confidence of the business public. 

Politically, Mr. Stone was formerly identified with 
the whig party, and is now republican in his senti- 
ments. His love of party, however, never blinds 
him to the higher interests of the State or nation, 
and in every political contest, waiving party preju- 
dices, he supports for office him whom he regards 



148 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



most worthy of the position. He has never sought 
notoriety in the political world, or even solicited of 
the public any political favor; and although promi- 
nent positions have frequently been tendered him, 
he has uniformly declined them, preferring the en- 
joyment and exclusiveness of his business life to 
political fame or emoluments. 

In religion, as in politics, he entertains the most 
liberal views. Purely unsectarian, his sympathies are 
broad enough to gather in their embrace all men. 
His charities extend to all. It is only necessary 



that the needs of the distressed be known to him, 
and without questioning as to their personal beliefs, 
if they are worthy, his heart and purse are ever open 
to supply their wants. He has also been a generous 
supporter of public charities and enterprises. 

He was married in 1853, to Miss Sarah A. Bart- 
lett, in whom he has found a true and devoted wife. 
Their family, consisting of three sons and two 
daughters, are all living at home, where, with their 
parents, they enjoy the society of a large circle of 
acquaintances and many warm personal friends. 



DANIEL S. DURRIE, 

MADISON. 



DANIEL STEELE DURRIE was born at 
Albany, New York, January 2, 1819. He is 
a son of Horace Durrie, a native of Hartford, Con- 
necticut, and a grandson of John Durrie, of Stony 
Stratford, Buckingham county, England, who came 
to America in 1781. His mother was Johannah 
Steele, daughter of Daniel Steele, a bookseller and 
stationer of Albany, to which place his father re- 
moved about 181 7. 

Mr. Durrie was educated at the Albany Academy 
and at a select school at South Hadley, Massachu- 
setts, after which he entered the store of his uncle 
and learned the bookselling business, and succeeded 
him in the same in 1844. In 1848 he lost his prop- 
erty in the great fire which occurred that year at 
Albany, and in 1850 removed to Madison, Wiscon- 
sin, at which place he has remained to the present 
time, being engaged in the same business from 1854 
to 1857. This the commercial revulsions of the last 
year broke and he accepted a position in the office 
of Hon. L. C. Draper, the superintendent of public 
instruction in 1858 and 1859. 

He was elected a member of the State Historical 
Society in 1854, was elected a member of the execu- 
tive committee in 1855, and librarian in 1856, which 
office he has retained to this date, entering on the 
twentieth year of his reelection to that office Jan- 
uary, 1875. The society at that time was in its 
infancy, with a library of only a few volumes. He 
was associated with Lyman C. Draper, LL.D., the 
corresponding secretary, to whom the society is in- 
debted largely for its present prosperity, and is enti- 
tled to a part of the credit of building up the society, 
which ranks among the first in the United States. 



Mr. Durrie published his first work, "A Genea- 
logical History of John and George Steele, Settlers 
of Hartford, Connecticut, 1635-6, and their De- 
scendants," in 1859, and an enlarged edition of one 
hundred and sixty-one pages in 1862. It was pub- 
lished at Albany by Joel Munsel, and was the first 
of this class of works issued by that gentleman, 
and since that time he has brought out a large 
number of similar volumes. In 1864 Mr. Durrie 
published "A Genealogical History of the Holt 
Family in the United States, More Particularly the 
Descendants of Nicholas Holt, of Newbury and 
Andover, Massachusetts, 1634 to 1644, and of Wil- 
liam Holt, of New Haven." This volume, of three 
hundred and sixty-seven pages, was printed by Mr. 
Munsel. In 1868 he published his " Bibliographia 
Genealogica Americana : an Alphabetical Index 
to Pedigrees and Genealogies Contained in State 
County and Town Histories, Printed Genealogies 
and Kindred Works," a volume of three hundred 
pages, also printed by Munsel. In 1869 he prepared 
and published in the "Historical Magazine" a "Bib- 
liography of the State of Wisconsin," giving the title 
and reference to all publications that have been 
issued on the State, a volume of great service 
to all persons interested in Wisconsin and her 
history and resources. In 1872 he prepared two 
papers on the " Early Outposts of Wisconsin ; 
Green Bay for Two Hundred Years, 1639 to 1839, 
and Annals of Prairie du Chien," which appeared 
in pamphlet form, twenty-eight pages, double col- 
umns; and also an article on Captain Jonathan 
Carver, in volume six of the collections of the His- 
torical Society. In 1874 he published a "History of 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART 



149 



Madison and the Four Lake Country of Wisconsin ; 
with Notes on Dane County and its Towns," printed 
at Madison, making a volume of four hundred and 
twenty pages. In 1861 and 1862 he collected material 
for the publication of a gazetteer of the State of Wis- 
consin. The work was completed, but owing to the 
civil war the publication was suspended and it has 
never been published. Mr. Durrie is a member of 
the Connecticut, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, 
Pennsylvania, Minnesota, Buffalo and Western Re- 
serve Historical Societies, of the New England His- 
torical and Genealogical Society, New York Bio- 
graphical and Genealogical Society, and the Phila- 
delphia Numismatic and Antiquarian Society. 

Mr. Durrie's fitting place is in a public library. 
Among books from his boyhood, his memory of 
them and of their contents is very e.xtensive and 
tenacious; and this knowledge, so valuable in the 
custodian of a large public library, is daily and 
hourly called into requisition. Thus he quietly ren- 
ders unceasing aid to others, which, in the aggregate, 
can never be adequately estimated. 

A taste for antiquarian pursuits, long cultivated, 
is probably the most striking trait in Mr. Durrie's 



character, and is the one exemplified in his produc- 
tions tiiat will serve to perpetuate his name among 
lovers of that department of literature. His writings 
evince a strong love of truth; he "nothing extenu- 
ates nor aught sets down in malice." He is plod- 
ding and pains-taking rather than brilliant, and he 
thus ranks with that large class of utilitarians who 
leave behind them evidences that they have not 
lived in vain. 

. Mr. Durrie is a member of the Presbyterian 
church, and was one of the members that composed 
the church at Madison at its organization in 185 1, 
and has held many offices therein. 

He married, at Albany, New York, October 15, 
1844, Anna, daughter of David and Elizabeth 
(Hempstead) Holt, and has a family of six children. 
His eldest daughter is a graduate of the University 
of Wisconsin and is assistant librarian of the State 
Historical Society, a lady of cultivated mind and 
manners, and marked for her gentleness of character. 

Whoever looks upon Mr. Durrie's massive form 
can readily discover in his benignant eye and genial 
countenance the truest test of the kindness of his 
heart — his genuine bonhomie for all. 



CHANCY C. ROBINSON, M.D., 



MIL WA UKEE. 



CHANCEY CLARK ROBINSON was born 
January 14, 182 1, at Bath, Steuben county. 
New York, son of Clark and Cylindia Robinson. 
His father was a farmer and local Methodist minis- 
ter, and one of the leading men in that section of 
the State. The Doctor was educated partly at the 
common schools, and partly at the high schools. 
At the age of seventeen, while assisting his father 
in the erection of a barn, he ruptured a blood-vessel, 
which incapacitated him for continuous manual la- 
bor, and having acquired a love of books he deter- 
mined to study medicine. Having very limited 
means he was compelled to alternate his studies with 
teaching school in the winter and working on the 
farm in summer during harvest. He continued this 
course of life three years under the instruction of 
Abijah B. Case, and graduated at Geneva Medical 
College in the class with Elizabeth Blackwell. In 
1842 he married Miss Mary E. Alexander, by whom 
he has had two children, both dying quite young. 
His grandfather on the father's side was a soldier of 



the revolution, and his father a soldier in the war of 
181 2. The family generally live to a great age. 
His grandmother on the mother's side lived to nine- 
ty-three, and his father is still living at the age of 
eighty-three. 

After his marriage in 1842 he went to Angola, in 
the State of Indiana, and practiced the profession of 
medicine five years, whence returning to New York 
he attended two full courses of medical lectures. 

In 1849 he came to Chicago and traveled through 
Wisconsin in company with Professor Spencer, the 
founder of Geneva Medical College, and being 
pleased with Milwaukee they formed a copartner- 
ship, and locating there engaged in the successful 
practice of medicine, which Dr. Robinson continued 
until 1870, when he retired as far as practicable. 
Some old patrons, his tenants and the poor, still 
assert their claims to his services, which he renders 
free of charge. 

During the last few years he has been engaged in 
buying and selling real estate, in which he has ex- 



I50 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIOXARV. 



hibited foresight, sagacity and judgment. In 1863 
he purchased fourteen acres of land on the Kinni- 
kinnick river at one hundred dollars per acre, and 
in 1869 sold it at one thousand dollars per acre. 
In 1873 he purchased other lands at a little less than 
two thousand dollars per acre, and sold the same 
within one year at eight thousand five hundred dol- 
lars per acre. Again he purchased fourteen acres 
on the Kinnikinnick, upon which he proposed to 
build two thousand two hundred feet of dock, 
thirteen hundred feet of which have been completed 
in a substantial manner ; the remainder is in process 
of completion. 

The Doctor commenced his business career with- 
out pecuniary means of his own or aid from others. 
He is now rich, with the prosi^ect of large wealth. 



I which his industry, economy and present facilities 
can scarcely fail to accomplish. His religious senti- 
ments are free from all sectarian bias. He is moral 
in his habits and just in his dealings. 

During the rebellion he went into the army as 
assistant surgeon and received the commendation of 

j his superior officers. In his political opinions he is 
a republican, though liberal and conservative ; supe- 
rior merit will always command his support. His 
physique is the personification of health, vigor and 
activity, and he bids fair to attain as great age as 
any of his ancestors. 

His great work on the Kinnikinnick river which 
bears his name, will remain a lasting monument of 
the genius of its owner who conceived it, and of his 
l)ublic spirit which executed it. 



HON. GEORGE E. BRYANT, 



GEORGE E. BRYANT was born February 11, 
1832, at Templeton, Worcester county, Massa- 
chusetts. His father was George W. Bryant, his 
mother Eunice Norcross. He was educated at Nor- 
wich University in the same class with General 
Dodge and General Ransom, and went through the 
full course of studies. He preferred the profession 
of the law, and after leaving the University he read 
law with the Hon. Amasa Norcross at Fitchburg, 
Massachusetts, and was admitted to the bar in 1856 
at Worcester, Massachusetts, and shortly after moved 
to Madison, Wisconsin, and formed a partnership in 
the practice of his profession with Myron H. Orton, 
which he continued until 1861. In religion he is a 
Unitarian ; in politics first a whig, afterwards a re- 
publican. He was captain of the Madison Guards 
in i860 — the first company to offer their services to 
the government at the commencement of the re- 
bellion. This company served five months in the 
First Wisconsin Regiment, at the termination of \ 
which the company was mustered out of service and | 
Captain Bryant returned home, and was shortly { 
afterward commissioned colonel of the 12th Wis- 
consin Regiment, with which he went to the Indian 
Territory, marching across the plains west of Fort I 
Riley. Returning they descended the Mississippi I 
river to Columbus; thence by railroad to Corinth, 
where they joined General Grant's army. From this [ 
place they marched to Memphis; thence below Hoi- I 



ly Springs, thence to Vicksbtfrg, where they engaged 
in the siege of th-at place. 

After the siege they marched to Jackson and 
engaged in a fight with Joe Johnson ; thence they 
marched to Natchez, thence to Harrisonburg, Louis- 
iana ; thence back to Vicksburg. During the ensu- 
ing winter the regiment reenlisted as veterans and 
returned home on furlough. The furlough having 
expired they returned to Cairo, ascended the Ten- 
nessee river to Ashton, Alabama, crossed the moun- 
tains to Rome, Georgia, and joined Sherman's army 
in the mountains. 

This regiment was in all of the engagements pre- 
ceding the battle of Atlanta on the 22d of July. 
Colonel Bryant commanded the ist brigade of the 
3d division of the 17th army corps at the battle of 
Bald Hill, one of the severest engagements during 
the war. General Sherman gave to this brigade the 
credit of saving the army from destruction. This 
regiment was on the celebrated Meridian march and 
went with Sherman to the sea. Upon their return 
to Louisville, Kentucky, they were discharged from 
the service. 

Upon Colonel Bryant's return to Wisconsin he re- 
tired to his farm near Madison and is engaged in 
raising fine blooded stock, especially horses and cat- 
tle. He was elected county judge in 1866 — again 
in 1870, and again in 1874. In the latter year he 
was also elected State senator. 




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151 



He was married on the 27 th day of September, 
1858, to Miss Susie A. Gibson, whose ancestors were 
the first settlers in Fitchburg, Massachusetts. They 
were participants in the war of the revolution, and 
had previously fought the Indians. His ancestors 
were Irish, and came to this country shortly after 
the landing of the Pilgrims. They also were en- 
gaged in the revolutionary struggle. Some of them 
lived on the road between Lexington and Concord, 



and were exposed to great annoyance from the 
British soldiery. 

While Judge Bryant has not been distinguished as 
a warrior, a statesman, or a« orator, he has been in- 
telligent and efficient as a legislator, a judge and a 
citizen. He is a kind neighbor, an affectionate father 
and a loving husband; the result, doubtless, of a 
devoted wife whose hallowing influence over the do- 
mestic circle is perceived and felt by all who enter it. 



WILLIAM S. WARNER, 

APPLETON. 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of Hector, \ 
Tompkins county, New York, was born on the 
ist of February, 1817, and is the son of Seth A. L. 
Warner and Sally nee Wixom. His father, a native 
of Saybrook, Connecticut, and educated in Oneida 
county, New York, was a lawyer by profession, and 
later in life combined farming with his profession. 
He was an influential man, of decided character, and 
enjoyed the high regard and confidence of all who 
knew him. William removed to Michigan with his 
parents when he was eight years of age, and settled 
in Farmington, Oakland county, receiving there a 
common school education — the only education at- 
tainable in the State at that early day. After closing 
his school days he spent a short time in teaching, 
then entering mercantile pursuits, and later engaged 
in milling at Northville, eight miles from his adopted 
home, and in 1844, selling his interests, removed to 
Watertown, Wisconsin. During the next year and 
a half he was engaged in the mercantile trade, and 
at the expiration of that time removed to Sheboy- 
gan, where he resumed the same line of business, 
continuing it till 1849. Removing to Appleton at 
this time he opened a stock of general merchandise, 
first at Kaukauna, eight miles from Appleton, where 
he remained during 185 1 and 1852, afterwards at 
Appleton, conducting a successful trade until 1857. 
His early desire had been to enter the legal pro- 
fession, and with this purpose in view he had spent 
three years in the study of law (1841-4), but finally 
abandoned it on his arrival in Wisconsin, fearing 
that he could not make it an immediate success in a 
so sparsely settled country as the State then was. 
His love for the profession, however, never left him, 
and after closing his mercantile affairs, in 1857 he 
was admitted to the bar at Appleton, and has since 



been admitted to all the courts of Wisconsin, as well 
as the circuit and district courts of tlie United States. 

He is at present (1876) senior member of the firm 
of Warner and Ryan, and conducts a large, influen- 
tial and successful practice, giving his personal at- 
tention to the largest and most important cases. 
Aside from his legal practice, Mr. Warner has been 
a large operator in real estate, and has been actively 
interested in various other public and private enter- 
prises. In 1852 he was appointed postmaster of 
Kaukauna by President Fillmore, at which place he 
was chosen supervisor, justice of the peace, and 
town superintendent of schools. Since that time he 
has held the offices of town clerk, police justice, 
justice of the peace, city attorney, circuit court and 
United States commissioner for the eastern district 
of Wisconsin. With all enterprises connected with 
the welfare of his city he has been in hearty sym- 
pathy, and to his public-spiritedness she owes much 
of her present prosperity. He is a director of the 
First National Bank of Appleton, and president of 
the Northern Mineral Iron Company. He has erect- 
ed several large blocks and business places in Apple- 
ton, and is one of ten who have taken stock to the 
amount of seven thousand five hundred dollars each 
to build a large cotton factory. 

In business he has had a varied experience, losing 
all of his property in Michigan during the crisis of 
1836-40, and again, in 1848, losing most of his 
property through his (then) partner in Sheboygan. 
He commenced in Appleton with three hundred 
dollars, and from that small beginning, by indomi- 
table courage, economy, business tact and "push," 
has built up an extensive and remunerative business, 
and now lives in the enjoyment of an ample fortune. 
He is truly a self-developed type of the true Western 



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THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



man with the inherited large New England brain, 
and is still actively prosecuting with all diligence 
his profession and a large measure of varied busi- 
ness, and, while absent ftir recreation in the South 
during the spring of 1876, was chosen an alderman 
to represent the business ward of his city, without- 
his knowledge until his return. 

His success may be attributed not alone to energy, 
enterprise and perseverance, but more to the fact 
that he turned them into the channel of his native 
inclinations and abilities, and to his strict integ- 
rity. Mr. Warner has a high social standing, and 
the practical knowledge he has gained -from his 
studies, travels and observation renders him a most 
agreeable companion. His political views are inde- 
pendent democratic — holding that good measures 
without good men to enforce them are antagonistic 



elements. Though not a member of any church, he 
is a regular attendant upon the Congregational ser- 
vice, and a firm believer in the practical truths of 
Christianity, though not an admirer of creeds. 

He was married, April 11, 1837, to Miss Polly 
Coomer (still living), and by her has one daughter, 
the wife of Henry D. Ryan, his law partner. 

He is a man of quick perceptions, sympathetic 
feelings, prompt to resent an injury, ready to forgive 
a wrong carelessly committed, earnest in advocacy 
— making his client's cause paramount to all con- 
siderations — has no patience with laziness, but 
always has a considerate regard for involuntary 
suffering, is keenly methodical in everything, with 
wonderful executive ability, and insists on "making 
things move rapidly " around him. " Business 
first," is his motto. 



RICHARD F. WILSON, 



EAU CLAIRE. 



RICHARD F. Wn_,SON was born at Port Re- 
public, Maryland, on the 14th of May, 1825, 
the son of George W. Wilson and Mary Ann Wilson. 
His father was a merchant ; his mother's family were 
planters. His parents moved to Rushville, Illinois, 
in 1832; thence in 1844 to Dane county, Wisconsin. 
In consequence of the difificulties incident to so 
new a country, his parents were unable to give him 
a liberal education ; hence, at a very early period, he 
was thrown upon his own resources for such success 
in life as his natural ability would enable him to 
achieve. He received from nature the elements of 
character which if developed by education, observa- 
tion, or experience, would impress himself very 
sensibly upon the public mind, and, in a marked 
degree, give direction to public thought. The 
consciousness of these powers has never failed to 
animate and sustain him in all his various enter- 
prises, and he has rarely known such a word as fail. 
During his residence of twelve years at Madison he 
was by turn sergeant-at-arms to the legislature, 
assistant sergeant, transcribing clerk, agent of the 
State to select lands for the university and for the 
common schools, superintendent of locks on the 
Fox and Wisconsin river improvement, agent to 
select lands for the capital of the State, and to 
appraise those lands as well as those of the sixteenth 
section. He subsequently moved to Eau Claire, he 



being one of the original proprietors of the land on 
which the city is built. The population of Eau 
Claire at the present time exceeds ten thousand 
inhabitants. The manufacture of lumber amounts 
to a hundred and sixty millions of feet annually, 
besides laths and shingles. There are two flouring- 
mills of large capacity, two foundries, machine shops, 
four district graded schools, eleven churches of the 
various Christian denominations, a court house 
which cost seventy-five thousand dollars, city hall 
twenty thousand dollars, post-office forty thousand 
dollars. The growth of this city is almost un- 
paralleled in the West, and if any one man can, while 
pointing to it with exulting pride and joy, say, " this 
is my work," that man is Richard F. Wilson. 

Mr. Wilson was married at De Pere, Wisconsin, on 
the 29th of August, 1853, to Miss Martha Newton, 
the daughter of A. D. Newton, a missionary to the 
Indians of Lake Superior, his first location being at 
Mackinac. He was subsequently in the employment 
of the American Fur Company at La Pointe on 
Lake Superior. Mrs. Wilson was born at La Pointe 
and educated at Green Bay. She is a member of 
the Episcopal church, is a lady of rare personal 
attractions, of cultivated intellect, of amiable dispo- 
sition, and well qualified to wield a beneficent 
influence over not only her husband but over all 
others who come within the circle of her womanly 




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THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



»53 



charms. She has materially aided her husband in 
the accomplishment of his enterprises by her wise 
counsels, derived not so much from the deductions 
of reason as from that intuitive knowledge peculiar 
to her sex. If there are any truly self-made men, 
Mr. Wilson is entitled to that appellation. "Self- 
made " is an indefinite term, and conveys an inade- 
quate idea of the means, natural or acquired, by 
whicli men achieve success. The term is 'well 
calculated to flatter the vanity of men, already too 
vain for efficiency in themselves or pleasure to 



others. Nature gives men their cajjacities, circum- 
stances develop them. As their capacities vary, so 
must the means of their education. A college edu- 
cation may dwarf the giant proportions of some 
intellects, while it expands others. The world's 
criterion of merit is success, and with this ad- 
measurement Mr. Wilson has reached a high stand- 
ard. If he had lived in the classic days of Creece 
and Rome he would have been as much honored as 
the founder of a city as Romulus was of Rome, 
Cadmus of Thebes, or Queen Dido of Carthage. 



J. S. DOUGLASS, A.M., M.D., Ph.D., 

MILWAUKEE. 



DR. J. S. DOUGLASS was born in the town of 
Westmoreland, Oneida county. New York, July 
4, iSoi. His father was a pioneer farmer, and dea- 
con of the Baptist church, and a man of considerable 
moral influence. His mother was a woman of rare 
mental and moral qualities ; her government, though 
strictly moral, was absolute ; disobedience on the part 
of her children was unknown, and yet a blow from 
her was never inflicted. 

The Doctor in early life was feeble and delicate, 
and unable to work on the farm. He was fond of 
books and acquired learning enough at fifteen to 
teach a district school, in the meantime pursuing a 
course of collegiate studies with such success as to 
receive from the Madison University the honorary 
degree of A.M., and in 1870 the degree of Ph.D. 
After finishing his preliminary studies he commenced 
the study of medicine and graduated at the Fairfield 
Medical College, in 1824. He commenced practice 
in Oswego and soon had a large business. He mar- 
ried Miss Martha Pierson, who lived three years 
and died without issue. He changed his location 
to Vernon, and afterwards to Hamilton, New York 
Here he married Miss Frances M. Boardman, daugh- 
ter of Captain George Boardman, of Schenectady, 
and sister to the wife of the Rev. George W. Eaton, 
president of the university. 

At this time his theory and practice of medicine 
underwent a radical change in favor of the homoeo- 
pathic system, and soon after locating in Milwaukee, 
in 1848, he published for one year a monthly journal 
advocating that system, and a few years later a sim- 
ilar journal for one year. Since then he has published 
two books, one of which is a standard work, having 



reached its thirteenth edition. He has also con- 
tributed annually many articles to the medical jour- 
nals. In 1855 the Doctor accepted the chairs of 
materia medica and of special pathology and diag- 
nosis in the Homoeopathic Medical College at Cleve- 
land, Ohio, which he held three years. He has been 
a member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy 
since 1847, for 0^2 year its president, and once its 
annual orator. In political sentiment he is a repub- 
lican of the abolition school. In religion he is what 
is termed orthodox, and a member of the Baptist 
church. 

He has had six children ; all living except the 
eldest daughter. His wife, but a few years younger 
than himself, is a lady of culture, accustomed to lit- 
erary society, an amateur artist, and preserves her 
youthful and artistic tastes in a remarkable degree. 
Dr. Douglass is in the first rank in his profession 
in the State. He is a perpetual student, both of 
books and of nature. He is never so busy that he 
has not time to investigate the last idea, and appre- 
ciate the last discovery in medicine. He is no less 
skillful in using remedies than industrious in learn- 
ing them. He has good sense, rare discrimination, 
with strong powers of comparison and reasoning 
which distinguish the successful physician. 

He is a botanist, and is known to the learned in 
that department of science, while in his own pro- 
fession the preparations brought to the notice of the 
profession, of our indigenous plants, have become 
important remedies to the profession. 

He is as radical in the pursuit of improvements as 
the youngest enthusiast, yet he is prudent and con- 
servative, and insists on the proof furnished by ex- 



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THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



periment. He rejects no suggestion on account of 
its humble origin. Neither prejudice nor disgust 
stand in the way of inquiry, nor can aught but gen- 
uine merit command his assent. He is simple and 
unpretending in his private life, and seeks no place 
for himself He does notliing to be seen of men. 
He is amiable, cheerful, and an agreeable compan- 
ion. He has strong convictions, yet charitable to 
others' opinions. No one for the want of money 



was ever refused his aid, nor was any appeal made 
to his sympathy in vain. With the wisdom of expe- 
rience and the prudence of age he unites the zeal, the 
benevolence, and the interest in daily things which 
age is apt to lose. He is fresh in mind and warm in 
heart ; of all men of his age in this section of the 
country he is the youngest. So unassuming a man 
will not be fully appreciated until his patients shall 
be compelled to look for another to fill his place. 



ORRIN W. BLANCHARD, M.D., 



DELA VAN. 



ORRIN W. BLANCHARD, a native of Claren- 
don, Vermont, was born on the 2 2d of Octo- 
ber, 1808, and is the son of Willard Blanchard and 
Sarah nee Piatt, The family is of French origin, 
descended from a count of same name, and settled in 
Rhode Island five generations ago. His paternal 
grandfather was a soldier in the revolutionary war, 
and a pensioner until his death. His father, a far- 
mer by occupation, was a leading man in his town. 
He served in the war of 1812 as captain of a com- 
pany of " Green Mountain Boys." While at home 
on a furlough, before the battle of Plattsburgh, he 
received word to raise more volunteers and come as 
soon as he could, for a battle was expected. In 
obedience to the order he enlisted one hundred 
men, and returned to his company just in time for 
the battle. 

He was a prominent member of the Baptist 
church, and died in Wisconsin in i860, at the age 
of seventy-eight years. 

Orrin's early tastes were to become a mechanic, 
but after closing his studies in the academy at Au- 
burn, New York, not being able to gratify his desire, 
he began the study of medicine under Dr. Daniel 
D. Wait, of Cayuga county, and later continued it 
with Dr. Cady, of the town of Senate, near Auburn, 
and afterward attended a course of lectures at 
Castjeton, Vermont. Beginning his practice near 
Auburn, in 1828, under a diploma from the State of 
New York, he continued with good success till 1841, 
when he took his second course of lectures, and 
graduated from the medical college at Pittsfield, 
Massachusetts. His studious habits, his love for 
the profession he had chosen, his clear and compre- 
hensive mind, his early mastery of the fundamental 
principles, his conscientious devotion to the interests 



of those entrusted to his care, had at the time of his 
graduation marked him as a man of more than ordi- 
nary ability, and he was at that early stage regarded 
as one of the few alumni who was destined to 
achieve distinction in his profession. 

In the latter part of 1842 he removed to Wiscon- 
sin and established himself in practice at the city of 
Racine with Dr. B. B. Cary. Two years later his 
partner, having received an appointment from the 
government, withdrew, and Dr. Blanchard continued 
his practice at Racine for the next three years, dur- 
ing which time his business was very prosperous, 
and he became widely known as a careful, com- 
petent and successful physician and surgeon. Owing, 
however, to the delicate condition of his wife's 
health he was obliged to leave the lake shore, and 
abandoning his large practice removed to Delavan 
and opened a new field. During the twenty-nine 
years of practice in this place he has met with that 
success as a physician, — but more especially as a 
surgeon, — which follows as the result of thorough 
qualification, and constant, honorable effort. His 
devotion to his profession has absorbed his entire 
attention, almost to the entire exclusion of every 
other interest. Though he has annually earned 
from six to eight thousand dollars he has seldom 
made any effort to collect or secure his pay; many 
who owe their lives to his tender, watchful care and 
his professional skill have never paid him a dollar 
for his services. While this characteristic has been 
at times seriously embarrassing to him financially, 
yet it has tended to exhibit in a stronger light his 
concentrated attention to the one grand object of 
his life. Dr. Blanchard has been especially noted, 
during the last twenty-five years, as a surgeon. He 
gave especial attention during his academic course 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



155 



to physiology and anatomy, and early familiai-ized 
himself, both by experiments and the study of the 
leading authors, with every part of the human sys- 
tem. Not content with a superficial knowledge of 
the principles of his profession nor with moderate 
success, he has from time to time purchased the 
leading works and consulted the best authors, and 
has consequently continually advanced in the sci- 
ence of his profession. His reputation as a surgeon 
has for many years extended beyond the bounds of 
his adopted county. Had he settled in Chicago he 
would probably have ranked in reputation among 
the best surgeons of the West. His thorough 
knowledge of medical jurisprudence has brought 
him into prominence in important trials as a witness, 
where he has ever commanded the respect and con- 
fidence of the court, counsel and jury. 

In the year 185 1 Dr. Blanchard was appointed 
assistant surgeon in the regulair army, and spent 
three years in New Mexico in that capacity. While 
there, at the instance of the commander-in-chief, 
he performed a very difficult operation on the 
Spanish governor Armijo, for which he received a 
present of one thousand two hundred dollars in 
gold. During the late civil war he was appointed 
surgeon of the 40th Regiment of Wisconsin Volun- 
teers (one-hundred-days men), and at the expiration 
of their term was presented by his regiment with a 
beautiful gold-headed cane for meritorious conduct. 
It was his regular custom to go with his lantern at- 
two o'clock in the morning and visit the sick and 
care for their wants ; and by his constant kindness 
won the love and gratitude of all under his charge. 
He was afterward commissioned surgeon of the 
49th Regiment of Wisconsin Volunteers, and re- 
mained with it till the close of the war. In this 
regiment also he won the affections of the men, and 
they presented him, at the expiration of their term, 
with a valuable gold watch. 



After the close of the war the Doctor resumed his 
regular practice, devoting much of his time, how- 
ever, to important surgical operations, and other 
cases that demanded special medical skill ; and his 
opinion is generally sought and almost uniformly 
respected by other physicians in important cases. 
Sliortly after the close of the war his son, C. C. 
Blanchard, graduated from the medical college and 
entered into partnership with his father under the 
name of Blanchard and Son. They now do the 
leading business of the county, and it is not im- 
probable, judging from his success thus far, that the 
son will fully maintain, with the same experience, 
the reputation of his father. 

Politically, Dr. O. W. Blanchard was a democrat 
until the breaking out of the recent civil war, when 
he identified himself with the war party; manifested 
his patriotism by inducing his three sons to enlist in 
the volunteer army, and by contributing his own 
services and skill as above stated. Since the war he 
has acted with the republican party. 

His religious training was under Baptist influence, 
and he is now a consistent member of that church. 
He is also a member of the Masonic fraternity, and 
for seven years was master of the lodge in Delavan. 

He was married on the 27th of March, 1831, to 
Miss Nancy Foster, of Arcadia, Wayne county. New 
York. There are three sons, the issue of said 
marriage, all residing in the county of Walworth. 

Only those who have known Dr. Blanchard inti- 
mately for many years can fully appreciate his mer- 
its; modest and retiring in manner, yet firm and 
self-reliant in his opinions when formed after careful 
investigation and mature reflection. Ever charitable 
and courteous to his professional brothers, never 
indulging in the petty scandals and insinuations too 
common among the members of his profession — 
when he shall have finished his labors here it will 
be truly said of him that he has not lived in vain. 



FRED BERTSCHY, 

MFLWAUKEE. 



FRED BERTSCHY was born in Ingolsherm, 
France, on the 14th of November, 1836. He 
was the son of Jacob and Margaret Bertschy, who 
were people of sterling and upright principles, and 
took great pains to instill into the mind of their son 
correct ideas of morality and honesty in all things. 



Jacob Bertschy came with his family to America in 
May, 1845, and settled in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 
where he became proprietor of the Mansion House, 
a hotel situated in that part of the city known as 
Kilburn Town. He was a very benevolent gentle- 
nnan, and took great pains in assisting immigrants 



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THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



from his own " sunny France " in purchasing lands 
in the United States, for which labor he received no 
remuneration. He still occupies an honored posi- 
tion among the pioneers of Milwaukee. 

Fred Bertschy was but nine years of age when he 
crossed the Atlantic with his parents, and his edu- 
cation was acquired at the common schools of Mil- 
waukee. From his boyhood he had always desired 
to become a miller, and on leaving school he was 
put to work in a mill, where he thoroughly learned 
the business. Subsequently leaving the mill he 
entered the Second Ward Bank of Milwaukee as 
teller, where he remained two years; then went to 
Sheboygan, Wisconsin, and worked in a mill about 
one year, when he returned to Milwaukee, and has 
ever since been a resident of that city. Soon after 
his return he erected a mill of his own, and began 
business for himself At this time he had but very 
little capital, but by honest industry and attention 
to business he steadily progressed until 1868, when 
he met with some financial difficulties; these his 
native energy and perseverance soon overcame, and 
he is now doing a large business. Beginning with 
comparatively nothing, at the age of twenty-four he 
had accumulated the sum of eighty thousand dollars. 



During the year 1874 he shipped to Europe one 
hundred and sixty-five thousand barrels of flour, and 
has made arrangements to manufacture during the 
year 1875 one hundred and eighty thousand barrels. 
His brand of flour brings the highest market price 
j in New York for the foreign market. He is the 
I only mill-owner in Milwaukee who is also a practical 
miller. To him belongs the credit of building the 
first steam mill in Milwaukee. 

His religious views are those of the Protestant 
faith. He is a good citizen — as so earnest, indus- 
trious and honest a man must necessarily be — and 
enjoys the respect and confidence of the community. 

On the 26th of July, 1863, he married Miss 
Johannah Spangenberg, a most estimable lady, who 
has proven herself a " helpmate " to her husband 
in all respects. Her father, Mr. Spangenberg, is 
still a young man, who has much influence and con- 
siderable wealth, although he has lost large sums of 
money at different times through various specula- 
tions. 

Since the above was written we have received the 
sad intelligence of the death of Mr. Bertschy. His 
actively useful life closed, after a severe illness, on 
the loth of June, 1876. 



TERAH J. PATCHEN, M.D., 

FOND DU LAC. 



TERAH J. PATCHEN, a native of Butternuts, 
Otsego county, New York, was born on the 
nth of November, 1818, and is the son of George 
Patchen, a farmer, and Phoebe ne'e Rockwell. He 
passed his early life on his father's farm, but finding 
the narrow routine of farm life ill suited to his tastes, 
he early inclined to professional life. After receiv- 
ing a common English education in the schools of 
Painted Post, Steuben county, New York, he spent 
five years in teaching vocal music, his object being 
to procure means wherewith to prosecute his studies. 
During this tinie he gave his spare hours to the 
study of medicine, it being most suited to his taste. 
In 1845 he began the practice of his profession as i 
a licentiate, under the laws of his State, and in 1852 
graduated from the Ohio Homoeopathic Medical 
College, at Cleveland, with the degree of M.D. 
During the next three years, he engaged in prac- 
tice at Bath, Steuben county, New York, and at 
the end of that time removed to Fond du Lac, 



Wisconsin, and established a practice, which though 
small, gradually increased in extent and influence, 
until it has now (1876) become large and remunera- 
tive, and Dr. Patchen is widely known as a careful, 
skillful and successful physician. He was for a 
number of years president of the State Homoeo- 
pathic Medical Society; also holds an honorary 
degree from Hahnemann Medical College, of Chi- 
cago ; is an honorary member of the Illinois State 
Homoeopathic Medical Society, and also a member 
of the .'American Institute of Homoeopathy. Aside 
from his professional duties, he has always shown a 
most worthy public-spiritedness, and his name has 
been associated with many of the most important 
enterprises of his city. In 1870, his fellow-citizens 
honored him with the oflice of mayor, and in this 
capacity he rendered efficient service for the welfare 
of Fond du Lac. He has always taken a deep 
interest in the temperance cause, and during one 
year was grand worthy chief templar of his State 





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THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



157 



and represented the State organization at the national 
convention held in Indianapolis and Nashville. 

In his religious sentiments he is a Universalist, 
and heartily sympathizes with and supports all public 
and private charities, and works in every way in 
his power for the good of his fellow-men. 

In his political views he is untrameled by party 
prejudices; and supports for office him whom he 
considers most worthy and best fitted for the place. 

Naturally of a social, generous and genial dispo- 
sition, he makes friends wherever he goes, and by 
his many gentlemanly qualities and expressions of 



noble manhood, leaves upon all with whom he has 
to do, the impress of a true character. 

Dr. Patchen was first married on the i8th of 
October, 1843, to Miss Cynthia A. Coates, who died 
in January 1844. He was married again on the 
19th of March, 1845, to Miss Sophronia Sutton, by 
whom he has two daughters, both now married and 
settled in Fond du Lac. 

His course throughout has been marked by strict 
integrity, and the high standing to which it has led 
him is wholly due to his personal, zealous and con- 
scientious effort. 



JOSEPH HOBBINS, M.D., 

MADISON. 



T OSEPH HOBBINS, member of the Royal Col- 
j lege of Surgeons, London ; fellow of the Geo- 
logical Society, England ; corresponding member 
of the Royal Horticultural Society, England, etc., 
was born December 28, 1S16, at Wednesbury, Staf- 
fordshire, England. He is descended from an 
old Herefordshire family, the recumbent effigy of 
Sir Richard Hobbins (who lived in Elizabeth's 
reign) being still to be found in the church of Red 
Marsley, in that county. Both his father and 
mother were possessed of excellent minds and hearts, 
and were greatly loved and honored by their child- 
ren. The Doctor was educated chiefly at Colton 
Hall, Rugeley, by Daniel Sheridan, Esq., a relative 
of the celebrated Richard Brinsley Sheridan. His 
school life was distinguished by a faculty for versifi- 
cation, some of his youthful effusions finding their 
way into the periodicals of the day, and by an ar- 
dent and uncontrollable love of nature, which led 
him to absent himself for days together from school, 
to find "books in the running streams," and pleasure 
and self-forgetfulness in the beauty of that perfectly 
beautiful part of the country. Upon leaving school 
he commenced his medical studies with a physician 
of the same county, a gentleman of the highest 
standing in that part of England, with whom he re- 
mained five years, leaving only to enter Queen's 
College, Birmingham, where at the end of the ses- 
sion he was awarded the gold medal for a prize 
essay, and received other flattering testimonials. 
From Queen's College he entered at Guy's, London, 
this institution then ranking for advantages in study 
the highest in the country, having at its head the 



great Sir Astley Cooper, and among its professors 
such men as Sir R. Bright, Addison Golding Boid, 
Hey, Ashwell, Hinton, A. S. Taylor, etc. Here he 
remained for two years, passing his classical examin- 
ation as a licentiate in medicine, and obtaining his 
diploma from the college. Having, while a student, 
visited the hospitals of Dublin and Edinburgh, he 
then took advantage of a journey through Belgium 
and F" ranee, to visit those of Brussels and Paris, and 
made his first visit to the United States. 

It was on this voyage that he became acquainted 
with the lady who afterwards became his wife. 
Miss Sarah Russell Jackson, of Newton, Massachu- 
setts, by whom he had six children, three of them 
still living. On her mother's side she was a relative 
of Jonathan Russell, one of the United States com- 
missioners of the the treaty of Ghent; on her 
father's side the grand-daughter of General Michael 
Jackson, of the army of independence. This mar- 
riage, solemnized at St. George's Church, Liverpool, 
England, on October 11, 1841, led to the Doctor's 
return to this country, when he settled in Brookline, 
Massachusetts, became a fellow of the Massachu- 
setts Medical Society, and lived there for three years, 
and then on account of ill health crossed the Atlan- 
tic again. After another visit to the continent and 
several pedestrian tours in Wales, Scotland, and 
England (letters descriptive of these last being pub- 
lished'inthe Boston "Star"), he resumed practice in 
his native town, always, however, being determined 
to return to the West. After an absence of eight 
years, he once more (this time in concert with his 
family, numbering with relatives and servants forty- 



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THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



two persons) set out for the United States, and hav- 
ing made choice of Madison, Wisconsin, for his 
future home, arrived there in the spring of 1854. 
Here he soon began to manifest an interest in the 
things about him, and at the suggestion of Chancel- 
lor Lathrop, of the State University, undertook to 
organize its medical department. As the result of 
his labors this department was organized in 1855, 
and the Doctor was elected one of its professors in 
1856. Being a member of the city council he was 
able to procure an appropriation of six thousand 
dollars for the purpose of a city hospital, and pur- 
chased the lots, still called the hospital lots. But 
the whole enterprise fell through, owing to the mis- 
application of the university appropriation by the 
treasurer of the medical department. 

The Doctor was a member of the first city coun- 
cil, and represented his ward for four years, and 
until he resigned. His attention was now directed 
to the horticultural wants of the State, and he com- 
menced experimenting in his garden, in order to 
discover the varieties of fruits, plants, etc., suitable 
to the climate. His efforts were at once recognized 
by his being elected an officer of the City Horticul- 
tural Society, serving as secretary, and afterward as 
president for some twelve years, and holding at the 
same time for five years the office of president of 
the State Horticultural Society, justly earning the 
title given him, "the father of horticulture in the 
northwest." Upon the breaking out. of the war he 
at once took a decided stand .for the Union. Soon 
after Camp Randall was established, the Doctor, 
acting for the State, took charge of the sick left be- 
hind by the different regiments going to the field. 



and upon the rebel prisoners being sent to Madison, 
was appointed surgeon-in-charge. He was also ap- 
pointed pension examining surgeon. 

In politics he has alwa) s been independent, but 
during the war acted with the war democrats. 

In 1870, December 13, he lost his wife. His 
second marriage occurred at Baltimore, Maryland, 
April 16, 1872, with Mary, the youngest daughter of 
the late Louis McLane, of Delaware, by whom he 
has one son. The character of Louis McLane, as a 
statesman, a scholar, and a gentleman, is duly appre- 
ciated by those who admire talents, and respect 
honor. His public services at home and abroad 
have reflected honor upon his country, and given 
him a lasting fame. The suspicion of selfishness, 
still less that of corruption, was never connected 
with his name. His private life is the beautiful 
counterpart of his public character ; the shafts of 
calumny never penetrated either. His daughter, 
the wife of Dr. Joseph Hobbins, differs from her 
father only in her sex. She is his softened image. 

Dr. Hobbin's life has been one of honorable use- 
fulness. Learned in his profession, skillful in his 
practice, honorable in his dealings, he commands 
the admiration of the intelligent, and the homage of 
the virtuous. The society of himself, wife and 
daughter, renders his home an interesting retreat to 
the student of science, the devotee to literature, and 
the lover of art. Upon entering the domicil, hospi- 
tality, urbanity, classic association, like so many in- 
mates of the dwelling, cling around the heart, and 
bid it welcome. No one visits that retreat but with 
anticipations of pleasure. No one leaves it but with 
the consciousness of mental improvement. 



LEWIS SHERMAN, M.D., 



MILWAUKEE. 



LEWIS SHERMAN was born November 25, 
J 1843, at West Rupert, Vermont. He is the 
son of William and Hannah Sherman. His parents 
were religious people, and gave him careful moral 
training. His father, having a great fondness for 
mathematics, gave him a rigid course in that science 
from his early boyhood. He attended a common 
school until he was thirteen years of age, when he 
entered an academy. After an academic course of 
five years -he entered Union College, Schenectady, 
New York, as a sophomore; he graduated in the 



class of 1865, and in 1868 received the degree of 
M.A. After leaving college he engaged for one year 
in teaching a band of soldiers' children at Deposit, 
New York. He then went to New York city and 
entered the Union Thelogical Seminary, where he 
remained two years. He left the seminary and took 
a regular course in the medical department of the 
University of New York, graduating in 1870. He 
came to Wisconsin in May of the year 1870 and set- 
tled in Milwaukee, where he commenced the prac- 
tice of his profession. After practising a year in the 




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THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



159 



regular school he became convinced that homoe- 
opathy was the better practice. In 1872 he x^'fent 
into partnership with I. S. Douglas, M.D., his present 
partner. They have built and are at present pro- 
prietors of the only homoeopathic pharmacy in the 
State. Dr. Sherman has grown into a large and suc- 
cessful practice. He does not belong to any church, 
and is liberal in his religious views. 

Dr. Sherman is secretary of the State Medical 
Society, elected at the session of 1874. He has 
traveled over the greater part of the United States. 
His ancestors settled in Connecticut at an early 
day and some of them were soldiers in the war of 
the revolution. 



In 1 86 1 Dr. Sherman invented and constructed 
with his own hands a gnomon, or sun-dial, capable of 
giving at one observation sidereal or clock time, solar 
time, the latitude of the place of observation and the 
declination of the sun. In 1870 he invented a spi- 
rometer, in which the errors of varying temperature of 
the atmosphere are estimated; also an instrument 
for measuring the force of expiration in pounds per 
square inch. 

He has spent a considerable portion of liis leisure 
hours in the study of practical botany, and has one 
of the finest herbariums in the State. His work is 
thoroughly methodical. 

In politics he has always been a republican. 



WILLIAM W. TREDWAY, 



MADISON. 



WILLIAM WISE TREDWAY descended in 
a direct line from Nathaniel Tredway, who 
settled at Watertown, Massachusetts, in 1650, and 
was one of the selectmen of that town in 1653 to 
1666. He was born at Ashford, Connecticut, on 
the ist of July, 1804. His father and family re- 
moved thence to Montgomery county, New York, in 
1807. His education was limited to the acquisition 
of the mere rudiments, though he had stood steadily 
at the head of the highest spelling class for several 
months prior to leaving school, which happened in 
his twelfth year, at which time (1816) he entered a 
store in Schenectady, New York, as an apprentice. 
In 1823, on the completion of the Erie canal, at 
nineteen years of age, he became master of a canal 
packet boat, and continued three years. At that 
period these boats were popular and largely patron- 
ized by the traveling public. 

He was married in 1826 at Schenectady to Mary 
Brown, who was born and reared in that city. Was 
engaged in merchandising there from 1826 to 1839, 
during which time he filled various civil offices, as 
school commissioner, and now has in his possession 
his commission as major of a separate battalion of 
flying artillery, dated January, 1834, and signed by 
Governor W. L. Marcey, of New York, and Levi 
Hubbell, adjutant-general; the latter, now United 
States district attorney for the eastern district of 
Wisconsin, was in command for six years. Was 
county clerk of Schenectady county in 1837 and 
1838, and appointed deputy comptroller of the State 



under the whig administration of W. H. Seward, 
governor, on the 4th of March, 1839, and held the 
office three years. Came to Wisconsin in 1842, 
purchased and settled on a farm in Eagle (now 
Waukesha) county; in 1848 sold his farm and com- 
menced merchandising in the adjoining town of 
Genessee, where he resided for two years, during 
most of which time he held the office of justice of 
the peace, though he made his court a court of con- 
ciliation as far as practicable in civil cases, discour- 
aging litigation to his utmost ability, and generally 
with success. In very many cases parties living 
miles distant and having unsettled claims against 
each other, met at his office by mutual arrangement 
and agreed to abide by his judgment in the matter, 
and in all cases were perfectly satisfied; no docket 
entry nor taxing of cost. In this connection candor 
compelled him to acknowledge the commission of a 
great error. While his attention was required to 
drafting a contract which he was in the act of doing, 
a man came near and said : "Squire, what am I to 
do with Fry ? He has been to my house drunk in 
my absence, and abused my family, and thrown 
down my fences, and turned my cattle into the high- 
way." Without considering the fact that his reply 
would be regarded as a judicial decision in the case, 
he said: "Why don't you lick him.'" an J straight- 
way forgot the matter. That evening the drunken, 
quarrelsome Fry was handled very severely, and 
consequently kept his bed for a week under the 
doctor's care, but recovered both his health and 



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THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



good nature. The evilspirit was effectually cast 
out, and he, "clothed, and in his right mind," 
became a model neighbor and peaceable citizen, 
and so continued. He removed with his family to 
Madison in June, 1858, where he has since resided. 
Early in May, 1861, he was invited to accept the 
office of quartermaster-general of the State, and was 
commissioned by Governor Randall, and for the 
succeeding sixteen months was actively employed, 
with a number of assistants, in discharging his 
official duties, having within that period purchased 
on his own judgment army clothing, camp and 
garrison equipage amounting to a million and a 
quarter of dollars. In 1865 he was appointed by 
the governor State agent for obtaining the allowance 
at the United States treasury of Wisconsin's war 
claims, which had been previously disallowed or 
suspended, and obtained the allowance of about two 
hundred and seventy-five thousand dollars after a 
suspension of about four years. The few offices 
which he has held have been conferred unsought by 



him in all cases. Under wills, as executor, and by 
appointment as administrator, and as assignee, he 
has settled numerous estates, and at this time is the 
legal guardian of several families of minor children. 

Politically, was a Henry Clay whig and republi- 
can, and voted for Grant under protest at his first 
election. Was a delegate to the Cincinnati conven- 
tion of disaffected republicans in 1872, and sought 
to effect the nomination of Charles Francis Adams 
for president, but Greeley was imfortunately nomi- 
nated. He has always held it to be a duty to 
protest against party wrongs, and when they become 
unendurable to bolt. He holds that political parties 
continuously in power always become corrupt and 
require an occasional defeat. 

He has been a member of the Presbyterian church 
nearly forty-five years. 

Having passed threescore and ten years, he is 
now in a green old age, enjoying the reward of his 
labors in the consciousness of having discharged all 
the duties imposed on him with strict integrity. 



CHARLES H. HAMILTON, 



MILWAUKEE. 



CHARLES HADLEY HAMILTON, born at 
Rochester, New York, August 5, 1850, was 
the son of Charles S. and Sophia J. Hamilton. His 
father was a graduate of West Point, a classmate of 
President Grant, and a soldier of the Mexican war, 
and the war of the rebellion ; was severely wounded 
at the battle of Molino del Rey, and breveted cap- 
tain for gallant and meritorious conduct. Resigned 
in 1852, and removed to Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, 
where he entered into business, and remained until 
1861. He was appointed colonel of the 3d Wiscon- 
sin by Governor Randall, and in about six months, 
brigadier-general, by President Lincoln. Afterward 
he was made major-general by Lincoln for winning 
the battle of luka with twenty-eight hundred men 
against eighteen regiments of confederates under 
Price and Van Dorn. He resigned in 1863, and in 
1869 was appointed United States marshal for the 
district of Wisconsin, by President Grant, which 
position he has since held. 

Charles H. was educated at the Fond du Lac 
public high school, and the university of Michigan. 
The natural sciences, especially chemistry, metal- 
lurgy and mineralogy were favorite studies, and those 



in which especial proficiency was attained. After 
leaving the high school, he spent one year in sur- 
veying, principally on the United States survey of 
Lake Superior. Entered the junior class of Michi- 
gan University in 1868, and graduated as a mining 
engineer in 1869. After graduating, came to Mil- 
waukee. Came to this State when a child, in 1852. 
After graduating, was appointed deputy United 
States marshal for Wisconsin, which office he held 
until 1873. During this time he studied law, and 
was admitted to the Milwaukee county bar in 1S72. 
He intended to become a lawyer, but constant inter- 
mingling with lawyers caused a distaste to both the 
profession and its professors, and seeing a business 
opening which promised favorably, entered the 
house of Sylus Van Buren and Co., as junior part- 
ner. One partner having died and the other sold 
out, he became sole proprietor of the present firm 
and business, and at the age of twenty-four, after 
two years' business experience, now controlling the 
largest paper business in the State, and one of the 
largest and most prosperous in the West. Orthodox- 
ically liberal. 

A strict republican in the spirit of republicanism, 




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THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



i6i 



but not the letter. Took an active part in tlie pres- 
idential campaign of 1872, but not since then. 

He was married, April 16, 1873, to Carrie A. 
Nichols, daughter of the late esteemed Henry A. 
Nichols. 

The first ancestor of the name who came to this 
country, was William Hamilton, son of Gallatru 
Hamilton, of Glasgow, Scotland, who was of the 
family of the dukes of Hamilton, and marquises 
of Abercorn. Came to this country in 1641. De- 
scendants since then have lived in Connecticut and 
New York principally, and have nearly always at- 
tained great longevity. C. H. Hamilton was started 
in business in 1847 by Josiah Noonan and Peter Mc- 
Nab, in East Water street, in one-half of a twenty- 
foot store. Business has changed hands six or seven 



times, and has had many ups and downs, a great 
deal of money having been made out of it, and 
much lost, but under the present management its 
success has been constant and increasing. Amount 
of capital employed is upward of forty thousand 
dollars. Extent of premises, forty feet front by 
one hundred and forty feet deep. Location 354 
and 356 Broadway, Milwaukee. Amount of annual 
sales, three hundred thousand dollars. Special fea- 
ture to which they attribute success, strictly adher- 
ing to business rules; yet always treating all custom- 
ers with courtesy, and trying to bind them to the 
concern by ties of personal friendship and good- 
will. Their trade extends from Pennsylvania to 
Utah, but principally in Wisconsin, Iowa and Min- 
nesota. 



MAJOR GEORGE ANDERSON, 

MADISON. 



GEORGE ANDERSON was born in Somer- 
set county. New Jersey, on the banks of the 
Raritan river, two miles above the city of New 
Brunswick, on the 8th of March, 1784. His father's 
name was Simon, and his mother's maiden name was 
Mary Van Angren. His father was a respectable 
farmer, whose ancestors came from Scotland. George 
was brought up on the farm under the general man- 
agement of his mother, his father having died when 
he was ten years of age. He attended the common 
schools of the county, and commenced business for 
himself by keeping a hotel in the town of Piscataway 
and the village of New Market, at the same time 
carrying on the business of farming in the neighbor- 
hood. Moved from New Jersey to Staten Island, 
New York, keeping a hotel and farming there. 
Thence moved to Philadelphia county, Pennsylvania, 
to the farm of John C. Craig, the brother-in-law of 
Nicholas Biddle, and took charge of the blooded 
stock of Mr. Craig and of W. R. Johnson of Virginia, 
the Napoleon of the turf. Continued in that occu- 
pation five years, and until the death of Mr. Craig, 
who died in Italy. Upon Mrs. Craig's return after 
the death of her husband, this property vvas sold, 
and Mr. Anderson removed to Fulton county, Illi- 
nois; thence to Wisconsin in the spring of 1839, 
settling on a farm of Colonel W. B. Slaughter, at 
what was then termed the City of the Four Lakes, 
and remaining there several years, in the meantime 



owning some fine blooded horses, descendants of 
the celebrated stock of Craig and Johnson. Thence 
he moved to Sun Prairie in the spring of 1842 and 
opened a farm of four hundred acres and continued 
to cultivate it until 1867, when he sold his farm and 
removed to Baraboo, thence to Madison, where he 
now resides. He was married three times. His 
first wife was a daughter of Captain Tennick. of 
the revolutionary war. His second wife was the 
widow Duncomb. His third and present vvas a Miss 
St. Clair. He had no children by the last two wives, 
and seven by the first, five sons and two daughters; 
four only are living. Major Anderson has held sev- 
eral offices, the duties of which he has faithfully and 
honestly discharged. He was for several years 
supervisor of the town of Sun Prairie, chairman of 
the county board, under-sheriff three years, collector 
of taxes of Dane and Sauk counties, and settling his 
accounts without making a mistake. He was also 
deputy United States marshal. He is now living in 
comfortable retirement upon the interest of the 
money his industry and economy have enabled him 
to accumulate. Major Anderson's natural capabili- 
ties enabled him to enjoy the full benefit of the so- 
ciety of such cultivated gentlemen as Nicholas Biddle, 
John C. Craig and W. R. Johnson of Virginia, with 
whom he was intimately connected in business for ' 
five years, and his retentive memory enables him to 
narrate many interesting incidents characteristic of 



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THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



those gentlemen. In illustration of the ready wit 
and imperturbable self-possession of Colonel Johnson 
he relates that on his return to Philadelphia from 
New Jersey, when the great race between Mr. John- 
son's horse Boston and Mr. Gibbon's mare Fashion 
had just been run, and while still on the crowded 
ferry-boat, Colonel Johnson felt some one's hand in 
his pocket, and instantly clasping and holding it, 
turned his head and said, " My friend Mr. Gibbon 



j won the race to-day." Although Major Anderson 

I is in his ninety-second year, his bodily health is 

I good, his mind cheerful, his manners easy and dig- 

I nified, and looks very like, as he is, a gentleman of 
the olden time. His present vigor of mind and 

I body is an eloquent commentary upon temperance, 

I industry, and cheerfulness, that badge of a gentle- 

i man. If the prayers of his friends avail he will 

I complete a century. 



HENRY S. DURAND, 



HENRY S. DURAND was born in Cheshire, 
Connecticut, February 13, 1817. Is a son 
of Samuel and Eloise Durand. He received a com- 
mon-school education at Berlin, Hartford county, 
and at the age of thirteen entered as clerk in a store 
at Hartford, and was there two years. He then 
returned to Berlin, and was apprenticed to Mr. E. 
Brandegee until he became of age. His compensa- 
tion was simply his board and clothes, and although 
at eighteen years of age he was offered eighteen 
hundred dollars a year by another firm, he declined 
and served out his time. When seventeen years old 
he was sent to New York to purchase goods and 
transact other business, which indicated great confi- 
dence in him, and was regarded as an honor in those 
days. From that time he purchased all the goods, 
kept the books, had the chief management of the 
store and two cotton mills. When he was of age he 
became agent for the Hartford and New Haven 
Railway, in whose interest he acted for several years. 
In the spring of 1843 he removed to Wisconsin, and 
settled at Racine, where he has ever since resided. 
He commenced a mercantile business, and then 
added that of produce and commission, then lumber 
and coal; also the manufacture of lumber in Michi- 
gan, in connection with which he had a fleet of five 
first-class vessels on the lakes, and was uniformly 
successful in his various enterprises. In connection 
with three others he purchased the land and laid 
out the city of La Crosse. He opened a store, built 
a hotel, school house, church, court house, jail, steam 
saw-mill, and a large number of dwellings. The 
town grew rapidly, and is to-day one of the most 
prosperous cities of the Northwest. Mr. Durand 
was vice-president of the Racine County Bank, and 
afterward president of the Commercial Bank of Ra- 



cine ; was also president for thirteen years of the 
Racine and Mississippi Railway Company. His 
connection with that enterprise brought him in bus- 
iness relations with many banking, manufacturing 
and mercantile firms, which gave him a great repu- 
tation for his business talents, energy and industry. 
In 1844 he commenced the insurance business as 
agent of the .^tna Insurance Company, and issued 
the first policy ever written in Wisconsin. This 
Racine office is still in existence, and is the oldest 
insurance agency in the State. In i860 he estab- 
lished an insurance agency in Milwaukee, which 
was successful. In 1845 he commenced the adjust- 
ment of losses, his first effort being for the ^-Etna, in 
Milwaukee, after the memorable fire of that year, 
and during the thirty-one years that have elapsed 
since, he has probably adjusted upward of ten thou- 
sand claims. In May, 1859, he became the special 
agent and adjuster of the Home, of New York, for 
the States of Wisconsin and Minnesota, but in 1867 
he was appointed general adjuster for that company 
for the northwestern States. It may be said that 
Mr. Durand initiated the special agency system, and 
has had under his supervision upward of one hun- 
dred agencies, more than ninety of these agencies 
showing profitable results. He is familiar with the 
law of insurance, and, it is said, can cite any adjudi- 
cation that has ever been made on the subject in 
this country. His library contains all the books on 
the subject of insurance that have been printed 
since 1800, and is probably the most e.xtensive in 
the world on that subject. Notwithstanding the 
multiplicity of his occupations, he has found time 
for much mental culture. Has great admiration for 
works of art, and his hoijie abounds in gems in this 
department. He has also a fondness for live stock, 





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THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



163 



and on his farm may be found some of the best 
blooded cattle in the country. His sympathies are 
humane and generous; the churches, the colleges, 
the public institutions, as well as the poor of the 
city, bear grateful testimony to his kindness and 
generosity. 

Mr. Durand has a well developed physical organi- 
zation, indicating activity and endurance. He has 
a large brain, without idiosyncrasies, which would 
have distinguished him in any profession to which 
he would have directed its energies. His mind is 
far-reaching, all-embracing, and while it delights in 
the investigation of elementary principles, the details 
are never so minute as to escape its observations. 
His self-knowledge, acquired by long and patient 
study, has given him accurate knowledge of others. 
His calm judgment, unclouded by passion and un- 
warped by prejudice, enables him to perceive the 
truth, which is the source of all true greatness, as 
well as of happiness. To have given full occupation 
to his large brain, his profession should have been 
that of a statesman whose business it is to make 
laws for the government of men, success in which is 
the most difficult thing in the universe, for man him- 
self is the universe in miniature. Circumstances 
turned Mr. Durand's mind in a different direction, 
and no one subject being found sufficient to occupy 
all of his thoughts and energies, they have been 
directed in a variety of channels, and hai^py results 
have followed. His life thus far has been one of 
endless toil and beneficent influences, social, moral 
and religious. His e.xample is calculated to inspire 



the idle boy with the love of industry, and the strug- 
gling boy with the hope of distinction. Nature 
never intended that such powers as she gave to 
Mr. Durand should be wasted upon the desert air, 
but that upon whatever theater these powers may 
have been exerted, her purposes should not be dis- 
appointed. 

Mr. Durand was married in 1838, to Caroline B. 
Cowles, of Meriden, Connecticut. Has three daugh- 
ters, all of whom are members of Vassar College. 
His wife died, and he married the daughter of the 
late Dr. V. White, of Stockbridge, Massachusetts. 
She was educated at the Troy Seminary of the late 
Madame Emma Willard, and for some time a suc- 
cessful teacher in Brooklyn, New York. Nature 
endowed her with capabilities of a high order, and 
her mental faculties have been cultivated with great 
care. She is not only familiar with the philosophies 
as taught in the ancient classics, but has kept pace 
with the modern writers upon science, art, literature 
and taste. She has been a close student, is an accu- 
rate thinker, a skillful painter, an accomplished 
reader. With her mind thus stored with ancient and 
modern lore, with her cultivated taste and retentive 
memory, she is, as a conversationalist, brilliant, fas- 
cinating and instructive. Her domestic qualities are 
equally remarkable. She presides over her house- 
hold with womanly tact and grace ; is a loving wife, 
an affectionate stepmother, that '^rara avis in terris" 
a hospitable hostess and a genial companion. Her 
deep sense of Christian piety and her devotion to re- 
ligious duty are her crowning characteristics. 



THOMPSON M. WARREN, 



THOMPSON M. WARREN was born May 10, 
181 2, at Buckfield, Oxford county, Maine. 
His father's name was Andrew Warren, and his 
mother's Polly Alden. They were of the old New 
England stock. His mother was a descendant of 
the Miller family, who were active patriots during 
the revolutionary war. He was educated at the 
Clinton Institute in New York, his studies being con- 
fined to the English branches. His father being in 
humble circumstances, he started for New York city 
at the age of seventeen, where he arrived with one 
dollar and fifty cents in his pocket, with which he 
commenced the book trade. He remained there 



about five years, then removed to the city of Albany, 
where he engaged in mercantile business and where 
he remained about the same length of time. He 
sold out there and removed to Herkimer, Herkimer 
county. He staid there about two years. In 1840 
he went to Chicago, and from there to Dixon, Illi- 
i nois, where he remained six months, then removed 
I to Mineral Point, Wisconsin. Here he did a large 
I and paying business in general merchandise, in com- 
pany with his brothers, Marcus and A. Warren, 
junior. He sold out there in 1845, and went to 
! Sauk City. In the spring of 1846 he settled upon 
I a farm in the town of Roxbury, Dane county, and 



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THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



went into the business of buying and selling land 
and loaning money, which he still follows. Finding 
that his surroundings in Roxbury were not what he 
could wish, and as there were no educational advan- 
tages, he removed to Baraboo, where he now lives, 
in a large stone house, situated on a slight rise of 
ground just north of the town, and surrounded by 
large forest trees. He visited Chicago in 1872, and 
with his brother bought four hundred acres of land, 
seven miles south of the court-house, near Oak Park, 
and adjacent to the Pacific railroad, which he still 
possesses. He paid about four hundred thousand 
dollars for it. 



He was raised a Baptist, but finding the doctrines 
too rigid, he became a Universalist, but has held 
Unitarian views since he came to Wisconsin. 

He was a whig until the organization of the repub- 
lican party ; since then has been a republican. 

He was married in October, 1855, to Katherine 
McKennan, of Herkimer county, New York. He 
has five children, three boys and two girls. 

Mr. Warren has a large library of well selected 
books. Is a great admirer of Dr. Franklin, and has 
a work written by him in 1793, called the" Prompter," 
which he talks of having republished at his own 
expense. 



HON. ARTHUR B. BRALEY, 



MADISON. 



ARTHUR B. BR.A.LEY was born at Perry, 
. Wyoming county, New York, on the nth of 
February, 1822. He was the only son of Rufus and 
Hepzee Braley. His father was born in the town of 
Adams, Massachusetts, and was among the early 
settlers of Weston, New York. His mother's 
maiden name was Foster, and her father, Daniel 
Foster, was a soldier in the revolutionary army, and 
was at the battle of Monmouth Church. 

Arthur B. Braley had the misfortune to lose an 
excellent father when he was fifteen years of age. 
This great bereavement practically threw him upon 
his own resources. His education at that time was 
limited, with the exception of some two or three 
terms in what might be called a select or private 
school. His habits in early life were formed under 
the influence of a most excellent mother, and were 
consequently good. His mother was a member of 
the Society of Friends, commonly called Quakers. 
In the pure faith of that sect she lived and died ; 
her life exemplified its purity, and her death its 
power. After the death of his father he went to 
live with a wealthy relative The generosity of a 
friend supplied him with the means, and he occu- 
pied many a leisure hour in perusing the works of 
the immortal bard of Avon, whilst hidden from the 
eye of his watchful guardian. His stay, however, in 
the house of his relative was short, and once more 
he returned to his home, where, at least, his mind 
was free to read the plays of Shakspeare, tlie poems 
of Burns and Byron, the novels of Scott, or history, 
as he might choose. 



In the spring of 1843 he ventured out into the 
world in search of fortune, and his first landing 
place was Erie, Pennsylvania, where he spent some 
weeks among friends ; thence to Cleveland, Colum- 
bus, Cincinnati, and to the blue-grass region of 
Kentucky. In the fall of 1844 he returned once 
more to New York. In the ensuing spring he began 
the study of law, making use of borrowed books for 
that purpose. The next winter was spent in the 
beautiful Wyoming Valley, Pennsylvania, famous in 
history and in song. After teaching three months 
in this charming valley he returned to his native 
place, and in the spring of 1846 immigrated to Wis- 
consin ; settled first at Delavan, where he completed 
his legal studies, and in 1848 visited Madison, where 
he was admitted to the bar by the presiding judge. 
He came to Madison to reside in the fall of 1852. 
Upon the organization of the capital city in 1856, 
Mr. Braley was elected to the office of police justice, 
which place he held for three successive terms of 
two years each. In 1864 he was chosen alderman 
of the first ward, an office which he held for three 
years. At the opening of the presidential campaign 
of 1864 he took editorial charge of the Wisconsin 
" Daily Patriot," a position which he retained until 
after the election. As a political editor he took 
a high position in the ranks of the fraternity; his 
articles were admired for their vigor and power. 
At the close of the presidential campaign he vacated 
the editorial chair and returned to the duties of his 
profession. In the spring of 1868 he was elected 
city attorney of Madison, and in the summer and 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGTlAPHrCAL DICTIONARY. 



165 



fall of the same year he became principal political 
editor of the Madison " Daily Democrat," which 
position he resigned at the close of the presidential 
election. In the spring of 1869 he removed to the 
village of Waukesha, Wisconsin, where he remained 
until the fall of 1870. While here he had the mis- 
fortune to lose his only remaining child, a bright 
and promising boy of six years. Saddened beyond 
expression by this terrible blow, he returned to 
Madison, where he still resides. In the spring of 
1872 he was elected police justice without oppo- 
sition, and this court having been reorganized and 
converted into a municipal court for the city and 
county in the spring of 1874, he was chosen judge 
of this court without opposition by the electors of 
Dane county for the term of six years. 

He was married on the nth of February, 1855, at 
Madison, to Miss Philida Stevens. The fruits of 
this union have been three children, none of whom 



survive. The first, -a daughter, lived to be a year 
old; the second, a son, died at six; and the third 
only lived three months. These sad bereavements 
have cast a gloom over the lives of both father and 
mother which no earthly light can dispel. 

In the midst of his professional and official duties 
he has found leisure to write a good deal for the press. 
His efforts in the editorial line have already been 
alluded to, but in addition to these labors his in- 
dustrious pen has been almost continuously em- 
ployed for twenty-five years in furnishing articles of 
either a political or literary character for various 
newspapers through the West. His criticisms upon 
Shakspeare have attracted especial attention. As a 
judge he is distinguished for the clearness of his 
views of the law, as well as for the strict impartiality 
of his decisions; as a citizen he is patriotic; as a 
politician, uncompromising in his principles; and as 
a man, sincere and devoted in his friendships. 



HIRAM H. GILES, 



MADISON. 



HIRAM H. GILES was born in New Salem, 
Franklin county, Massachusetts, March 22, 
1820. His parents were Hon. Samuel Giles and 
Hannah Foster Giles. He was reared on a farm. 
His father was in fair circumstances for a New 
England yeoman, and was at one time a member of 
the Massachusetts State senate. 

Hiram was educated at New Salem Academy, 
and was preparing for college in 1837, when his 
health failed, and he was compelled to relinquish 
the purpose which he had in view. He then went 
to Chautauqua county. New York, where he joined 
a brother who was lecturing on electricity, traveling 
in Ohio and spending the winter in Kentucky and 
Tennessee. 

He returned to Fredonia, New York, in the 
spring of 1839, and soon afterward began a more 
extended lecturing tour, traveling two years over 
parts of the States of New York, Pennsylvania, 
Ohio, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware and the pro- 
vince of Upper Canada. He was successful in his 
undertaking, and although but twenty years of age 
won for himself many laurels in the field of the 
lecturer. He became tired of travel, and entered 
Fredonia Academy with health restored. Confine- 
ment to study so affected him that he abandoned its 



pursuit, and came to Wisconsin Territory in 1844, 
traveling on foot over much of the southern portion. 
He returned to New York State, and was married 
in the autumn of 1844 to Rebecca S. Watson. He 
again returned to Fredonia, and taught the village 
school during the winter. 

In the spring of 1845 he removed to Harbor 
Creek, Pennsylvania, where he resided for two 
years; thence to Wisconsin Territory in 1847. He 
settled in Dunkirk, Dane county, and engaged in 
the occupation of a farmer. Shaken by the ague 
too much to have farming prove successful, he 
removed to Stoughton in 1B53, where he was known 
for many years as an eminent and upright business 
man, advancing the improvements of that village in 
various ways, and taking an active part in the Uni- 
versalist Society and Sabbath school. 

Two daughters and a loving wife have made his 
home a happy and peaceful one. 

He was educated an Orthodox Unitarian of the 
style of that denomination from 1830 to 1840; but 
he relinquished all of the orthodox, and became a 
firm believer in the final restoration of all men to 
holiness and happiness. He has been prominently 
connected with the Universalists of Wisconsin for a 
number of years. 



1 66 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



He was a democrat in boyhood, but cast his first 
vote for the whig candidate for President in 1840. 
He joined the republican party at its first organiza- 
tion, and has remained with it. 

He was elected to the assembly from the south- 
east district of Dane county in 1852, carrying a 
strong democratic district upon the bank issue. He 
took a prominent and independent part in the per- 
fecting and passage of the first banking law, as 
shown by the reported debates in the papers of that 
session. He was the whig candidate for Dane 
county for the senate in 1853, and was defeated. 
He was again a candidate in 1855, and was elected; 
then reelected in 1857. He was president of the 
senate in 1859. He took a prominent and influ- 
ential part in the legislature during his senatorial 
terms. He opposed the bestowing the land grant 
upon the old La Crosse company in 1856, and was 
one of the few who took no bonds. 

He signed the total abstinence pledge when fifteen 
years of age, and has ever since been an earnest 
advocate of temperance at all times and in all places. 
He was for six years the head of the Independent 
Order of Good Templars in Wisconsin, and built up 
the order in its membership from six thousand to 
twenty-four thousand. He has full faith in the power 
of persuasion to reform men, and of conviction to 
redeem them. He does not believe in law as a 
reformatory measure. His public addresses and his 
writings have been philosophical and practical, seek- 



ing at all times to convince the judgment rather than 
to excite passion. 

He was assistant assessor of internal revenue 
under General Atwood for four years from Septem- 
ber, 1862. He was appointed by Governor Randall 
one of the trustees of the insane hospital at its first 
organization in i860, and acted until ajjpointed by 
Governor Fairchild on the State Board of Charities 
and Reform in 1870. 

He removed to Madison in the autumn of 1869. 

He was reappointed on the State Board of Chari- 
ties and Reform by Governor Taylor, and in that 
sphere has greatly aided in the accomplishment of a 
noble work. He carries a record of diligence, per- 
severance and philanthropy that is worthy the com- 
mendation of the aged and the imitation of the 
youth of Wisconsin. 

Mr. Giles has much more ability than is generally 
ascribed to him. He is self-reliant, self-taught and 
self-supporting. He has a large fund' of knowledge, 
acquired by observation and experience. It is not 
theoretical, it is not metaphysical, but practical and 
philosophical. The writer of this sketch had the 
pleasure of listening to one of his lectures profess- 
edly on the subject of temperance; it was, however, 
an essay on the philosophy of physical, moral and 
intellectual life, the most interesting of all subjects 
to a rational mind. No intelligent person could 
have listened to it without instruction, no lover of 
morals without improvement. 



REV. STEPHEN PEET, 



AS an illustration of the truth that men's deeds 
live after them, no worthier can be found than 
that presented in the case of him whose name heads 
this sketch. Stephen Feet, a native of Sandgate, 
Vermont, was born on the 20th of February, 1797. 
During the following year his parents removed to 
Lee, Massachusetts, where he passed his boyhood 
and at the age of sixteen united with the church. 
Soon afterward he went with his family to Ohio, and 
there, by the death of his father, was at the age of 
seventeen thrown upon his own resources, and thus 
early in life developed that independence of charac- 
ter which so signally marked his subsequent career. 
Although dependent upon his own exertions for 
means he resolved to enter the ministry, and after 



his primary education completed his preparatory 
course of study at Norfolk, Connecticut, under the 
tuition of Rev. Ralph Emerson. He entered Yale 
College in 1819, and graduated with honor in 1823. 
His theological studies were pursued partly under 
the direction of Mr. Emerson and partly at Prince- 
ton, New Haven and Auburn theological seminaries, 
and on the 22d of February, 1826, he was ordained 
pastor at Euclid, Ohio. During the seven years of 
his ministry in this place his work was greatly 
blessed, and one sermon especially is said to have 
been the means of numerous conversions, including 
five prominent lawyers. While here he became 
deeply interested in the sailors on the western 
waters, and- the work so grew upon him that he 




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THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARV. 



167 



resigned his pastorate and devoted himself exclu- 
sively to it. While engaged in the Bethel cause, 
between 1835 and 1837, he resided at Buffalo, New 
York, and in addition to his other duties edited the 
" Bethel Magazine and the Buffalo Spectator," a 
religious paper, afterward merged in the New York 
" Evangelist." 

In October, 1837, he removed to Green Bay, Wis- 
consin, and became pastor of the only Presbyterian 
church then existing within the present limits of the 
State. Two years later he secured the erection of a 
house of worship at a cost of three thousand dollars, 
and heard the tones of the first church bell in the 
State, it being the gift of John Jacob Astor, and val- 
ued at five hundred dollars. In 1839 he made a 
tour through the Territory in the interests of the 
American Home Mission Society, seeking out its 
moral destitutions and wants preparatory to estab- 
lishing churches. In this tour he traveled five hun- 
dred and seventy-five miles; visited sixty-four fami- 
lies and thirty-one different places; preached four- 
teen sermons; delivered one temperance address; 
attended one funeral ; organized one church ; ad- 
ministered the communion three times and baptism 
twice; attended the meeting of the Presbytery and 
distributed many testaments, tracts and children's 
books. In 1839 he accepted a call to the pastorate 
of the First Presbyterian Church, in Milwaukee, and 
there labored faithfully till 1841, when he was ap- 
pointed general agent for the American Home Mis- 
sion Society for Wisconsin. The good resulting from 
his work in this capacity can never be estimated. 
Possessed of energy and decision, connected with 
business tact, zeal, indoinitable perseverance and 
devoted piety, he was preeminently suited to the 
work, and prosecuted it with an ardor most credita- 
ble to himselfand with a success which entitled him 
to be regarded as one of the greatest benefactors of 
the State. He aided in organizing a large proportion 
of the Congregational and Presbyterian churches, 
and was influential in forming the convention in 
which the churches of these two denominations were 
harmoniously united. In his repeated journeys 
across the prairies and through the forests he was 
often subjected to perils and self-denials, yet he was 
cheerful and happy in the work of preaching the 
gospel to the scattered sheep of Christ's flock, of 
comforting the lonely, rejoicing with the strong and 
helping the weak. Though the full results of his 
work can never be known here, enough have ap- 
peared to attest his eminent usefulness as a faithful 



servant of God, destined to be crowned with honor 
in the great day of the Lord's appearing. Not only 
was his heart engaged in the work of spreading the 
gospel and establishing churches, but he was always 
deeply interested in institutions for Christian educa- 
tion. He was an early supporter of Western Reserve 
College, and furnished from his church one of the 
three members of its first graduating class, who is 
now (1876) a minister of the gospel. More fitly than 
any one else he may be called the father of Beloit 
College. Resigning his agency for the American 
Home Mission Society after some eight years' ser- 
vice, he labored nearly three years as financial agent 
for the college, and was successful in securing a large 
portion of its early endowments. The first subscrip- 
tion of one thousand dollars, from Rev. Henry Bar- 
ber, came through his agency, and was followed by 
seven thousand dollars from the citizens of Beloit, 
ten thousand dollars from Hon. T. W. Williams, a 
relative of his family, and ten thousand dollars from 
the self-denying missionaries of the Northwest. On 
the foundation thus laid in faith and prayer and 
self-denial has been built up and made a blessing to 
both church and state. 

In 1850, from overwork, he was prostrated by an 
illness that seemed his last. His physicians de- 
spaired of his recovery and he had even given direc- 
tions for his funeral. At his request he was left 
alone, and prayed till he became impressed with the 
conviction that he should recover. Calling his phy- 
sicians, he said, " Gentlemen, I have all confidence 
in your judgment, but I am assured that the Lord 
has yet four or five years' work for me to do," and 
to the surprise of all he at once began to mend. 
His next field of labor was at Batavia, Illinois, where 
he preached for nearly three years to the Congrega- 
tional church, and during that time initiated and 
carried to success a plan for an academical institu- 
tion as a tributary to Beloit College. The crowning 
effort of his life was yet to be undertaken. He had 
long cherished a desire to establish a theological 
seminary, through whose graduates he should con- 
tinue to preach the gospel after his death. \\'ith his 
characteristic energy he entered upon the work. 
Within one year the plan of the Chicago Theological 
Seminary had been matured, the board of trustees 
appointed, the charter secured, and subscriptions 
raised to the amount of fifty thousand dollars. But 
he was not permitted to see the accomplishment of 
his purpose. Returning March 14, 1855, from the 
East, where he had been laboring in the interests of 



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THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



the institution, he called a meeting of the directors 
for the 27th, to organize, elect professors, and trans- 
act any necessary business. On the following day 
he was attacked with chills and fever, which resulted 
in inflammation of the lungs, of which he died at 
three o'clock on Wednesday morning, the 21st. His 
work was done, and peacefully and gently he entered 
into his rest. His funeral, which occurred on Friday, 
the 23d, was conducted by the Rev. J. C. Holbrook, 
who preached from John xvii, 4 : "I have finished 
the work which thou gavest me to do." His body 



found its last resting place in the cemetery at 
Beloit, within sight of the college he had loved and 
labored for. 

Thus ended the life of a true man. He is gone, 
but his work still lives. The train of. those who 
perpetuate his work is still moving on ; the churches 
which he planted in the wilderness, the sermons 
which he preached, the schools established, the acts 
of charity and deeds of love, all live to commemorate 
his name, and their influence will be ever expanding 
with the lapse of time. 



MOSES M. STRONG, 



MINERAL POINT. 



MOSES M. STRONG is of Puritan stock. 
His paternal ancestor. Elder John Strong, 
immigrated to America in 1629, and settled at 
Dorchester, Massachusetts.- He died at the age of 
ninety-four years, at Northampton. The father of 
Mr. Strong was educated as a lawyer, and became 
distinguished at the bar. In 1825 he was called to 
the bench, whence he retired to private life. 

Moses McCure Strong was born at Rutland, Ver- 
mont, May 20, 1810. He derived his earliest edu- 
cational instruction from his mother. He was five 
years at the village school, thence went to the 
grammar school at Castleton, Vermont. In 1825 he 
entered the freshman class of Middlebury College, 
Vermont. Three years after, he joined the senior 
class of Dartmouth College, where he graduated in 
1829. Having graduated, he entered the law office 
of Rodney C. Royce, and at the expiration of one 
year he entered the law school at Litchfield, Con- 
necticut, where he remained one year, when, after a 
thorough examination in open court by the judges 
and members of the bar, he was admitted to practice 
in all the courts of Connecticut. In 1836 he re- 
moved to Wisconsin. 

In July, 1832, Mr. Strong was married to Miss 
Caroline Frances Green, daughter of Dr. Isaac 
Green, of Windsor, Vermont. 

In 1833 he received the appointment of deputy 
surveyor-general of the State of Vermont. In 1835, 
when the democratic and whig parties were being 
organized for the approaching presidential election, 
although Mr. Strong's father and numerous relatives 
were all whigs, yet the leading measures of Jackson's 
administration met his approval, and he cut loose 



from his political associations and supported Mr. 
Van Buren for the presidency. In 1836, while at 
Washington City, he was engaged by Governor 
Hubbard and others to invest large suras of money 
in government lands, and under their directions he 
went directly to Mineral Point, in Wisconsin, and 
invested the funds intrusted to him. Upon his 
arrival he opened a law and land agency office, and 
has made that place his home ever since. In 1837 
Mr. Strong received an appointment from General 
Lytle for surveying government lands on the west 
side of the Mississippi river, in what is now Jackson 
and Dubuque counties. In 1838 he was appointed 
United States attorney for the Territory of Wiscon- 
sin, which office he held three years, discharging its 
duties with punctuality and ability, and acquiring 
high professional distinction. 

In 1841 Mr. Strong was elected a member of the 
legislative council to fill a vacancy, and in 1842 was 
reelected for the full term of four years, in which he 
took a prominent and active part in all questions 
brought before it, and was twice elected as its presi- 
dent. He was elected as one of the delegates to the 
convention which assembled in Madison in 1846, 
and took a leading part in framing the first constitu- 
tion. This constitution was submitted to the people 
for adoption, and, after very exciting discussions 
throughout the State, was rejected. Another con- 
stitution was adopted in February, 1848, and ratified 
by the people in March of that year. In November, 
1849, Mr. Strong was elected to the assembly, and 
at the meeting of the legislature in 1850 was chosen 
speaker. The session lasted thirty-four days, being 
the shortest ever held in the State. 




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THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



169 



In 1852 he devoted much of his time in aiding 
the construction of the La Crosse and Milwaukee 
railroad, and afterward in constructing the Mineral 
Point railroad. He drew up the charter of the 
La Crosse railroad, and its adoption was due chiefly 
to his efforts. He was elected its first president, and 
continued in its management until the financial dis- 
aster of 1857. He was also president of the Mineral 
Point railroad, which he materially benefited by 
successful arrangements with the Illinois Central 
and Galena and Chicago railroads. Mr. Strong 
spent six years in promoting the success of these 
enterprises, which withdrew him from his profession 
of the law, and it required years of laborious effort 
to regain what he had lost. 

Mr. Strong, from early education and habit of 
thought, is a firm believer in the Christian religion, 
and being attracted by the beautiful and classic 
liturgy of the Episcopal church, he took an active 
part in organizing a church in Vermont, and was a 
member of the vestry. On removing to Mineral 
Point he, with a few other churchmen, organized 
Trinity Church in that parish, of which he has ever 
since been a vestryman, and in which he received 
the rite of confirmation at the hands of Bishop 
Kemper. Since then he has been a regular commu- 
nicant, and frequently a delegate to the diocesan 
convention. His religious character has nothing of 
asceticism in it. He has always indulged in the 
innocent amusements of life. 

Since 1858 he has avoided public life, and con- 
fined himself chiefly to his professional duties in the 
practice of the law. His chief care for the last few 
years has been to provide for the education of his 



son and daughter. In 1863 the two children went 
with their mother to New Haven, Connecticut, she 
remaining with them four years, when his son com- 
pleted his collegiate course at Yale College, gradu- 
ating in 1867, at the age of twenty-one. His daugh- 
ter during the same time was educated at the ladies' 
school in charge of the Misses Edwards. 

Mr. Strong's son remained one year longer in the 
Sheffield Scientific School connected with Yale, 
with the view of qualifying himself for the pro- 
fession of a mining engineer. He was then sent to 
Germany, where he spent two years in the best 
mining schools of the country. Since his return to 
America in 1870 he has been engaged in railroad 
engineering until, in 1873, he was appointed assist- 
ant State geologist. Mr. Strong is gratified with 
the success of his efforts in the education of his 
children. 

Nature has endowed Mr. Strong with some rare 
gifts, among them a vigorous physical constitution, 
an intellectual ability of a high order, logical, dis- 
criminating and comprehensive. He is an able 
debater, a close reasoner, an impressive and occa- 
sionally eloquent speaker. He has acquired an 
enviable reputation at the bar and in the legislative 
councils, in which bodies as a parliamentarian and 
presiding officer he has no superior in the State. 
But his knowledge of the principles of law, his calm 
deliberation, his logical power and his analytical 
acumen better fit him for the bench than the bar. 
If elevated to that position, his ability, learning and 
experience will enable him to reflect as much honor 
on that exalted station as its sanctity and dignity 
would reflect upon him. 



GENERAL HENRY HARNDEN, 

MADISON. 



HENRY HARNDEN, the son of Jonathan and 
Rhoda Harnden, was born March 4, 1823, at 
Wilmington, Massachusetts. His ancestors were of 
the Puritan stock, and came to America in 1640, and 
settled in Andover, Massachusetts. He had a com- 
mon-school education. Many of his ancestors on 
the mother's side were seafaring men, and he, from 
often hearing his uncles relate their wild adventures 
and hair-breadth escapes by sea, early inherited a 
passion for the briny deep. After leaving school, 
at the age of eighteen years, he sailed on a voyage. 



and visited the coast of Africa, also doubled Cape 
Horn, and visited many of the islands of the Pacific 
ocean, as also the entire west coast of South Amer- 
ica from Cape Horn to Mexico, returning after an 
absence of five years to his father's house in Wil- 
mington. Afterward he made several voyages to 
the West Indies and the southern ports ; was in Mex- 
ico the first summer of the Mexican war, and wit- 
nessed the debarkation of a part of General Taylor's 
army at Brazos, Santiago ; also assisted in bringing 
back the wounded of the battle of Palo Alto to New 



70 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



Orleans. Losing his health that summer, he returned 
home, and engaged in clerking in a store at Lowell. 
In the spring of 1850 he went overland to California, 
and engaged in gold mining. While crossing the 
plains the party had several encounters with Indians. 
who were at that time quite hostile. Not being 
particularly successful in California, he returned to 
Boston by the way of Cape Horn, his former experi- 
ence as a sailor being of great use in getting him a 
situation on a vessel at high wages. In 1852 he re- 
moved to Wisconsin, and settled in the town of Sul- 
livan, Jefferson county. Engaged first in farming, 
then in lumbering. He owned and operated a steam 
saw-mill, up to the breaking out of the war of the 
rebellion, employing a large number of hands in the 
woods and about the mill. 

In religion he is a Methodist. 

In politics, first an abolitionist, then free-soiler, 
then republican. At the commencement of the war 
he called his work hands together and told them the 
mill must stop, and that he should enlist, advising 
them all to do the same, which they did, to a man. 
At the first assembling of the ist Wisconsin Cavalry, 
at Ripon, he went into camp, enlisting and muster- 
ing in as a first-rate soldier, soon being promoted 
sergeant, then captain of Company L, which rank he 
held when the regiment left the State. Colonel 
Edward Daniels was colonel, and W. Torry the 
major of his battalion. The regiment was first 
sent to Benton Barracks, St. Louis, Missouri, then 
in May, 1862, to Cape Girardeau, Missouri. They 
shortly afterward pushed into the interior to Bloom- 
field and to the St. Frances river, then into Arkan- 
sas, bringing up at Helena so decimated by sickness 
and death that at one time there were but three 
officers and sixty men who were able to ride on a 
scout, Captain Harnden being one and in command. 
While in the dejiartment of Missouri and Arkansas 
Captain Harnden participated in quite a number of 
sharp engagements with the enemy. At one time, 
while on a scout with one hundred men, he came 
suddenly upon a party of about one hundred and 
thirty of the enemy. A charge was made and the 
enemy routed with great loss, the Wisconsin men 
not losing a man. The rebels were huddled about 
a well getting water at the time, and were not able 
to form before our men were upon them with the 
revolver and saber. A moment's hesitancy in mak- 
ing the charge, the result might have been different. 
In April, 1863, the regiment was transferred to the 
army of the Cumberland, General Rosecranz com- 



manding, and from that time to the close of the war 
they were identified with that army, and participated 
in all the battles and marches. Captain Harnden 
was promoted major in May 24, 1864, then in grades 
from third to first major, then lieutenant-colonel, all 
further promotion being prevented in the regular 
way by the colonel being in a rebel prison, but he 
was in command of the regiment up to the close of 
the war. His services were acknowledged by the 
bestowal, on the 15th of March, 1865, of commission 
of brevet-colonel and brigadier-general. General 
Harnden participated in upward of thirty actions, 
and was twice wounded in battle, and once severely 
injured by his horse falling upon him. His first 
wound was received while leading a cavalry charge 
near Dallas, Georgia, when serving under General 
W. T. Sherman, and was very severe, the right arm 
and shoulder being shattered by a pistol ball, not 
three feet distant when fired. This wound, received 
May 26, 1864, necessitated his removal to the hos- 
pital at Chattanooga, where several weary weeks 
were passed before he was able to be removed to 
the north. Recovering partially from his wound, 
he rejoined his regiment, and was present under 
Major-General Wilson in the pursuit of General 
Hood with his rebel horde, after their great defeat 
before Nashville. He was with General Wilson in 
his great raid into Alabama and Georgia, when Selma 
was captured, and Montgomery, Alabama, and Mont- 
gomery, Georgia. At the storming of Fort Tyler, 
at West Point, on the Chattahoochee river, Georgia, 
he led the party, which consisted of the 7th Ken- 
tucky, 2d Indiana and part of his own regiment, the 
I St Wisconsin, which captured the fort after a des- 
perate struggle on the parapet. In this fight he 
was wounded in the thigh by a rifle ball, which for 
the time disabled him. In this action the rebel 
General Tyler was killed. While at Macon, in May, 
1865, he was selected by General Wilson to take a 
detachment from the ist Wisconsin Cavalry, and 
cross the country toward Savannah and head off Jeff 
Davis, who was reported to be making his way south 
through South Carolina into Georgia. This duty 
was so well performed that it resulted in the capture 
of the rebel chief at a place, Irvingville, in the 
southern part of Georgia. At the capture of Davis 
an unfortunate affair happened, which was afterward 
the cause of some controversy between General 
Harnden and the lieutenant-colonel of a Michigan 
cavalry regiment, but was finally settled by Congress, 
after a full investigation, dividing the reward given 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARV. 



171 



for Davis equally between the two parties, and ex- 1 
onerating General Harnden from all blame in the ' 
collision of the two regiments, in which two men of 
the Michigan regiment were killed and several 
wounded, also the wounding of several of the Wis- 
consin men. The close of the war found him in 
command of a brigade of cavalry at Edgefield, 
Tennessee, where the regiment was mustered out of 
service. After his return to his home in Wisconsin 1 
he was immediately elected to the assembly from 
the third district of Jefferson county. In the legis- 
lature of 1866 he was chairman of military affairs. 
He was in the spring of 1867 appointed by Governor 
Fairchild one of the trustees of the Soldiers' Orphans' 
Home. The board consisted of Hon. C. C. Wash- 
burn, Hon. B. F. Hopkins, Senator N. M. Littlejohn, 
Senator W. I. Abrams, Colonel R. M. Strong and 
General Henry Harnden. This board appointed 
General Harnden financial agent to manage the 
financial affairs of the institution, which he did for 
one year, to their entire satisfaction, and then re- 



signed to take the United States assessorship of the 
second collection district of Wisconsin, Mrs. C. A. 
P. Harvey, widow of the lamented late Governor 
Harvey, being superintendent of the home at the 
time. The General was appointed United States 
collector of internal revenue May 20, 1873, which 
office he holds at the present time. 

He married in December, 1848, Mary A. Lightner, 
daughter of John Lightner, Esq., of Boston, by whom 
he has four daughters. His second daughter is mar- 
ried to Dr. I. H. Noble, of Madison. 

His forefathers were revolutionary soldiers; his 
grandfather was a lieutenant and his brother a cap- 
tain in the continental army. One of his uncles 
was wounded in the celebrated sea-fight between the 
man of war Hornet and the British ship Peacock. 
Two of his brothers and thirteen of his nephews 
were in the service of the United States, military 
and naval, in the war of the rebellion, being every 
one of the family except two brothers, whose ad- 
vanced age precluded them from the army. 



DAVID W. PERKINS. 



MIL WA UKEE. 



THE subject of this sketch is a self-made man. 
By native force and energy of character he 
has won his way to the position of eminence he 
now occupies among the professional men of the 
country. He stands among the growing minds that 
have been instrumental in developing the great in- 
dustries of the country that place America at the 
close of the century proudly eminent among the 
nations of the earth. He was the third of the seven 
sons of Zebulon W. Perkins. He was born in the 
city of Rome, Oneida county. New York, in 1816. 
His father, in intelligence and ability, ranked above 
the majority of men of his day, which were devoted 
to the interests of his family and his country. His 
home was the center of knowledge pertaining to the 
times for all the surrounding families. Unfortu- 
nately for the family, he was blind the last twelve 
years of his life, and bequeathed no legacy to his 
children. His mother's maiden name was Harriet 
Austin, a woman possessed of great native force 
of character, equal to the emergency of the trying 
times in which she lived, mastering the affairs of 
life, shedding peace, purity and happiness over her 
household from her lovely and amiable nature. 



The influence of his noble mother made its legiti- 
mate impression upon her son, impressing his soul 
with her great personal worth, which as a moulding 
force contributed largely^to the formation of his own 
useful and efficient character in after life, confirming 
the truth of the axiom, that the paternal qualities 
are transmitted to their children, through the phys- 
ical or moral economy of our nature. David's op- 
portunity for acquiring an education was very lim- 
ited, being simply what the district common school 
afforded in the town of his birth. With this humble 
fortune added to his hands and his brain, he was 
thrown ujion the world to force his way by intuition 
up the rugged steep of self-culture, mid the shifting 
scenes of life. Like a true pliilosopher he found that 
to conquer others he must first conquer self, and 
bring all the elements of the physical in subjection 
to the powers of his higher nature. This victory 
greatly accelerated the road to self-culture, to which 
he bent all the strong native energies of his soul in 
acquiring knowledge. He inherited from his gifted 
parents great vitality, and a commanding force of 
purpose. Realizing the fact that there is no royal 
road to knowledge, his maxim was, " Labor will 



172 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



conquer all things," and applied himself with an 
assiduity worthy of emulation. He was employed, at 
the age of ten years, by a land surveyor to bear the 
flag, which he accomplished under circumstances so 
difficult as to command the admiration of his em- 
ployer. The approbation thus conferred so fasci- 
nated him with the profession that he chose it as his 
for life. He soon mastered its elements and en- 
gaged, naked-handed, in the struggle with problems, 
theorems, and equations, stealing time due to sleep, 
refreshment and pleasure, triumphing in many a 
mental conflict despite the discouragements under 
which he labored. In this way he acquired, by 
using the mere intervals of time economized from 
the drudging school of daily toil, such practical 
knowledge of his profession as to secure from the 
State of New York an appointment in a corps of 
civil engineers at the age of twenty years. This 
position he held for four consecutive years, when 
the suspension of public works by the State buried 
the hopes of his early life beneath the smothering 
pall of disappointment. In June of the same year 
of the last mentioned event his office was consumed 
by fire, and the accumulations of his life reduced to 
ashes. Again thrown upon his indomitable will, 
his strong manhood had to brave the storm in a 
new struggle for success. No silver lining gilded 
the sable cloud, but his noble qualities of character 
shone the brighter in and bore him above the dis- 
aster. His past discipline had prepared him for the 
new ordeal. Our rise is often in our fall. Adversity 
is frequently the school which prepares us for a 
higher field of usefulness, and stations of a more 
elevated character. By the native elasticity of his 
unsubdued purpose he rebounded from the pressure 
of adverse circumstances, which turned the whole 
tide of his destiny. 

In May, 1840, Mr. Perkins commenced the study 
of medicine in his native county, alternating it with 
teaching school for his support. In these he con- 
tinued two years, when he found a friend in Dr. H. 
A. Post, a dentist, who volunteered to teach him the 
profession. The offer was gratefully accepted by 
young Perkins, who soon acquired such skill as to 
earn sufficient pecuniary means to attend lectures at 
the medical college at Albany, New York. 

In 1844 Dr. Post further befriended him by in- 
ducing him to take the office from which he was 
about retiring in Rome for his native place. New 
hopes by new prospects were infused into his manly 
bosom. The grand possibilities of life redoubled 



his native energy, which he thenceforth assiduously 
devoted to elevate himself and his profession. His 
large endowment of mechanical ability was taxed by 
his new calling ; and success at an early day placed 
him side by side with the leading men of his pro- 
fession in the State. His object was to excel, and 
his ambition was satisfied only when successfully 
performing operations of such complicated difficul- 
ties as to baffle the skill of older operators. In 1857 
his wife's health having become delicate, her brother, 
Dr. S. S. Fitch, of New York, advised a change of 
climate. For that purpose he came to Milwaukee, 
and after taking the advice of Drs. E. B. Woolcott 
and Blanchard of that city upon the probable bene- 
fits to be derived to his wife's health by the change, 
he determined to locate in that place. When he 
arrived with his family on the ist of October, 1857 
he at once took the front rank of his profession, 
and has maintained it not only, but now stands 
scarcely second to any operator in the entire coun- 
try. His reputation is the legitimate reward of un- 
tiring application, patient toil, together with those 
high moral qualities of character that win upon the 
confidence and affection of the community after 
years of acquaintance. Nothing but quality in his 
operations could have gained him the practice he 
has so long enjoyed amid the fierce competition of 
a great and growing city. 

In 1842 he became the subject of profound con- 
viction upon the subject of salvation, found peace in 
believing, and united with the Presbyterian church. 
His active nature found there new opportunities for 
usefulness, especially among the youth, with whom 
his genial nature will ever make him popular. His 
heart is a perpetual summer, and its sunshine sheds 
the life radiance and heat of Christian love upon 
youthful society to bring them under the influence 
of his refined manhood and Christian example. 
His talents, his money and his time have ever been 
devoted to the benefit of his race. In every depart- 
ment of human benevolence his activity is felt. 
Knowing the beautiful humanity of the redeemed 
of the world, and feeling the universal kindred of 
mankind, his sympathies extend to all grades of 
human society. Self-forgetful in the remembrance 
of others, his charity is prolific to whatever institu- 
tion has for its object the amelioration of the sorrows 
and the elevation of the condition of mankind. 

In politics Mr. Perkins is a republican ; casts his 
vote conscientiously for men and measures for the 
benefit of the State and nation. 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHIC M. DICTinXAin: 



^IZ 



In 1846 Dr. Perkins was happily allied in marriage 
to Miss Jane H. Fitch, of Sheldon, Vermont, a lady 
of broad culture, fine natural endowments, refined 
and amiable qualities of heart, with great sweetness 
of character. She discharges the duties of life in 
tlie relation of wife and mother with true nobility of 
purpose and high Christian example before her 
family and the world. Si.x children have been the 
fruit of their union, three sons and three daughters. 
'I'he youngest, a daughter, is not living. The others 
are beginning to make their mark in stations of use- 
fulness and lionor. It is particularly to be observed 
of this character that its central idea has been one 
of noble aims and purposes, faithful in every station 
of trust and duty, inspiring the confidence, respect 
and love of his fellow-men on equality with himself. 
The legacy of a good name, which the wise man says 
" is rather to be chosen than great riches," de- 



scends to those who will survive him, and " liis chil- 
dren and children's children will rise uj; and ( all 
him blessed." In texture and make up of character 
Dr. Perkins is a true type of a native American. 
With transparent frankness, shrewdness and inde- 
pendence combined, he despises any form of fawn- 
ing hypocrisy. The true and beautiful in nature 
and art have in him a warm and true friend. His 
home surroundings show him to be a man of varied 
culture and fine taste. His life is in the yellow 
leaf, ripe with practical knowledge on all subjects 
pertaining to the interests of society, with hopes of 
eternal life warming and tranquilizing his bosom as 
he lowers the declivity toward the final rest. We 
trust his useful life may yet be spared many years to 
bless and illumine society, and when his sun of life 
goes down it will set in a clear sky, the world having 
been made the better by the paths his feet have trod. 



SAMUEL C. WEST, 



MILWAUKEE. 



SAMUEL C. WEST, postmaster at Milwaukee, 
was born June 26, 1818, in Colebrook, Con- 
necticut, son of Hubbell and Sarah West, who re- 
moved to Elbridge, New York, when Samuel was 
nine years old. Here he received an ordinary dis- 
trict school and academic education, after which 
he entered a store as clerk. Remaining four 
years in this store, he so won the confidence of 
his employers by habits of industry, integrity and 
careful application to business, that they furnished 
him capital sufficient to start in trade for himself in 
the adjoining town of Port Byron. This venture, 
however, did not prove a financial success for Mr. 
West, but he has often been heard to declare that it 
was " the most fortunate move" of his life, as there 
he found his wife. After two years in Port Byron, 
where he was engaged in the lumber trade, he re- 
moved to Wisconsin in 1846, and settled in Mil- 
waukee, where he spent two years as bookkeeper in 
a hardware store. He then commenced the family 
grocery business, and was the first merchant in Mil- 
waukee to convey goods to the homes of purchasers 
with a delivery wagon — -trading a watch which cost 
him fifteen dollars for the first horse kept for that 
purpose, .\fter four years of successful grocery 
trade, he sold out in order to take the position of 
city clerk. When the United States Insurance Com- 



pany was organized, Mr. West was elected its secre- 
tary, and held the position two years ; then he bought 
the stock of books and stationery of Ford and P'air- 
banks, and continued six years in this business, hav- 
ing in the meantime taken in his brother, H. H. 
West, as partner, and subsequently selling out his 
own interest to S. S. Sherman. 

In religious views Mr. West is Presbyterian. His 
mother was in early life a Congregationalist, but 
while in Elbridge, New York, she united with the 
Presbyterian church. He was an elder in the first 
Presbyterian church of Milwaukee, and at the organ- 
ization of the Calvary church became one of its 
elders. 

Politically, he was a Jackson and Van Buren demo- 
crat when a young man; but after 1841, became an 
abolitionist, and so continued until the organization 
of the republican party, when he joined its ranks and 
has ever since been faithful to its interests. 

Mr. West's military career was brief. He was 
lieutenant in New York militia before removing to 
Wisconsin, and was a loyal supporter of the admin- 
istration during the rebellion Soon after coming to 
Milwaukee he was elected to the common council ; 
in 1868 he represented the fourth ward in the as- 
sembly of Wisconsin, and was at one time acting 
mayor of Milwaukee. In 1870 he was appointed 



74 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



postmaster by President Grant, and reappointed in 
1874. In discharging the duties of that office he 
has become popular with all parties. Under his able 
management, though with an inadequate force to 
assist him, the rapidly increasing business has been 
transacted with remarkable promptness and dispatch. 
In 1874 it became apparent that the facilities of the 
post-office must be enlarged, and an appropriation 
of thirty-eight thousand dollars was made for the 
purpose. Accordingly in the summer of that year, 
Mr. West secured the basement of the old First 
Presbyterian Church for a temporary post-office, 



where he remained until January 31, 1S75, when it 
was again removed to its present enlarged and ele- 
gant quarters in the Custom-house. During this 
period Mr. West's signal ability was displayed in 
serving the public and forwarding mails with the 
same unfailing promptness and regularity which had 
distinguished his administration in more convenient 
quarters. 

Mr. West was married October 27, TS41, to Miss 
Almira L. Kent, of Cayuga county, New York, by 
whom he has three children now living, two sons 
and one daughter. 



MASSENA B. ERSKINE, 

RACINE. 



MASSENA B. ERSKINE was born in Royal- 
ston, Worcester county, Massachusetts, De- 
cember 19, i8ig. His parents were Walter and 
Margaret Erskine. Walter Erskine, his father, died 
when quite young, leaving his family in straitened 
circumstances. Massena, then a mere lad, was left 
to assume responsibilities and care heavy to be 
borne, even by those older than he. He had but 
little time for school, his energies and labor were 
required for the sterner necessities of work to help 
to support a widowed mother. Educational advan- 
tages were thus early denied him, except that of 
the common school of New England. 

Being apprenticed, by his mother, to learn the 
shoe-making trade, and before he had finished it, 
the business became so dull that he was thrown out 
of employment, and obliged to seek another calling. 
Fortunately it was so, for it enabled him to choose 
a trade more suited to his taste and ambition, — that 
of mechanics, of which he was very fond. He 
apprenticed himself at Westford, Massachusetts, to 
a carpenter and builder, and worked at it till 1847, 
when he commenced business at Westford, in com- 
pany with another gentleman, as manufacturer of 
wood working machinery ; remaining there till the 
spring of 1849, when the excitement attending the 
discovery of gold on the Pacific coast induced him 
to seek his fortune in that direction. 

Arriving at San P'rancisco, then a small village, 
he obtained work in a ship-yard, of which he 
fvas soon made superintendent, having charge of 
building, alterations, and repairing steamboats to be 
placed, and running on the Sacramento and San 



Joaquin rivers. His mechanical skill was here put 
to its first severe test. Parties who had been en- 
gaged to construct and place in running order those 
famed boats of California's early history, the Gold 
Hunter, New World and West Point, had failed to 
complete the work, when the managers called Mr. 
Erskine to their assistance, who carried the work to 
successful completion. Leaving California, Decem- 
ber, 1850, he returned to his home in Natick, Massa- 
chusetts, where he remained till June, 1852. 

The great West was at this time claiming the 
attention of the eastern States and attracting many, 
among them Mr. Erskine, who sought a home in 
Racine, Wisconsin, where he found Jerome I. Case 
engaged in manufacturing threshing machines. Ask- 
ing for employment he obtained it in the shops, 
where his ability and skill soon became apparent to 
the proprietor, and in a few months Mr. Erskine 
was given the entire charge of the mechanical and 
machinery department of the works; a position, as 
employe and now as proprietor, he has never ceased 
to occupy. In 1863 the firm of J. I. Case and Co. 
was formed, Mr. Erskine purchasing a one-fourth 
interest. The success of this establishment has 
gained for it a world-wide fame, and has become 
celebrated as the largest threshing machine manu- 
factory in the world. 

Mr. Erskine is a gentleman who has won the 
universal esteem of all who know him. In no sense 
is he a politician, yet he has been called to fill many 
important local offices; school commissioner and 
supervisor of the city, elected mayor of Racine in 
1869, and reelected in 1870 and 1871; he is also 




A^^^^ 



^^^'^-T-'L^ 



THE UNITED STATES B/OGRAPHfCAL DICTIONAliV. 



'75 



one of the directors of the Taylor Orphan Asylum, 
of Racine, one of the noblest charities of the West. 
A man of broad and liberal views, public-spirited 
and charitable, liis support is felt in many of the 
leading enterprises of the city, while his benevolence 
is making many a heart glad. 

Mr. P>skine was married at VVestford, Massachu- 



setts, April 7, 1 84 1, to Miss 
whose amiable disposition, be 
tic virtue has won for her the 
whose pleasure it is to know h 



Susan Perry, a lad\ 
levolence and doineS' 
sincere esteem of al 
;r. 'I'hev have threi 



children — two daughters, Emma and Flora A., and 
Charles E. Erskine, who for several years filled the 
position of cashier at J. I. Case and Co.'s oftice. 



WILLIAM BECK, 



MILWAUKEE. 



WILLIAM BECK, son of John S. and Louise 
Beck, was born on the i6th of April, 1823, 
at Stuttgard, Wiirtemberg, Germany. His father im- 
migrated to the city of New York in 1828, and located 
near the city and engaged in the business of garden- 
ing, including that of florist, and continued it for 
sixteen years. In 1844 he moved to Wisconsin and 
purchased a farm within five miles of the city of 
Milwaukee. William worked on the farm until the 
spring of 1847, when he returned to the city of New- 
York, where he had previously received his educa- 
tion. At the close of the Mexican war he went to 
Vera Cruz ; thence to the city of Mexico, thence to 
the Pacific coast at Mazatlan, where he and a party 
of thirty-two others bought a small vessel for the 
purpose of going to California. They were wrecked 
at Cape St. Lucas. Finding themselves destitute of 
any mode of conveyance and of the means of sub- 
sistence, Mr. Beck and three others started on foot, 
following the beach, and relying for food on the fish 
that were chased ashore from the sea by the sharks. 
After traveling two hundred miles in this manner 
they found a vessel at anchor, and all hands digging 
in the sands for water. After telling the tale of their 
disaster the captain took them on board and in due 
time landed them on the plat of ground on which 
the city of San Francisco now stands. \Miile in 
California Mr. Beck purchased a surf boat to carry 
freight and passengers between Sacramento and 
Marysville. Having earned about four thousand 
dollars in this occupation he loaded his boat on his 
own account, and in consequence of striking a snag 
lost boat and all that he had accumulated, leaving 
him in debt. He and eight others determined to 
explore the country about the headwaters of the 
Sacramento and Trinity rivers. After traveling about 
forty miles during a very warm day they pitched 
their camp for the night. While lying on the grass 1 



Mr. Beck received an arrow in the right knee, which 
was the first intimation of the presence of a party of 
hostile Indians. Rising quickly he received another 
on the left side of his head, which being delivered 
at short range, stunned him, and when he revived he 
found himself and one of his companions tied hand 
and foot, five others lying dead, the other two of the 
nine escaping. After traveling four days with these 
Indians they were overtaken by twenty-eight miners 
who had been collected by the two of the party 
escaping, and who after a short fight with the Indians 
nearly exterminated the band. After his escape he 
returned to San Francisco; from thence he went to 
Honolulu, Sandwich Islands, thence to Otaheite, 
Society Islands, thence back to San Francisco ; 
thence to Acapuico in Mexico, and San Juan Del 
Sur in Nicaragua; then to Lima in Peru, and Val- 
paraiso in Chili ; then back to Panama, across the 
Isthmus to Havana; then to the city of New York. 
In December, 1850, he returned to Milwaukee. In 
1851 he married the daughter of Joseph R. Thomas, 
and the same fall was elected a member of the legis- 
lative assembly. In 1852 he was appointed deputy 
sheriff to do criminal business, and in 1855 he organ- 
ized the present police force of the city of Milwaukee, 
which with the exception of a few months during tem- 
porary resignation, has continued ever since under 
his control as its chief, and partaking of his spirit 
and emulating his example, has attained a degree of 
effectiveness without a parallel in the United States. 
In December, 1856, while hunting deer, one of his 
companions shot an ounce ball accidentally through 
his neck, entering the back part and coming out 
through the cheek. In August, 1864, he was shot 
again through the ankle, and again in 1S72 while 
disarming a drunken man he was shot in the abdo- 



men. 
Mr 



Beck is one of the most remarkable men of 



176 



THE UNITED STATES BIOdRAPHICAL DICTIONAin: 



the time. Nature gave him a well developed phy- 
sique, sinewy, active, and capable of extraordinary 
endurance. She gave him also a subtle intellect, 
enabling him to comprehend as well the motives of 
others as his own relations to surrounding objects. 
She gave him a calmness which no unexpected 
emergencies could agitate and a courage that would 
not quail under any impending dangers. He has 
encountered difficulties so great, braved dangers so 
hazardous and made escapes so wonderful, that the 
mere narrative would seem more like fiction than 
reality, and verify the remark that " truth is stranger 
than fiction." 

In connection with these heroic qualities Mr. Beck 



has a heart alive to every generous emotion, and a 
feeling of sympathy for all human suffering. These 
qualities of head and heart, however honorable to 
human nature, are subordinate to that unwavering 
sense of duty and that incorruptible integrity which 
are his distinguishing characteristics. 

We cannot conclude this sketch without adding 
that while Mr. Beck has uniformly discharged the 
arduous and sometimes delicate and difficult duties 
of his office fearlessly and with great impartiality, he 
has at all times enjoyed the confidence and respect 
of the entire communit)', and counted among his 
warm personal friends many of the most distinguished 
citizens of Milwaukee. 



NELSON VANKIRK, 



MIL WA UKEE. 



NEI.SON VANKIRK, beef and pork packer, 
was born December ii, 1826, in Murray, 
Orleans county. New. York, son of Oliver and Jane 
Vankirk. His father was a well-to-do farmer, of 
steady and industrious habits. He encountered 
many difficulties and privations in early life, which 
taught him self-reliance and self-government, and in 
after life he was rigid in the government of others. 
At the age of eighteen, having been but a few 
months at school, he learned the trade of carpenter 
and joiner, a branch of which was that of building 
stills, which during the war of 1812 was very profit- 
able. He was a man of strictly temperate habits, 
and to protect his children against the evil influence 
of the social habits of his day, he kept them at home 
and employed. 

To this careful and watcliful training in early 
youth the subject of this sketch attributes those 
habits of sobriety, industry and economy which 
have followed him through life, and to which he 
owes his great success and prosperity in business. ; 
Unlike his father, Mr. Vankirk conceived an early ' 
abhorrence of a farmer's life, but possessing much 1 
mechanical ingenuity he would, by the use of his I 
father's tools, during the vacation and leisure hours ! 
allotted him after the daily tasks were completed, '■ 
pick up considerable practical knowledge in car- 1 
pentry and joining. He acquired his education in ' 
the common schools of his native town, together 
with three months' attendance at an academy. 'I'his 
alternate study and work, together with his self- 



apprenticeship at his father's bench, occupied his 
time until he was twenty years of age, when he 
determined to shake hands with fortune, and thence- 
forth shape his own course. In the spring of 1847 
he came to Milwaukee, where he found no difficulty 
in engaging with a millwright as journeyman, which 
occupation he followed about seven years. He at 
first received but a dollar and a quarter per day. 
The first job on which he was employed was in 
tlenesee, Waukesha county. Here his self-training, 
judgment and practical skill were quickly recognized 
by his employer, and secured for him on his second 
job the position of foreman. Finding that by close 
and unremitting application to his trade he was 
likely to lose somewhat the faculty for transacting 
general business, being averse to routine work and 
desirous of a broader field than this promised, he 
concluded to change his occupation, and invested 
what he had saved from his wages in a flouring mill 
at Lowell, Wisconsin, which was run successfully for 
two years, when it was burned to the ground. By 
this calamity he lost nearly all the hard-earned sav- 
ings of years .of toil and sacrifice. He, however, had 
been schooled to meet adversity, and hence would 
not allow a single misfortune, great as it was, to 
crush him. Without means, what could he do? He 
could not make up his mind to return to his original 
trade as millwright, so going to Milwaukee again he 
soon contracted with H. C. Bull and J. McVicker to 
sell lumber for them at Janesville. He remained in 
their employ about nine months, when, seeing an 




', /^aWp^U/6 



THE UX/TED STA'J'ES lUOCRAFII ICAI. niCTIONART. 



177 



opening by wliich he believed lie could greatly im- 
prove his fortunes, and being quick to seize oppor- 
tunities, he resigned his position, refusing flattering 
inducements to continue, and proceeded to Madison 
to engage in the produce business. With a capital 
not exceeding two thousand dollars he commenced 
buying and shipping wheat, and as he had foreseen, 
met with immediate success. In two years he sold 
out, left Madison, went to Beaver Dam, to which 
point the old Milwaukee and St. Paul railway was 
then running, where he rented first the warehouse 
built in that town; he then built warehouses at dif- 
ferent points as the road was extended, eight in all, 
and occupied them as shipper of wheat for the space 
of two years. His receipts becoming extensive, he 
then concluded to remove to Milwaukee and sell his 
own wheat, where in i860 he went into the general 
commission business, with P. McGeoch as partner, 
which he continued with increasing prosperity until 
1872, gradually selling his warehouses. In 1867, the 
Roddis pork-packing house being offered at a bar- 
gain, and considering the firm competent, they added 
beef-packing to their business. In 1872 they dis- 
posed of their commission business, since which time 
packing has been made a specialty. Mr. Vankirk 
was generally successful in all his business transac- 
tions in warehousing, shipping, buying and selling 
wheat, and latterly in his extensive pork-packing 
business. Few could hope to meet with greater 
prosperity in so short a time and without a special 
training for the business, which, in reality, he drifted 
into. Always a careful buyer, with a far-sightedness 
that enabled him to act promptly and at just the 
right moment, prosperity seemed to follow as a mat- 
ter of course. Prompt in meeting all obligations, 
and maintaining a reputation for strict integrity in 
all business transactions, he has risen to an enviable 
position in the confidence of business houses gener- 



1 ally, both at home and abroad. In 1872, to accom- 
I modate a rapidly accumulating trade, a large packing 
j house was built on what is termed the "marsh," 
i southwest of the city, which, together with the site, 
I cost over one hundred thousand dollars. The first 
year's business, which continues but a brief season, 
was the cutting and packing of twenty thousand 
hogs. The present year (1874-5) will have reached 
seventy thousand hogs. The direct capital now 
employed is upward of five hundred thousand dol- 
lars, but the average amount required for their daily 
business is upward of twenty thousand dollars. The 
capacity of their packing house is the slaughtering 
and cutting up of more than twenty-five hundred 
hogs per day. They run at the present time an 
I average of about two thousand. They employ about 
one hundred and forty hands, at an expense of over 
two hundred and fifty dollars per day. They have 
for several years made large shipments to the Liver- 
pool market, where their provisions are popular and 
in good demand. They are among the largest ship- 
pers of pork, etc., to Europe, in the West. 

Mr. Vankirk's religious views are based upon the 
golden rule : " Do unto others as you would that 
others should do unto you." 

In politics, he was originally a whig, and later a 
republican. He has always possessed large public 
spirit and interested in the public weal. In Mil- 
waukee, in 187 1, he was elected alderman, and was 
honored with the position of chairman of the board. 
He is at the present time president of the Chamber 
of Commerce, and has often filled important posi- 
tions in minor offices and committees of the Cham- 
ber of Commerce. He is a director of the North- 
western National Fire Insurance Company. 

He was married, June 9, 1853, to Miss Harriet E. 
Richardson, of Lowell, Dodge county, Wisconsin, 
by whom he has one son and two daughters. 



H. SCOTT SLOAN, 



HEAVER DAM. 



H SCOTT SLOAN was born at Morrisville, 
. Madison county, New York, on the 12th of 
June, 1820. His father, Andrew S. Sloan, was a 
law)er; his mother was Mehetabel Conkey. He 
had common school and academic education, and 
on leaving school he commenced studying law with 
A. L. Foster, who represented the Madison and 



Onondaga district in Congress in 1838. He studied 
a year with J. Whipple Jenkins, of Verdon, New 
York; was admitted to practice in 1842, and prac- 
ticed at De Reuyter, New York, from 1844 to 1847, 
and from 1850 to 1854. 

He moved to Wisconsin in 1854, and settled at 
Beaver Dam, and has resided there ever since. He 



178 



THE UNITED STATES BIOORAPIIICAL DICTIONARY. 



has always practiced law, except when prevented by 
official duties. 

He is not a professor of religion, but a firm 
believer in the essential doctrines of Christianity. 
His mother was a Presbyterian and he attends that 
church regularly. 

Was married January, 1841, at Cazenovia, New 
York, to Angeline M. Dodge, daughter of Rev. 
John R. Dodge, a Presbyterian clergyman. They 
have six living children. His only brother living is 
J. C. Sloan, distinguished at the bar for his legal 
learning and logical power, and in the councils of 
the nation for his ability as a statesman. There is 
a remarkable coincidence in the lives and characters 
of the two brothers ; "/a/- nobile fratrum." 

He was a Henry Clay whig, and republican from 
the organization of the party to 1872, when he sup- 
ported Greeley. He is now a liberal. He was 
county clerk of Madison county, New York, from 
1847 to 1849 inclusive; was a member of the as- 
sembly of Wisconsin in 1857 ; was mayor of Beaver 
Dam in 1858; was circuit judge from September, 
1858, to June, 1859; was a member of congress 
from 1861 to 1863; was clerk of the United States 
district court from 1864 to 1866; was county judge 
of Dodge county from 1868 to January i, 1874; and 



was attorney-general from 1874 to the present time. 
The duties of the office of attorney-general dur- 
ing a portion of the term which Mr. Sloan has 
already served have been unusually arduous and 
laborious. After the passage of the act relating to 
railroads, known as the " Potter law," the railroad 
companies employed Messrs. B. R. Curtis, Evarts, 
and Hoar, among the most eminent lawyers of the 
country, who in their opinions, elaborately written, 
pronounced the law unconstitutional and void. 
The attorney-general on the other hand, in a very 
learned and able opinion, held that the law was 
constitutional and a legitimate exercise of legislative 
power. Subsequently cases involving the constitu- 
tionality of this law were discussed in the United 
States circuit court and in the supreme court of the 
State, and the positions taken by the attorney-general 
were fully sustained, and his course of reasoning 
vindicated. Mr. Sloan has held a variety of public 
offices, the duties of which he has discharged with 
ability, integrity and honor. While preserving his 
own self-respect he commands the respect of others. 
In all of his social and domestic relations he is 
genial, conciliatory and scrupulously honest. If 
all men resembled him, judges would issue no de- 
crees and law vers obtain no fees. 



LUKE STOUGHTON, 



STOl'GHTON. 



LUKE STOUGHTON, son of Thomas Stough- 
-y ton, was born in a sturdy New England family, 
in the town of Weathersfield, Vermont, on the loth 
of December, 1799. While he was still a child 
his father removed to Westfield, in the northern part 
of the State, then an almost unbroken wilderness. 
Here, of course, his opportunities for acqiiiring an 
education were extremely limited ; but he was trained 
to habits of strictest industry, economy and integ- 
rity. He learned a mechanical trade and followed 
it for a number of years, spending a part of his time 
in Boston, Massachusetts, and Mobile, Alabama. 

Returning to his native State he married Miss 
Eliza Page. In 1837 he visited Wisconsin. In 
1838 he removed his family to Janesville, Wiscon- 
sin. He entered the mercantile business, built the 
American House, and otherwise aided in promoting 
the growth of the young town. Here he resided 
for twelve years, and accumulated a handsome 



property. In 1847 he purchased of Daniel Webster 
a large tract of land in the county of Dane, upon 
which the village of Stoughton is now located. 
Although in feeble health he soon bent all his ener- 
gies to improving the water-power, and building up 
a large village. He induced a number of his old 
friends to settle around him, started several kinds of 
business and influenced the railroad company to 
run the Milwaukee and Prairie du Chien road 
through the place. Stoughton is beautifully sit- 
uated upon the banks of the Catfish river, and in 
appearance resembles a New England town. It 
has grown into a thriving village, and is now the 
busy center of trade for a large extent of country, 
and contains several large manufacturing establish- 
ments. 

Mr. Stoughton was a man of strong practical 
sense, sound judgment, a trusted friend and wise 
counselor. Modest, retiring and deferential to 




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179 



Others, he has never sought any public position, but 
has held the high esteem of all who knew him. He 
loved truth for truth's sake, and was uncompromis- 
ing in his regard for justice. 

His religious views were liberal. He read exten- 
sively and possessed a large fund of general infor- 
mation. His manner was characterized by a quiet 
but manly dignity. At his home he was hospitable 
in the highest degree, genial in spirit, discussed 
freely and intelligently the public topics of the day, 
in regard to which he was stable and conscientious 
in his opinions. In his domestic relations he was 
distinguished for kindness and tenderness. His 



many years of feeble, failing healtli, a great trial to 
one of his active temperament, was borne uncom- 
plainingly. 

He died on the isth of August, 1874. The 
Masonic order, of which he was a member, took 
charge of the body on the occasion of his funeral, 
and at the grave read their beautiful and impressive 
ceremony. 

Few men have lived more resjjccted or died more 
regretted by those who knew him, than Mr. Stough- 
ton. And these considerations should afford consol- 
atory reflections to his family, who have been left to 
mourn his loss. 



LUCIUS J. BLAKE, 

IfACINE. 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of Burling- 
ton, Vermont, was born on the 14th of March, 
1 8 16, and is the son of Captain Levi Blake and 
Mary nee Sandford. His paternal ancestry is o£. 
Irish origin, and was first represented in 7\merica by 
Theophilus Blake, who left the " ould sod " and 
settled in New Hampshire about the year 17 10. 
Whether driven by fate Theophilus left the Emerald 
shores, actuated by the same spirit which prompted 
those other members of the family w-hom Moore 
thus addresses, 

" Vo Blakes and O'Donnells whose fathers resigned 
The green hills of their youth among strangers to find 
Tliat repose which at home they had sighed for in vain," 

or whether for the good of his country, does not 
now appear. He evidently possessed a desire for 
adventure, a characteristic prominent in some of his 
descendants, and which he doubtless inherited from 
the originator of the name, one Launcelot Ass Lake, 
i.e. Son of the Lake (since corrupted into Blake). 
Sir Thomas Malory in his collection of stories pub- 
lished in 1845, says of this Launcelot, that he was 
one of those wandering knights whom tradition 
makes to grace " King Arthur's Round Table," and 
that following his liege lord in a victorious campaign 
into Ireland; and that for his valor and as an em- 
blem of royal favor, he was vested with an estate 
from the concjuered lands, and lived upon it to be- 
come the founder of the distinguished family of 
Blakes, of County Galway, Ireland, containing 
two titles of nobility, lord and baronet ; the lords 
known by the name of Walscourt. This restless 



spirit of Launcelot took some of his descendants 
back to England, and from them sprang the younger 
branches of the family, made famous by Admiral 
Robert Blake, who secured to England much of her 
naval supremacy. Again, we find it cropping out in 
Levi, the father of our subject, who early in 1817 
left his home in Vermont and settled in Erie county, 
New York. During the eleven years that he remained 
here, I,ucius attended the district schools, and was 
at one time under the tuition of Millard Fillmore, 
afterward President of the United States. His father 
next removed to Crawford county, Pennsylvania, 
where the family remained seven years, engaged in 
farming. But the country becoming too old for the 
father, he, in 1834, took two of his sons, Lucius 
and Sandford, and went to Chicago, Illinois, then 
consisting of Fort Dearborn and a small village. 
Here with his sons he engaged as contractor and 
builder, and assisted in erecting many buildings, 
some of which long remained as vestiges of old 
Chicago. Returning in the fall, he brought his 
family as far as Cass county, Michigan ; and leaving 
them took three sons, and again started westward, 
arriving in Chicago on the loth of February, 1835. 
There providing themselves with supplies and blan- 
kets, started northward. After a perilous and tedious 
journey of several days, exposed to snows and bitter 
cold, they, on the 15th of February, made a claim 
six miles northwest of the present site of Racine, 
and built a shanty without a window in it. Return- 
ing to Michigan they soon brought the family to 
Chicago, and during the next two years Lucius and 



[8o 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



a younger brother lived alone on their claim, break- 
ing and fencing. Captain Blake's capacious log 
house, built in 1837, was a land-mark in the coun- 
try, and the hospitality of its proprietor gave to it 
the appropriate name of "Our House." 

Lucius contracted to remain on his father's farm 
after attaining his majority, for a compensation of 
twenty-five dollars per month, and at the expiration 
of that time engaged himself as a carpenter and 
joiner to General Bullen and Samuel Hale, of Keno- 
sha (then Southport), receiving a compensation of 
one dollar and fifty cents per day in "store pay." 
He was afterward engaged at Racine in the employ 
of Mr. Charles S. Wright. At the age of twenty-three 
years he began contracting and building on his own 
account, and soon had a small force of men in his 
employ, one of whom, Charles S. Bunce, has re- 
mained with him during a period of thiry-five years, 
and is now at the head of his manufacturing estab- 
lishment. In 1843, having accumulated a small 
capital, Mr. Blake began the manufacture of farming 
implements, making fanning mills a specialty. Be- 
ginning on a scale proportionate to his capital and 
the demands of the farming community, he has 
added to his business year by year, until from his 
establishment, now the largest in the world in this 
specialty, shipments are made to Vermont on the 
east and California and Oregon on the west : and 
1875 witnessed the establishment of an agency in 
Pesth, Hungary, the center of wheat-growing coun- 
tries of central Europe. One great secret of Mr. 
Blake's success has been his continuity: while every 
member of his father's has family gone further west, 
he has remained steadily employed in the place of 
his early adoption, and has seen it grow from the 
wild woods into a thriving city. As his means have 



increased he has sought opportunities for invest- 
ment, associating with himself partners of ability and 
integrity. Aside from his manufacture of agricul- 
tural implements, he is at the head of the largest 
woolen mill in the West, which has gained a wide 
reputation for its manufacture of shawls. He has 
dealt extensively in real estate, and is now one of 
the largest property-holders in Racine, owning sev- 
eral public buildings, manufactories and numerous 
dwellings. 

His political sentiments are republican, and he 
was a delegate to the convention that nominated 
General Grant for the second term. In all his active 
business career he has shown public-spiritedness, 
and has done as much as any other man to make 
his city what it is to-day. He was one of the first 
trustees under the village government, and succeeded 
his father as treasurer of Racine county. During 
1863 and 1864 he served as poormaster of his county, 
and has been city councilman for several terms, and 
is now president of the council and chairman of the 
finance committee. In 1870 he represented his city 
in the State legislature, and secured the passage of 
several important bills. He is not, however, ambi- 
tious for political honors, but is willing to occupy a 
position when by so doing he can work for the 
public good. He is satisfied to enjoy the prosperity 
with which kind Providence and his own toil and 
honorable dealing have blessed him, and grateful 
for the assurance that his labors have resulted in 
good to others as well as profit to himself. 

Mr. Blake was married on the 26th of December, 
1843, to Miss Caroline Elliott, a young lady of Eng- 
lish descent, and daughter of William Elliott, of 
England. Their union has been blessed with five 
children, of whom three are now living. 



HON. WILLIAM HENRY WOLF, 



MILWAUKEE. 



THERE is a famous speech recorded of an old 
Norseman, thoroughly characteristic of the 
Teuton : " I believe neither in idols nor demons," 
said he, " but I put my sole trust in my own strength 
of body and soul." The ancient crest with the 
motto of " I will find a way or make one," was an 
expression of the same sturdy independence and 
practical materialism which to this day distinguishes 
the descendants of the Northmen. 'I'hese two (|uo- 



tations are peculiarly adapted to the career of the 
subject of our biography. 

He was born on the 7th of .\ugust, 1828, at AVen- 
delsheim, in Germany, about twenty-one miles from 
Mainz on the Rhine. His parents, John and Char- 
lotte Blumenfeldt Wolf, immigrated to the city of 
New York in 1836, where they remained about three 
years and then settled on a farm in Sullivan county 
in the State of New York. 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIOXARV. 



I8l 



After about a year of farm life Henry (as he was 
called in those days), who was tired of the monotony, 
determined thus early to strike out and seek his own 
fortune in the world. He had received very little 
schooling up to this time, simply a few months at 
the common school, yet he bravely set forth alone 
on foot with but a dollar in his pocket. He walked 
sixty miles to Newbury and there took passage to 
New York city, and arrived with a few pence in his 
pocket. He got employment with a butcher named 
Thompson, with whom he remained a year, but at 
the end of that time, as he did not like the business, 
he engaged to work at a coffee-house opposite the 
old Washington market, where he stayed si.\ months. 
From thence he went to Roper's hotel, on the New- 
burg turnpike, Sullivan county, as man of all work, 
for si-x dollars per month. He worked almost night 
and day on the farm, hauling wood and stone, and 
tending bar. He slept in the bar-room to be able 
to attend on the passengers by the night coach. Hard 
work and small pay, but the boy did not complain ; 
he waited his opportunity and went to work driving 
team for the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company, 
for which he received thirteen dollars per month. 
Wolf was by this time nearly seventeen years of age, 
and the company having need of a captain on a 
scow used for carrying stone, appointed him to that 
position and as "boss" over fifteen men. For this 
work he received eighty-five cents per day. He 
then went to work in the carpenters' shop of the 
company getting out material for canal locks and 
building coal barges, where he partially learned the 
trade which he clung to in after-life. He also spent 
about a year at Port Jervis, and about the same 
length of time at Honesdale, Pennsylvania. 

In 1849 he drifted into the tide of immigration 
then setting strongly westward ; reached Milwaukee 
in June, and got employment at once with Mr. Bar- 
ker, a builder at Waukesha. In the fall he went to 
Portage and bought some land near that place, and 
then got work chopping cord-wood at fifty cents per 
cord. In the spring of 1850 he, with five others, 
started for Stevens Point, en route for the pineries. 
They went by team to Grand Rapids, and traveled 
the rest of the distance on foot. On settling the 
fare at Grand Rapids they made Wolf, who was the 
recognized leader of the party, treasurer of the small 
amount they had left. When Stevens Point was 
reached it was found with dismay that one dollar 
and seventy-five cents was the total amount they 
had to board and lodge six men for two days. Then 

•!4 



the ready wit of A\'olf stood his companions in good 
stead. He desired them to leave the settlement to 
him ; so they very willingly went to the tavern and 
were comfortably housed and fed until Monday 
morning, when Wolf called for the bill, which was 
duly handed to him. 

" Landlord," he said, "these five men arc out of 
money, so you will have to wait until they return 
for their settlement," and at the same time he placed 
the amount of his share on the table. 

The proprietor of the tavern stared in astonish- 
ment at the coolness of this jjroposition, seeing 
which Wolf added, with all the assurance of an old 
friend : 

" You need not be afraid of not being paid ; if 
they don't pay you I will." 

"But who the devil are you V queried the host; 
to which Sir Impudence replied : " If you doubt 
my honesty I will bring five men who will vouch for 
me." 

The landlord saw how the case stood, and after 
laughing long and heartily at the talent for financing 
displayed by Wolf, agreed to accept his offer of 
taking the responsibility of the debt. We need 
hardly add that the amount was honorably repaid in 
a few weeks. 

Such is one of the many instances of tact and 
shrewdness which was brought out by necessity 
from the depths of Mr. Wolf's brain. In the logging 
camp and on the raft, as well as in other places, he 
still determined to be "first man," and by his cour- 
age and skillfulness he was always looked up to as 
such. At the peril of his life he saved a pilot 
named Mead from drowning in the rapids just below 
the city of Grand Rapids. The oar caught a whirl- 
pool and flung the pilot several feet clear of the 
raft. 

After about two months' experience in the pineries 
he proceeded to Buffalo, New York, and obtained 
employment in a ship-yard. He then made oppor- 
tunity to attend evening school, and improved his 
education in every manner that he could. In June, 
1853, he came to Milwaukee and engaged as fore- 
man in Mr. J. M. Jones' ship-yard, and remained 
with him in that capacity until 1857, when Mr. Jones 
failed in business. With a gentleman named Theo- 
dore Lawrence as a partner, Mr. Wolf started busi- 
ness on the site where he is now chief partner in 
the firm. In 1863 his firm sold out to Ellsworth 
and Davidson, and he went to Fort Howard where 
he carried on the business of ship-builder and luiiv 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



berman for four years, during which time he built 
some very fine steamers and sailing vessels, among 
which may be mentioned the side-wheel steamer 
George L. Dunlap, twin-screw propeller Favorite, 
bark Lottie Wolf (named after his eldest daughter), 
and schooners Minnie Slauson and Winnie Wing. 

In the spring of 1868 he returned to Milwaukee 
and bought the interest of Mr. Ellsworth and be- 
came a partner with Davidson, under the style of 
Wolf and Davidson, where by close attention to 
detail they have succeeded in making the firm the 
best and most favorably known ship-building yard 
in the Northwest. Their business has increased 
rapidly, and as they possess all modern improve- 
ments in machinery, such as steam-derrick, chain 
factory, saw and planing-mills, floating and station- 
ary docks, they have the most complete yard in their 
part of the country. 

There is one thing which should be here men- 
tioned, namely, the laying down or draughting 
vessels without having a model to work from, which 
is ' seldom, if ever, done. This Mr. Wolf has done 



on several occasions. Among the vessels built in 
this manner is the schooner Saveland, a very fine 
looking vessel carrying forty-four thousand bushels 
of wheat. She is a fleet sailer, and has a tonnage of 
a little over six hundred tons, C.H.N.M.; also the 
tugs Welcome and McGordon, two very fleet and 
handsome tugs used for wrecking purposes, whose 
career will speak for themselves. 

Politically Mr. Wolf was a democrat until the 
nomination of Fremont for the presidency, since 
which time he has been a staunch republican, except 
in local matters. 

On the 26th of September, 1852, he was married 
to Miss Mary A. Ganthie, by whom he has three 
daughters and one son. His wife has been indeed 
a helpmate to Mr. Wolf in his manifold undertakings, 
and in his own words he thanks her for his success 
therein. 

While at Fort Howard he was a member of the 
common council for two years, and he has also 
held honorable positions in Milwaukee as council- 
man and alderman. 



HON. PETER DOYLE, 



WISCONSIN. 



PETER DOYLE, secretary of state of the State 
of Wisconsin, was born at Myshall, county of 
Carlow, Ireland, December 8, 1844. When he 
was six years old his parents came to the State 
of Wisconsin and settled at Franklin, Milwaukee 
county, his father engaging at first in farming and 
afterward in mercantile pursuits. He also held 
several local offices. Mr. Doyle's first lessons were 
received at home ; there, and at the common school 
in Franklin, he acquired a knowledge of the ordi- 
nary English branches. Subsequently he pursued 
a collegiate course. He spent a short time in the 
office of the clerk of the United States district court 
in Milwaukee, and in 1863 entered the law office 
of Butler and Cottrill in that city, intending to make 
law his profession. Having spent about two years 
in the study of law, he taught school for a short 
time in Milwaukee, and then, having been offered 
an acceptable position in a railway office at Prairie 
du Chien, removed to that place in July, 1865, with 
the intention of remaining there for awhile and 
then resuming legal studies. Business arrangements 
at Prairie du Chien, however, proving satisfactory. 



he continued there until his election as secretary 
of state, in 1873. In the spring of 1872 he was 
nominated by the democratic city convention as 
first mayor of the city of Prairie du Chien, but de- 
clined to accept, not desiring to enter political life. 
In the fall of the same year he was elected to the 
assembly from Crawford county, and in the legisla- 
ture of 1873 took an active part in the discussion of 
many of the important measures of the session. In 
September of the same year he was nominated for 
the position of secretary of state by the reform 
convention held in Milwaukee, and was elected at 
the ensuing election. In November, 1875, he was 
reelected. 

The " Milwaukee News," one of the leading 
papers of the State, in referring to his reelection, 
and the manner in which, he had performed the 
duties of his office, used the following language : 

No man has ever occupied the department of the secre- 
tary of state, who has displayed a better knowledge of its 
duties, or greater ability and honesty in their discharge, 
than hii\c\h;u;ictLi-ized the Hon. Peter Doyle. Though 
conipaiaii\ rl\ :[ M.ung man, being but a h'Ule over thirty 
years ot\im. lu -imws a maturity and wisdom in his action 
upon public allairs which give the impression of his being 




C/s^ :M^^^-^ 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



183 



a miicli older man than he really is; and his official conduct 
has the discretion, the dignity and sobriety which belong 
to advanced years. He is a thorough man of business, a 
well-read lawyer, and a scholar of ripe acquirements. He 
is really one of the ablest men in public life in the State. 
His reports and the part which he has taken in the admin- 
istration of the State finances, are evidences of the thorough 
litness and great capacity which he brought into the office. 
Tlie vigor witli which he discharges all the duties which the 
law places upon him, and the laborious care which he 
bestows on not only the lart;er but the minor details of 
business, are such as have not been surpassed even by the 
most industrious and experienced of his predecessors. 

Politically, Mr. Doyle has been a democrat, but 
is liberal in his views, making party interest subor- 
dinate to those of the State and country. He first 
engaged actively in political affairs after the nomina- 
tion of Horace Greeley for the presidency in 1872, 
and worked untiringly in his behalf. He favors the 
largest degree of personal liberty consistent with the 
welfare of society, and is strenuously opposed to 
interference by the State in matters pertaining to 
individual right or private conscience. 



In religion he is a Catholic, this having been the 
faith of his parents. 

Mr. Doyle is upward of six feet in height, of well 
developed form, and is capable of enduring much 
physical and mental labor. He is dignified in ap- 
pearance and deportment, but is modest and unas- 
suming, and has a high appreciation of real merit. 
He deliberates carefully, and acts with promptness, 
energy and decision. Sincere and honest in his 
convictions, and earnest in the advocacy of his prin- 
ciples, he looks only to that which he believes to be 
right, disregarding mere expediency. He is a forci- 
ble writer and speaker, is clear in his views, logical 
in argument and classical in style. He is fond of 
poetry, and is familiar with many of the works of the 
English and German poets, as well as the ancient 
classical authors. He appreciates highly the society 
of literary friends, and devotes his leisure hours 
mainly to literary pursuits. Mr. Doyle is unmarried. 



HENRY N. HEMPSTED, 



MILWAUKEE. 



HENRY N. HEMPSTED was born December 
29, 1S30, in the city of Albany, New \'ork. 
His parents were Americans, his father a doctor of 
medicine. He was educated principally at the 
Albany Academy, the prominent teachers of which 
were Dr. T. Romeyn Beck and Dr. Bullions. At 
the age of thirteen he commenced the study of 
music and the piano. His parents intended him 
for a lawyer, and one year of his life was spent in 
contemplation of Blackstone, Chitty and other legal 
luminaries. The study of music, however, which 
was intended as a mere accomplishment, became 
the business of his life, and has been the foundation 
of such reputation and wealth as he now possesses. 
From the law office he went as clerk in the piano 
warerooms of Boardman and Gray, at Albany, where 
lie served about two years, and this was the com- 
mencement of his business education. In that place 
he obtained an excellent knowledge, not only of the 
music business in all its branches, but also a thor- 
ough knowledge of the manufacture of pianos. At 
the age of nineteen he determined to leave Albany 
and his home and strike out for a new field. In 
October, 1849, he arrived in the city of Milwaukee, 
then a place of about twenty thousand inhabitants, 
and has resided there ever since. On his arrival 



in Milwaukee his total cash capital amoimted to 
about fifty cents, which sum was judiciously ex- 
pended in the purchase of a "square meal." He 
had a few good friends, however, and commenced 
at once as a professor of music, and managed 
to earn a living at it, and that was about all. 
In 1850 the only music store in Milwaukee failed 
and was sold out. He bought the bulk of the 
stock, amounting to about six hundred dollars, and 
as he had no money had to buy it on time, which 
was about nine months. He commenced the music 
business in a very small way indeed, and still pur- 
sued the business of music teaching in connection 
with it. After a few years, as his business increased, 
he gradually relinquished teaching and finally gave 
it up altogether. He occupied the jiosition of organ- 
ist at Plymouth Church, Milwaukee, for twelve years, 
resigning in 1864. Has given considerable attention 
to musical composition ; commenced composing 
music when about sixteen. Has published a good 
many musical works, and has many yet unpublished. 
The "Light Guard Quickstep," composed in 1859 
expressly for the Light Guards on their excursion to 
New York, is probably the most widely known of 
these publications, and has had and still has an im- 
mense sale. It is one of the standard pieces of the 



1 84 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 



day, and has been played by every band in the 
country. The names of a few others may be men- 
tioned : " Claribaldi's March," " Iron Brigade March," 
" Castles in the Air Caprice," and " Rendezvous 
March," all of which have been favorably received. 
He carries on the musical business in all its branch- 
es, including publishing. Is publisher and editor of 
the " Musical Echo," a periodical now in the third 



year of existence, and which has become very widely 
known. His house is now the oldest establishment 
in this line of any in the Northwest. The sales will 
sometimes reach as high as a quarter of a million 
dollars, and the capital employed about one hundred 
thousand dollars. The premises occupied are on 
Broadway, Nos. 408, 410 and 412, and are sixty feet 
front by one hundred and twenty deep. 



DON A. J. UPHAM, 

MIL 71 'A Uh'EE. 



DON A. J. UPHAM was born in VVeathersfield, 
Windsor county, Vermont, on the 31st of May, 
1809. His father, Joshua Upham, occupied the 
homestead and farm in the valley of the Connecticut 
river that was first located by his grandfather, Wil- 
liam Upham, at the close of the revolutionary war, 
and which now has been in possession of the family 
for nearly one hundred years. The family is one of 
the oldest in New England. About twenty years 
ago the late Ur. Upham, of Salem, Massachusetts, 
compiled and published the genealogy of the Upham 
family, in which he distinctly traced the ancestors 
of William Upham back to John Upham, who emi- 
grated from the west of England and settled in 
Maiden, near Boston, about sixty years after the 
first landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth Rock. 

The father of D. A. J. Upham, when he became 
sixteen years of age, asked him if he could determine 
on what business or profession he would select, with 
a determination to follow it for life. After some 
deliberation he chose the profession of the law. He 
was then immediately sent to the preparatory school 
at Chester, Vermont, and afterward to Meriden, New 
Hampshire, and at the age of nineteen he entered 
the sophomore class at Union College, New York. 
The late Dr. Eliphalet Nott was then president of , 
that institution. 

He graduated in 183 1 with the highest standing 
in a class of about one hundred. In the September 
following he entered the office of General James 
Tallmadge, in the city of New York, as a law student. 
After remaining in this office about six months he 
found that it would be necessary in some way to 
raise means to complete his education as a lawyer. 
On the recommendation of President Nott, he was 
appointed assistant professor of mathematics in Del- 
aware College at Newark, in the State of Delaware. 



He held this position for three years, at the same 
time having his name entered as a law student in the 
office of the Hon. James A. Bayard of Wilmington, 
Delaware, late United States senator from that State. 

In 1835, after attending a course of law lectures 
in the city of Baltimore, he was admitted to the bar 
and commenced the practice of law in the city of 
Wilmington. In the meantime his attention had 
been called to the growing settlements in the far 
West. 

After the close of the Black Hawk war, it was said 
a place called Chicago would soon be a commercial 
point of importance. In 1836 the Territory of Wis- 
consin was organized, containing within its limits 
the territory now comprising the States of Iowa and 
Minnesota. He determined to explore the western 
country, and seek a location in which to pursue his 
profession. 

In the spring of 1837 he started for the West, and 
in June arrived in Chicago by the route of the upper 
lakes. Chicago was then a very small village and 
seemed to be located in an extensive marsh, the only 
high ground being a few acres on the lake shore, 
where the old fort was located. 

He was not pleased with Chicago. In comjjany 
with two friends he traveled through Illinois in a 
farmer's wagon by tlie way of Dixon's ferry, camping 
out as occasion required, and arrived at the Missis- 
sippi, near the mouth of Rock river. He visited 
Burlington and Dubuque, now in the State of Iowa, 
and also the mineral region in western Wisconsin, 
and endeavored to find some conveyance east through 
Wisconsin to Milwaukee, but was unable to do so, 
and was obliged to return by way of Galena to Chi- 
cago, and from there by a steamer to Milwaukee. 
The first settlement in Milwaukee of any importance 
was made the year before. The situation and pros- 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



185 



pects pleased him and he finally determined to locate 
there. 

The difficulties attending the practice of the law- 
yers who first settled in the Territory can hardly be 
appreciated at this day. His first case of any im- 
portance was in the supreme court of the Territory. 
At the fall term of the district court a judgment for 
a large amount had been obtained against one of 
the most extensive dealers in real estate in Milwau- 
kee, and his new dwelling-house and a large amount 
of property were advertised for sale on execution. 
He applied to the young lawyer to take the case to 
the supreme court and enjoin the pending sale. It 
was necessary that one of the judges should allow 
the writ of injunction. Judges Frazier and Irwin 
were out of the Territory, and there was no person 
who could allow the writ except Judge Dunn, who 
resided at Elk Grove, in the western district, about 
one hundred and sixty miles from Milwaukee. 
There were no stage coaches or means of convey- 
ance through the Territory. The only practical way 
was to go on horseback through what is now Rock 
and Green counties, and the only track for a con- 
siderable portion of the way was an Indian trail 
across the prairies. He accordingly started to make I 
the trip in this way late in November, with barely 
time to accomplish it. 

Mr. Janes had already settled at Janesville, and 
the miners from the west had a settlement at Sugar 
River Diggings in Green county. These points 
he reached after having been delayed one day in 
crossing Rock river, from the ice and high water. 
He reached Mineral Point and Elk Grove without 
difficulty, had his writ allowed by the judge, and on 
his return to Sugar river found he had but two nights 
and one day in which to reach Milwaukee before the 
sale, a distance of about one hundred miles. He 
started east for the Janes settlement early in the 
evening, and as he reached the prairie he found that 
in places it was on fire, and with difficulty he pur- 
sued his route. As the night advanced it became 
dark and cloudy, and toward midnight the wind 
arose and a scene presented itself that baffled de- 
scription. On reaching high ground the view was 
extensive, and the fire with the increasing wind 
spread in every direction. The low grounds where 
the vegetation had been rank appeared to be all on 
fire. As far as the eye could reach, and in every 
direction, the flames seemed to shoot up to the 
clouds with increasing violence. The night was 
dark and not a star to be seen. The scene was 



grand, sublime; it was terrific. It seemed as if the 
last day had arrived, and that the final conflagration 
of the world was now taking place. The young 
lawyer found himself surrounded with difficulties of 
which his knowledge of Blackstoneand Coke afforded 
no solution, and he had at last to bring into use his 
knowledge of other sciences in order to effect an 
escape. He was lost on the prairie. After diligent 
search he could find no trace of the trail or track 
he wished to pursue. He was near half a day's 
ride from any habitation, and he could not ascertain 
in what direction he was going. By keeping on the 
high portions of the prairie where the \'egetation had 
been light, and which was mostly Inirnl over, he 
could remain in comparative safety, but to cross the 
ravines or low ground, was impossible, or attended 
with the greatest danger. For several hours he 
wandered in various directions, without knowing 
where he was going. At last the clouds seemed to 
break away at one point, and stars appeared visible. 

The question was to determine to what constella- 
tions they belonged. He was not long in doubt, for 
two clusters of stars appeared, which he recognized 
as well known southern constellations. He knew 
these stars must now be near the meridian, and at 
the extreme south. By keeping them at the right he 
was now able to pursue a course as far as practicable 
in an easterly direction, and at last reached Rock 
river, about two miles south of Janesville. 

He now had one day and night in which to reach 
Milwaukee, a distance of about sixty miles. With a 
worn out and jaded horse, this was accomplished 
with great difficulty. He arrived about one hour 
before the sale, to the astonishment of the opposing 
counsel and great joy of his client, who had long 
been anxiously waiting his arrival. 

Such are some of the incidents that attended the 
practice of the profession in the early settlement of 
Wisconsin. 

The following year the government lands were 
brought into market, and the most important busi- 
ness of the lawyers was in proving up preemptions 
to important locations, the sites of future towns and 
cities. He was employed in the important case of 
Gilman vs. Rogan, before the land office, in proving 
up a preemption to the site of the present city of 
Watertown, and also, among others, in obtaining 
a preemption to the land where the city of Beloit 
is located. After the settlers had obtained a title to 
their land the practice was not essentially different 
from that in the older States. 



86 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



Mr. Upliam was not a politician in the true sense 
of the word. He had no taste for the bitterness, 
animosity and personal abuse that prevailed in the 
party contests at this time. 

He has filled, however, some important political 
positions. He was several times a member of the 
territorial council, at the earliest sessions of the 
legislature at Madison. He was a member of the 
first convention that was called to form a constitu- 
tion for the State of Wisconsin, and was elected 
president of that convention. He was nominated by 
the democratic party for governor of the State as 
the successor of Governor Dewey. He took no 
active part in the canvass. The contest was very 
close and bitter, from dissensions in the party, and 
the result doubtful, but the State canvassers then at 
Madison declared his opponent elected by a small 
majority. He was twice elected mayor of the city 
of Milwaukee, being the successor of Juneau and 
Kilbourn. He was afterward appointed United 
States attorney for the district of Wisconsin, which 
he held for one term of four years. 

After thirty years' successful practice in Milwaukee 
he was compelled by ill health to retire from the 
profession. 

He was married in 1856 to Elizabeth S., daughter 
of Dr. Gideon Jacpies, of Wilmington, Delaware. 
The Jaques family was one of the oldest in New 
Jersey, and descended from the first French Hugue- 
nots that came to this country. They have five 
children, the oldest of whom, John J. Upham, is now 
a major in the 5th Cavalry of the United States 
army. His oldest daughter, Carrie J., is married to 
Colonel George H. Raymond of Smyrna, Delaware, 



the second daughter, Addie J., is the wife of Henry 
B. Taylor, Esq., merchant in Chester, Pennsylvania, 
and the youngest, Sallie J. Upham, is unmarried. 
The youngest son, Horace A. J. Upham, a recent 
graduate of the University of Michigan, is now a law 
student in Milwaukee. 

At the close of the late war Major Upham, on his 
return from a trip to Europe, brought home and pre- 
sented to his father an astronomical telescope of 
large power, that had then just been introduced into 
England. It is portable and intended for private 
libraries. With the aid of this instrument liis father 
for several years past, as his health and time would 
permit, has been reviewing his early astronomical 
investigations, informing himself of the progress 
made in that science during the last forty years, and 
verifying to some e.xtent the computations made 
annually at the Astronomical Observatory at Wash- 
ington. Mr. Upham 's life, although not character- 
ized by any remarkable events or achievements, has 
been a useful and honorable one. He has dis- 
charged all the duties devolved upon him as a lawyer 
and legislator with marked ability and integrity. As 
a citizen he has been public-spirited and patriotic. 
In his social relations as husband, father and neigh- 
bor his conduct has not only been exemplary, com- 
manding respect, but it has been characterized by 
affection and kindness and by genial intercourse with 
friends and neighbors. He is in all respects a well- 
bred, accomplished gentleman, and his impress is 
visible in his family. The biographer feels a per- 
sonal pleasure as well as a patriotic ]5ride in present- 
ing this character to his countrymen as a model for 
imitation. 



HON. SERENO T. MERRILL, 



SERENO TAYLOR MERRILL was born Sep- 
tember '24, 1816, in Gill, Franklin county, Mas- 
sachusetts, and is the eldest of eight children of 
Pardon H. Merrill, and Emily n^e Taylor. His father 
was a blacksmith, machinist and inventor, whose 
shop, with its trip-hammer, its lathes for turning 
wood and iron, its emery wheels, etc., was famous 
for its facilities for doing heavy mill work, and as a 
manufactory of " Merrill's goose-necked hoe," pat- 
ented in 1 814, and now universally used instead of 
the clumsy old eye hoe. This shop was a fit nur- 



sery for developing the ingenuity which the four 
sons inherited from their father ; and in embryo, a 
representative of the more pretentious iron-works of 
O. E. Merrill and Co., of Beloit, Wisconsin, a firm 
composed of three of the four brothers, whose paper 
machinery, water-wheels, etc., are extensively used, 
not only in this country, but in foreign lands. Mr. 
Merrill's maternal ancestors were prominent actors in 
the settlement of the Connecticut River valley. Mr. 
John Taylor came from England as early as 1639, and 
his descendants, each in his time, to the third and 




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THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



187 



fourth generations, sealed with his blood his fidelity to 
his country. Captain John Taylor, junior, was killed 
May 13, 1704, while pursuing a party of Indians, 
and his son, Lieutenant Thomas Taylor, was wounded 
at Deerfield, Massachusetts, in the second attack of 
the French and Indians on that town, and the son 
of the latter, who was Mr. Merrill's great-grandfather. 
Captain Thomas Taylor, " as sergeant, was in com- 
mand of the party of seventeen men which was at- 
tacked by one hundred French and Indians, July 
14, 1748, while on a march from Northfield to 
Dummer. After a desperate resistance, Taylor was 
captured and carried to Canada, where he was kept 
in close confinement until the following September. 
November of the same year the general court of 
Massachusetts, in consideration of his bravery in 
that action, voted Sergeant Taylor fifty pounds. 
He lost a choice gun worth eighteen pounds 
sterling, old tenor, and a pair of leather breeches 
worth ten pounds sterling, old tenor, for both of 
which he was allowed pay." — (Hist. Northfield, 
Mass., p. 555.) 

The parents of the subject of this sketch removed 
during his infancy to Hinsdale, New Hampshire, 
where he passed his early life, receiving in the 
common school the rudiments of an education. At 
the age of seventeen he obtained leave of absence 
from the paternal roof, and permission to engineer 
his way for one quarter in the Fellenberg Academy, 
Greenfield, Massachusetts. The parental allowance 
of ten dollars sufficed to pay his tuition in advance 
and to purchase the i^w books necessary, while his 
brawny arm and untiring industry brought him 
means to meet his other expenses; thus verifying 
the adage, "where there is a will there is a way." 
Soon after his return from Greenfield an unlooked- 
for event changed the whole tenor of his life, and 
transferred him from the work-shop to the school- 
room. The teacher engaged for the winter session 
for the Hinsdale village school presented himself 
for e.xamination on Monday morning, while the 
children waited for the opening of the school; he, 
failed to obtain the requisite certificate, and the 
committee invited young Merrill to fill the place 
thus made vacant. The following Thursday he was 
installed as teacher of those with whom he had been 
associated as pupil from his earliest recollection. 
After his first winter's experience in teaching he 
was permitted to attend the academy at Amherst, 
Massachusetts, for one term, where he commenced 
the study of Latin. For four successive winters he 



taught in the same school, his father bargaining and 
receiving compensation for his services. 

Attaining his majority, with an outfit of a new suit 
of clothes and one hundred dollars in money he 
started for Georgia, where he spent two years teach- 
ing in the Sparta Female Model School, one year in 
the Female College at Fort Gaines, and five years as 
l)rincipal of the academy at Cuthbert. Diligent and 
methodical in his habits, much of his leisure while in 
(ieorgia was devoted to the study of the languages. 
Greek he mastered without the aid of teachers, 
Latin and French with not more than a few weeks' 
instruction. 

In 1843 he united with the Methodist church, not 
that his inclinations led him into that denomination, 
but because there were no Presbyterian or Congre- 
gational churches in that neighborhood. 

In 1844 Mr. Merrill married at Leyden, New 
York, Miss Mary H. Kimball, with the understand- 
ing that at the expiration of two years he should 
leave the south, and find a home in the northern or 
western States. Accordingly in 1846 he is found in 
Beloit, Wisconsin, seeking occupation more conge- 
nial to his inclinations than teaching; but disap- 
pointed in not finding a door open for his mechan- 
ical turn of mind, he became the successor of the 
Rev. L. H. Loss as principal of the Beloit Academy, 
in which position he continued till his school was 
jnerged into Beloit College. The first freshman 
class of this institution, consisting of five young 
gentlemen, was organized in the autumn of 1847, 
and put under Mr. Merrill's charge, and so remained 
until the arrival of the professors elect, Messrs. Bush- 
nell and Emerson, in the following May. In 1849 
the academy became the preparatory department of 
the college. 

During the years 1850 and 1851 Mr. Merrill, in 
connection with Mr. T. L. Wright, built at Rockton, 
Illinois, the first paper-mill erected on Rock river ; 
since which time he has been engaged in, and largely 
instrumental in developing, the paper industries for 
which Beloit is famous. He is now president of the 
Rock River Paper Company, a corporation having 
two mills in Beloit, one in Marshall, Michigan, and 
a store for the sale of its products in Chicago. 

It was under his instruction, and at his suggestion, 
that the first straw board for .sheathing, both satu- 
rated and plain, was made into rolls; of which a 
sample was sent to architects in Chicago, and pro- 
nounced "just the thing." From this beginning 
the immense trade in building paper, that has con- 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



ferred such incalculable benefits upon the country, 
has been built up. 

In 1873 Mr. Merrill, having been appointed by 
Governor Washburn as commissioner to represent 
the State of Wisconsin at the World's Exposition at 
Vienna, in company with his wife spent the summer 
in Europe, visiting Scotland, England, Belgium, Ger- 
many, Austria, Italy, Switzerland and France. 

In March, 1852, Mr. Merrill was called to mourn 
the loss of his wife, a lady whose embalmed memory, 
and whose impress on her associates and on the char- 
acter of her pupils will not soon be obliterated. 



In September, 1853, he married Miss Jane G. 
Blodgett, daughter of Rev. I,. P. Blodgett, of Coop- 
erstown. New York. In all his domestic relations 
he has been blessed far beyond the common lot of 
mortals. Of his six children, all the issue of his 
last marriage, five are still living (1876). 

For thirty years Mr. Merrill has been identified 
with the interests of Beloit, taking a prominent part 
in promoting not only its manufactures, but its re- 
ligious and educational institutions ; serving the pub- 
lic in various capacities, the last that of member of 
the legislature in 1876. 



THOMAS DAVIDSON, 



MIL WA UKEE. 



THERE are very few men at the present time in 
the State of Wisconsin who have greater rea- 
son to be proud of their success in life than has 
Thomas Davidson. By sheer force and power of 
will he has succeeded in overcoming the difficulties 
of a deficient scholastic education, which to an ordi- 
nary mind would have been an insuperable barrier 
to advancement, and would have kept them in the 
ordinary groove of the workman, but it seems only 
to have stimulated him to further exertions. It too 
often happens that help proves enfeebling in its 
effects, and takes away the stimulus and necessity for 
accomplishing tasks which could be achieved by 
feeling the invigorating spur of poverty. 

His parents were Joseph and Agnes Davidson, and 
he was born at Daly, in Ayrshire, Scotland, on the 
20th of March, 1828. His education, or rather his 
schooling (for education means something more than 
the mere acquisition of learning from books), was 
limited to about three years' attendance at a private 
school in early boyhood. When only about seven 
years of age he was thrown upon his own resources 
to shift for a livelihood. At seventeen he was bound 
apprentice to learn the trade of ship carpenter at 
Greenock-on-the-Clyde, and for three years he used 
every effort and diligence to make himself proficient. 
He next worked at Dumbarton for about five years ; 
and while residing at Dumbarton he made a voyage 
to the United States as carpenter of a ship, and his 
experience there determined him that there was the 
right field for his labors. 

In July, 1S55, he again came to America and 
obtained employment in the shipyard of James M. 



Jones, of Milwaukee, with whom he remained for 
two years. It was here that he first became ac- 
quainted with his present partner, the Hon. Wil- 
liam Henry Wolf, who is a shrewd, sharp, energetic, 
but at the same time thoroughly honorable and 
reliable man. 

After the failure of J. M. Jones he was engaged 
by B. B. Jones, of the same place, as foreman, and 
continued in that capacity until the spring of 1861, 
when his employer retired from business. He then 
entered into partnership with Mr. Lemuel Ellsworth, 
and continued the business under the name and 
firm of Ellsworth and Davidson. Two years after 
this they were enabled to buy the business and ship- 
yard of Messrs. Wolf and Lawrence, thus greatly 
increasing their facilities for building and repairing. 
In the year 1868 Mr. Ellsworth sold his interest in 
the firm to the Hon. William Henry Wolf, who is at 
the present time carrying on the business with Mr. 
Davidson under the name of Wolf and Davidson. 
The firm is now doing the largest business in the 
Northwest, and Mr. Davidson may justly feel grati- 
fied at the result of his labors and the many monu- 
ments of his skill and workmanship that are spread 
all over the western waters. 

Although devoting much time to business he has 
not forgotten or neglected his religious duties. He 
is a member of the Hanover-street Congregational 
Church, in Milwaukee. The early training and pre- 
cepts that were inculcated in his childhood have 
been remembered and acted up to by him all 
through life; therefore, knowing Mr. Davidson's 
sturdy Scotch character, as well as his peculiar 




(^Zn^-fMya^^^^^^ 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



energy and perseverance, it is not sur 
has won his way in the world. 

" This above all — to thine own self be triu 
And it must follow, as the night the day, 
Thou canst not then be false to any man 



Although he supports the republican party, still 
he has not taken much active interest in politics, and 
cannot be called a partisan, or what is commonly 
known as a politician. 



rising that he In the month of May, 1849, he was married to 

Miss Helen McFarlane, of Duntocher, Dumbarton- 

[ shire, and has been blessed with seven children. The 

j eldest daughter, Agnes, married John Saveland, and 
died in February, 1876. His eldest son, Joseph, is 
foreman in the shipyard, and the names of the others 
are Helen VV^alker, Thomas Duncan and Barbara 

j Wilson (which last two are twins), Mary Ann and 

I Annie Lillie. 



RUFUS B. KELLOGG, 

GREEN BAT. 



RUFUS B. KELLOGG was born in Amherst, 
Massachusetts, April 15, 1837. His father, a 
])rosperous merchant and farmer, was a descendant 
in the fifth generation of Lieutenant Joseph Kel- 
logg, who was of Scotch descent, emigrated from 
England about the year 1640, and settled in Hadley, 
Massachusetts, in 1661. His mother, Nancy Stet- 
son, was a descendant in the seventh generation of 
" Cornet " Robert Stetson, who settled in Scituate, 
Massachusetts, in the year 1634. Mr. Kellogg was 
graduated at Amherst College in the class of 1858, 
and went directly into active business in Oshkosh,- 
Wisconsin, first as messenger, soon after as cashier, 
of the First National Bank. His brother, Ansel W. 
Kellogg, was the earliest banker in the place, and 
president of the same. After the death of his 
brother, in 1870, impaired health compelled him 
to resign his cashiership, and three years were 
devoted to rest and travel in Europe, California 
and Me.xico. During this enforced leisure some 



attention was given to the subject of the genealogy 
of the Kellogg family. 

On the istof January, 1874, the Kellogg National 
Bank of Green Bay was organized, of which he was 
chosen president. He is now a director and one of 
the principal stockholders in the First National Bank 
of Oshkosh ; also has small interests in the Com- 
mercial National Bank of Chicago, Merchants Sav- 
ings, Loan and Trust Company of Chicago, and the 
Bank of New York National Banking Association, 
of New York. The banks under his immediate 
management have prospered, not from rapid gains, 
but through absence of losses. 

Under a new statute of Massachusetts the alumni 
of Amherst College elects a portion of its trustees. 
In 1875 Mr. Kellogg was the first one chosen. 

On the 2ist of April, 1874, he was married to Miss 
Ellen E. Bigelow, of Milwaukee, daughter of Dr. 
Thomas Bigelow, formerly of Burlington, Vermont, 
and Hartford, New York. 



PROF. ALBERT MARKHAM, 



MILWAUKEE. 



THE subject of this sketch, a native of Long- 
meadow, Massachusetts, was born October 
8, 1831, and is the youngest son of Captain Luther 
Markham, and Celenda ne'e Converse. His father, 
an enterprising farmer, was the son of Darius Mark- 
ham and Lucy nee Alden,the latter being a direct 
descendant of the well known John Alden, of the 
Mayflower. Albert early evinced a strong taste 
for literary pursuits, and while his brothers were 
either at work on the farm or turning their attention 



to other business pursuits, he was engaged in the 
perusal of books. His tastes and aspirations were 
so different from those of most of his boyhood 
associates, that he was considered by them some- 
what odd and eccentric ; and since the life of a 
farmer was so distasteful to him, he resolved to 
prepare himself for that sphere toward which his 
inclinations led him. He began his school life at 
the Wesleyan Academy, Wilbraham, Massachusetts, 
where he received from the principal. Rev. Dr. 



[go 



THE UNITED STATES FlOanATHlCAL DICTIONART. 



Raymond, those precepts and aspirations which he 
afterward looked back upon as the source of that 
energy and moral principle which has ever rendered 
him successful in his chosen profession. After a 
thorough preparation at the academy he entered 
Brown University, subsequent to which he devoted 
a part of each year to teaching, — an occupation in 
which he was so successful that he was repeatedly 
called to take charge of the same school at Marlboro, 
Massachusetts. Flattered by this success, and en- 
couraged by eminent professors, who claimed for 
him special talent as an educator, he naturally con- 
cluded that the teacher's profession was the one for 1 
which he was peculiarly fitted ; and in consequence, ! 
after completing his college studies, he entered upon ' 
his chosen work. In the fall of 1858 he came to ' 
East Troy, Wisconsin, to -take charge of the Union ! 
School of that village. The following summer he I 
was called to Milwaukee, to take charge of the First I 
Ward School, of that city ; and after being con- ^ 
nected with this institution for two years, became 
principal of the Seventh Ward School. He had not 
held this position long, however, when he was 
tendered the superintendency of the schools of 
Niles, Michigan. This he accepted and held for I 



the period of four years, during which time he per- 
formed its duties with such marked ability that he 
gained the reputation of being one of the most suc- 
cessful educators of the State. In the fall of 1864, 
after resigning his position in Niles, Mr. Markham re- 
turned to Milwaukee and inaugurated a movement 
which, through his untiring efforts, resulted in the 
establishment of the Milwaukee Academy, an*insti- 
tution which has since become celebrated through- 
out the Northwest. It is the aim of this school 
to furnish the best facilities for a thorough and 
extended academic education for boys and young 
men. In its special work of fitting young men 
for college, the academy has no superior. The 
thoroughness of preparation evinced by those who 
enter college from this institution from year to year, 
have given the academy an enviable reputation 
among college faculties both east and west. Pro- 
fessor Markham has had control of the institution 
from its first establishment in 1864, and that success 
which it has achieved is attributable to him, since, 
by his indomitable will, untiring energy, and un- 
doubted ability, he has raised it from nothing to a 
position which renders it an object of pride, not 
only to Milwaukee, but to the State of Wisconsin. 



EROME I. CASE, 



THE small city of Racine, sixty miles north of 
Chicago, on the lake shore, is to-day, perhaps, 
the largest manufacturing town of the West. The 
location has no advantages over other western towns; 
it has no water power, no natural resources of coal 
or iron or lumber, yet the city of Racine has devel- 
oped a manufacturing enterprise which resembles 
the activity of older States of the East. This won- 
derful growth of industry may, in great part, be 
attributed to Mr. Jerome I. Case, a sketch of whose 
life we here present. 

Jerome I. Case was born in Williamstown, Oswego 
county, New York, December 11, 1819, and is the 
youngest of four brothers. His father was in humble 
circumstances, but having a family to support, he 
bought the right to use and sell a one-horse tread- 
power threshing machine, and the boy Jerome was 
selected to manage the machine. This trifling event 
determined the career of young Case. He managed 
the machine with skill, and felt ]iroud when the work 



was well done. He followed this pursuit until he 
was of age. Thus brought up to work, his education 
had been much neglected, yet he had acquired as 
much as the country schools of New York, at that 
time, usually taught. But Jerome had a desire for 
knowledge, and he now toiled with heartiness and 
perseverance to obtain money to go to an academy. 
He was now of age and working for himself, and 
with the profits of the first year he entered the 
Academy of Mexicoville, New York. 

The study of mechanics seemed to come to him 
naturally; the levers, screws and inclined planes 
were all familiar to him, they were parts of the 
threshing machine with which he had become so 
intimately acquainted. He made good progress in 
his studies, but they had raised a spirit within him 
that would not let him rest. Daily over his books, 
and nightly in his dreams, his inventive genius was 
busy, and the old threshing machine was ever pres- 
ent in his thoughts; it seemed to include, or might 






Oc^-<i-c_ 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPH/CAL DICTION ART. 



191 



include, all that pertained to mechanics. 'rhere 
were ratchets, clamps, screws, springs, levers simple 
and compound, wheels beveled and wheels cogged, 
rollers, belts, carriers, and an infinite variety of con- 
trivances, which would seem to satisfy even a devo- 
tee to mechanism. And so thought young Case; 
he devoted himself to the improvement of these 
machines with a success that distanced all compet- 
itors. He soon found that he had a calling as fixed 
as even destiny itself could make it — at the end of 
the term he left the academy to enter upon his life 
work. He was now twenty-two years of age, with- 
out capital, but he was known to be smart, and 
thought to be honest. In the spring of 1842 he 
obtained si.x threshing machines on credit, to take 
to the West, He went to Wisconsin, then a Terri- 
tory, and located at Racine ; it was only a village. 
He sold all his machines but one, and with that he 
set out through the country to thresh grain, manag- 
ing the machine himself, and constantly studying 
and devising some improvement. In the spring of 
1843, finding that his tread machine was much worn, 
and conscious of his ability to improve it, he set to 
work, and with the aid of such tools and such me- 
chanics as he could get he rebuilt the machine, and 
uyjon trial found that he. had made great improve- 
ments. His machine did better work than any 
machine that could be bought East. His success 
becoming known, he soon found himself able to quit 
threshing, and turn his attention to the manufacture 
of machines. 

Up to this time invention had only succeeded in 
making what was called an open thresher, the grain, 
chaff and straw being delivered together, requiring 
an after process of winnowing to separate them. 
In the winter of 1843-4 Mr. Case succeeded in mak- 
ing a thresher and separator combined, embracing 
ideas of his own, which upon trial proved a great 
success, and was probably best appreciated by the 
man who had devoted so much time and thought to 
its invention. 

He rented a small shop, and determined to build 
six machines on the new model. One of the most 
experienced agriculturists of the State, when Mr. 
Case told him that he was building six machines, 
said : " If they do the work satisfactorily, there will 
be more than are needed in the State." Mr. Case 
had them built, nevertheless. 

.Mr. Case persevered ; the country was fast devel- 
oping, the wild prairies were being converted into 
cultivated farms, the demand for machines increased, 



and every year witnessed some new triumph of the 
skill and thought which was ever active in the in- 
vention of improvements. 

Mr. Case has ever been impressed with the fact 
that to be permanently successful it is necessary to 
maintain surpassing excellence, and at the same time 
to economize the cost; he has therefore been con- 
stantly devising new machinery to save labor and 
effect the highest perfection at the least cost. In 
1847 he built the shop near the site of the present 
extensive manufactory. It was a brick building, 
thirty feet wide, eighty feet long, and three stories 
high; he thought then it would be larger than he 
would ever need, but he determined to put up a 
good building, that would be a credit to the town. 

In 1855, only thirteen years after his arrival in 
Wisconsin, he felt that his success was assured ; he 
had triumphed over many obstacles, and realized a 
perfection of mechanism beyond the dreams of his 
youth. His manufactory had been extended, from 
time to time, until it occupied several acres, with a 
river front and dock for vessels, paint shops, belt 
factory, furnace and moulding rooms, and vast work- 
rooms filled with costly and complicated machinery, 
all systematized and in perfect order, until it stands a 
monument of the genius and industry of its founder, 
In 1843 it was a great struggle to build one machine ; 
in 1863 two hundred and fifty, and in 1875 eighteen 
hundred highly finished machines were manufac- 
tured, keeping in active employment a vast amount 
of machinery and three hundred and seventy-five 
hands. 

In 1863, the business having assumed such mag- 
nitude, additional talent and business experience 
was needed, and Mr. Case received into partnership 
Mr. Stephen Bull, Massena B. Erskine and Robert 
H. Baker, under the firm name of Jerome I. Case and 
Co., which remains unchanged to this day. 

Mr. Case was married in 1849 to Lydia K., daugh- 
ter of DeGrove Bull, Esq., of Vorkville, Wisconsin, 
a lady of whom it is sufficient to say, that in the 
practice of the domestic virtues which grace the 
wife and mother, and in that open-handed charity 
which adorns the female character, she is an orna- 
ment to the social position which her husband's 
eminent success has called her to occupy. 

It is not to be supposed that so eminent a citizen 
should not have been pressed into the service of the 
public. He has been three times elected mayor of 
Racine, has served two years in the State senate. 
There are many industries in the city of Racine in 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



which Mr. Case has a personal and pecuniary inter- 
est. He is a member of the State Agricultural Soci- 
ety of Wisconsin, president of the Racine Agricul- 
tural Society, was one of the founders and life mem- 
ber of the Wisconsin Academy of Science, Arts and 
Letters. 



Mr. Case attributes his success to a strict observ- 
ance of two principles : first, he must himself be 
sure that the article he made was needed; second, 
that the article he made should be as perfect as pos- 
sible. These are noble principles, and well deserve 
success. They cannot be too widely adopted. 



STEPHEN BULL, 



THE elements of a nation's greatness are the 
growth of her industries and the development 
of her natural resources. These produce individual 
wealth, and the aggregate of the wealth of individ- 
uals constitute the wealth of the nation. Those who 
have taken an active and successful part in these 
important branches of human progress rank among 
the eminent men of the land, as they have contrib- 
uted to both the wealth of the country and also to 
its renown. Stephen Bull, of Racine, has been an 
active worker and is now a partner in an important 
manufacturing concern, perhaps the greatest of its 
kind in the world, and hence is entitled to a place 
among the great men of the West. 

Stephen Bull was born in Cayuga county. New 
York, March, 1822; son of Degrove-and Amanda 
M. Bull, respectable farmers. Stephen received his 
education, as is usual in country places, by attending 
school in winter and doing at all times what he 
could to help his parents on the farm. He left home 
when he was thirteen years old and worked on a 
farm until he was seventeen ; he then went to New 
York city, and engaged as clerk in a grocery store, 
where he remained to years. He then started a store 
on his own account and remained five years, when 
he concluded to go west. In October, 1845, he ar- 



rived at Racine, Wisconsin, where he remained two 
years, and then moved to Spring Prairie, Walworth 
county, and engaged in a mercantile business, where 
he remained ten years. In 1858 he sold out and 
entered the threshing machine manufactory of J. I. 
Case, of Racine, and in 1863 became a partner in that 
extensive and well known concern. This business is 
so extensive that it requires all the time and attention 
of those interested. They have not only an Ameri- 
can demand but have furnished machines in Europe 
and Asia. Mr. Bull is a thorough business man and 
is indefatigable in his labors. 

In 1849 he was married to Miss Ellen Kellogg, and 
has a family of six children, four daughters and two 
sons. Mr. Bull is a member of the Universalist 
church, and in politics has belonged to the republi- 
can party since its organization. 

Mr. Bull owns a farm within the city limits, on 
which he has raised some very fine blooded horses. 
He is the owner of the celebrated horse Phil Sheri- 
dan, which has a record of two-thirty. Mr. Bull is 
a man of great public spirit ; is a director of the 
First National Bank of Burlington, and has fine social 
qualities. He is always ready to give a helping hand 
where help is needed. He is highly respected, and 
one whom the citv could ill afford to lose. 



ROBERT H. BAKER, 



AS an example of energy, enterprise and manly 
effort, he whose name heads this sketch is 
worthy of most honorable mention. His life-career 
tlius far, full of varied experiences, has been marked 
with that success that invariably follows persevering 
and honorable endeavor, and he now stands among 
the front ranks of the prominent business men of 



his State. A native of Geneva, Walworth county, 
^Visconsin, he was born the 27th of June, 1839, and 
is the son of Charles M. and Martha L. Baker. 
After completing his primary education in the pub- 
lic schools he pursued a collegiate course of study 
in Beloit, and in March, 1856, first engaged in busi- 
ness on his ovvn account. Going to Racine he ac- 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 



193 



cepted a clerkship in a hardware store where he 
remained two and a half years, and at the expiration 
of this time spent one year in the employ of Thos. 
Falvey, reaper manufacturer. 

In i860 he became general agent and collector 
for J. I. Case, in which capacity he continued to act 
until the ist of January, 1863, when he purchased a 
one-fourth interest in the business, an interest which 
he still holds, taking a most active part in the entire 
management of the concern. 

Aside from his business relations he is an influen- 
tial man and has held many positions of honor and 
public trust. He was elected school commissioner 
in 1867, alderman of Racine in 1868, and reelected 
in 187 1. In the following year he was elected to 
the State senate of Wisconsin, and in 1873 was 
candidate on the republican ticket for lieutenant- 
governor, but defeated in election. In 1874 he was 
elected mayor of the city of Racine, and in Novem- 
ber of the same year to the State senate. Besides, 
he is a director of the Racine Hardware Manufac- 
turing Company, a director of the Manufacturers' 
National Bank of Racine, also of the National Iron 



Company of De Pere, ^Visconsin, and a director in 
several other manufacturing institutions, and presi- 
dent of the Hampton Coal Mining Company. He 
also takes an active part in the Centennial work, as 
is shown in the following appointment : 

June 14, 187s. 

Wisconsin State Board of Centennial Managers. 
R. II. Baker was appointed sub-committee to supervise 
and arrange for the Centennial Exposition of 1876, the 
products or interests specified in class 16 of the classifica- 
tions herewith inclosed, to wit ; Agricultural machinery 
and implements. 

(Signed) J. B. Parkinson, President. 

VV. W. Field, Secretary. 

Personally and socially Mr. Baker possesses most 
excellent qualities, and having traveled extensively 
throughout the United States he has gained a fund 
of information that renders him a most agreeable 
companion. 

Though not a member of any church, he believes 
in the truth of Christianity, and is a regular attend- 
ant upon the Episcopal service. 

He was married on the 20th of December, 1859, 
to Miss Emily M. Carswell, by whom he has one 
daughter and four sons. 



WILLIAM GOODELL, 



yANESVILLE. 



ONE of the pioneers of the anti-slavery, temper- 
ance and kindred reforms, and for half a cen- 
tury a zealous and laborious promoter of them as a 
public speaker, writer and executive office-bearer of 
voluntary associations, was a son of Frederick and 
Rhoda Goodell, and was born in Coventry, Che- 
nango county. New York, October 25, 1792 — prob- 
ably the first white child born in that vicinity. He 
was descended on his father's side from Robert 
Goodell, who came from England in 1634 and set- 
tled in Salem, Massachusetts. Of the same ancestry 
are A. C. Goodell, Esq., clerk of the court of Salem, 
Massachusetts, a man of rare antiquarian learning; 
the late William Goodell, D.D., missionary of the 
-American Board, and one of the translators of the 
scriptures, at Constantinople; and Captain Silas 
Goodell, of the revolutionary war. His mother was 
Rhoda Guernsey, a daughter of John Guernsey, of 
Amenia, Dutchess county. New York. She was one 
of fifteen children, who all lived to have families, so 
that the grandchildren of John and Azubah Guern- 
sey numbered ninety-one. Of the brothers of Rhoda 



was Peter B. Guernsey, one of the pioneer settlers 
of Norwich, Chenango county, New York. 

When the subject of this sketch was five years old 
his parents removed to Windsor, Broome county 
(then Chenango, Tiogo county), New York. In his 
early childhood William suffered a severe sickness, 
which left him for some time lame, so that he was 
confined first to his bed and afterward to his chair, 
and it was some years before he recovered the use 
of his limbs. This long confinement fostered habits 
of thought and study whicli doubtless contributed 
largely to mould his character and shape his future. 
Debarred from childish sports, his mind was occu- 
pied with the study of such themes as the limited 
library to which he had access suggested to him. 
His mother, a woman of rare qualities of mind and 
heart, was his almost constant companion, and made 
an impress on his character that future years could 
never efface. Religious thought and feeling were 
stimulated, and aspirations and hopes inspired which 
found expression only in the life of earnest activity 
which followed. His principal reading at this time 



194 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONAR2'. 



consisted of the Bible, Watts' Psalms and Hymns, ] 
Hart's Hymns, Methodist Pocket Hymn Book, Pil- i 
grim's Progress, writings of Mrs. Elizabeth Rowe, 
Wesley's sermons, Fletcher's Appeal, and some odd 
volumes of the "Spectator" and "Guardian." Re- 
ligious services in those primitive days were a rare 
lu.vury, and families frequently trudged through the 
woods on foot or rode with ox teams for miles to hear 
a Methodist circuit preacher in a log school-house. 

Rhoda Goodell died in 1803, at the early age of 
thirty-seven, leaving five sons, of whom William was 
the second. With the breaking up of the little fam- 
ily of motherless boys, William was transferred to 
the old Guernsey homestead in Amenia, where he 
attended the common school and assisted in light 
labors on the farm. A year later he was -sent to the 
Goodell homestead in Pomfret, Connecticut, where 
his widowed grandmother and her sons and daughters 
were living. His father died in 1806. At Pomfret 
he remained five years, attending the common school 
and working on the farm in vacation. Two good 
public libraries afforded him reading during the long 
winter evenings, but perhaps his highest educational 
advantage was the society of his grandmother, Han- 
nah Goodell, a woman of unusual mental ability and 
rare culture. She had been educated in Boston, 
was a convert of VVhitefield, and a hearer of Revs. 
Nehemiah Walter, of Roxbury, and Thomas Prince, 
of the "Old South "; of Byles, Davenport and Ed- 
wards. In matters of history and general literature 
she was a living and speaking library, with an ex- 
haustless fund of original anecdotes, particularly of 
the revolutionary times in which she lived, and with 
some of the prominent actors of which she had been 
personally acquainted. She had decided opinions 
on all theological, ethical and political topics, and 
indeed was one of the strong-minded women of her 
times. 

Being unable to obtain a collegiate education, 
William, in 1S12, went to Providence, Rhode Isl- 
and, where he entered mercantile life as a clerk, 
and, rising rapidly in his new employment, he re- 
ceived and accepted, a few years later, an offer from 
a prominent firm to sail as assistant supercargo in 
one of their ships, bound for India, China and Eu- 
ropean markets. He set sail January 1, 1817, and 
in the two years and a half of voyages and of busi- 
ness transactions in foreign countries learned much 
of mercantile life in foreign lands. On returning, 
in 1 819, he engaged in mercantile enterprises at 
Wilmington, North Carolina; at Providence, Rhode 



Island ; and at Alexandria, Virginia ; sometimes by 
himself and sometimes, on a larger scale, in partner- 
ship with a capitalist of abundant means. At the 
South he had ample opportunity to study the work- 
ings of the slavery system. 

He was married, in 1823, to Miss Clarissa C. 
Cady, daughter of Deacon Josiah Cady, of Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island. 

He first commenced writing for the press in 1820, 
in the " Providence Gazette," in a series of articles 
against the then pending Missouri compromise, 
which attracted general attention. From that time 
onward he wrote for various periodicals, as he 
felt constrained to do, on the living issues of the 
day, religious, moral and political. A residence in 
New York city two years, from 1825 to 1827, com- 
pelled him to witness the controlling prevalence of 
vice, lawlessness, crime, and commercial and bank- 
ing frauds, sustained by bribery and corrupt political 
"rings" — as in later times — until, under judicial 
authority, it was decided that " a conspiracy to de- 
fraud is no indictable offense." Lottery gambling 
(under legislative charters, to build bridges, erect 
meeting-houses, endow colleges, establish schools, 
etc.) was everywhere popular and unquestioned. 

Then it was that he discovered his heaven- 
appointed life work to be an uncompromising war- 
fare with such gigantic public evils. 

He commenced to edit the weekly "Investigator," 
at Providence, in 1827. Two years later he removed 
to Boston, connecting his " Investigator " with the 
"National Philanthropist." In June, 1830, he re- 
moved to New York, where he continued his paper, 
under the name of the "Genius of Temperance." 
Here, also, he afterward edited the " Emancipator." 
At Utica and Whitesboro, New York, he edited the 
"Friend of Man " from 1836 to 1842. Here, also, 
he issued his monthly "Anti-Slavery Lectures " for 
one year, and commenced his "Christian Investiga- 
tor." Continuing the latter publication, he removed 
in 1843 to Honeoye, Ontario county. New York, 
where be acted as pastor of an independent reform 
church for several years. In connection with these 
different periodicals he spent much time traveling, 
lecturing and holding conventions, sometimes on 
his own responsibility, at other times in the employ 
of some organization. 

Returning to New York in 1853, he successively 
edited the "American Jubilee," " Radical Abolition- 
ist," and " Principia," the latter of which was contin- 
ued in connection with Rev. George B. Cheever, 



THE UNITED STATES R/OGRAPHICAT. DfCTmNARr 



195 



D.D., during the war of the rebelHon, and until after 
the death of Lincohi. After the abolition of slavery 
he resumed his temperance labors, writing for dif- 
ferent journals, to the present time, March 10, 1875. 
After residing in Lebanon, Connecticut, five years, 
he removed to Janesville, Wisconsin, his present res- 
idence, June, 1870. 

Besides writing pamphlets, essays, and tracts too 
numerous to mention, he has written several vol- 
umes, as the " Democracy of Christianity," in two 
volumes ; " Slavery and Anti-Slavery," a history of 
the struggle; "American Slave Code," and "Our \ 
National Charters," showing the illegality and un- 
constitutionality of slavery, and the power of the 
national government over it ; besides several volumes 
on religious and ethical subjects still in manuscript. 
He assisted in organizing the American Anti-Slaver)- 
Society, at Philadelphia, in December, 1833 ; the Lib- 
erty party, at Albany, New York, in 1840 ; the Amer- 
ican Missionary Association, at Albany, in 1846; the 
National Prohibition party, in Chicago, in 1869, and 
participated in the reunion of abolitionists at Chi- 
cago, June, 1874; also assisted in preparations for 



organizing a Wisconsin State Prohibition party at 
Ripon, in October, 1S74. 

The wife of his youth is still living. They cele- 
brated their golden wedding, July 4. 1873, their two 
children and three of their grandchildren being 
present. Their children are Maria G., wife of Rev. 
L. P. Frost, now of Raymond, Racine county, Wis- 
consin, and Lavinia Goodell, attorney-at-law, of 
Janesville. One daughter died in infancy. They 
have four grandsons, of whom the eldest is being 
educated in Oberlin, Ohio. 

Mr. Goodell's views on reformatory subjects are 
perhaps sufficiently indicated in this sketch. It may 
be well, however, to add that he is, like most of the 
surviving abolitionists, in hearty sympathy with the 
"Woman Suffrage" movement. His religious views 
are those commonly known as Evangelical, and he 
is now a member of the Congregational church in 
Janesville. The good old-fashioned doctrine of the 
millennium is one of the articles of his creed, has 
been largely the inspiration of his labors, and is the 
source of much of his present cheerfulness and hope- 
fulness for the future. 



ANSON P. WATERMAN, 



ANSON P. WATERMAN, a native of Ballston, 
. Saratoga county. New York, was born on the 
15th of January, 1819, and is the son of David 
Waterman and Phebe W. nee Hollister, both of whom 
were devoted Christians, and much beloved by a 
large circle of friends. The father, a farmer by oc- 
cupation, had command of an artillery company 
during the war of 1812. His paternal grandfather, 
a soldier of the revolution, was commissioned lieu- 
tenant-colonel by Governor George Clinton, of New 
York, June 16, 1778. 

Anson spent his early boyhood on his father's 
farm, receiving his education in the common schools, 
and at the age of twelve years accepted a clerkship 
in a store and laid the foundation of his subsequent 
business career. Having spent about five years in a 
country store, and a few months in school, he became 
a clerk in a hardware store at Schenectady, .\fter 
four years, having then attained his majority, he 
engaged in business on his own account at Phelps, 
Ontario county. New York, and remained there until 
his removal to Beloit, Wisconsin, in 1854; soon after 



which he took the entire charge of the hardware 
business in which he had been associated with his 
brother for several years, and has continued it with 
uniform success up to the present time, 1876. Aside 
from his regular business, he has held many promi- 
nent and trustworthy positions. He has been one 
of the trustees of the Northwestern Life Insurance 
Company during nearly its entire history, having 
been elected to that position in the year i860, and 
for a number of years one of the board of trustees of 
the State asylum for the insane. In his political 
sentiments he was formerly a democrat, but upon 
the organization of the republican party, in 1856, be- 
came identified with that body. During the year 
1857 and 1858 he was mayor of his city, and for the 
last twenty years has been connected with the board 
of education of the city, and a member of the board 
of trustees of Beloit College. In all his official ca- 
pacities he has worked faithfully and effectively for 
the interests of his city and those whom he has rep- 
resented. His religious training was under Presby- 
terian influences, and he is now, and has been for 



1^6 



THE UNITED STATES STOGRAPH/CAL DICTIONART. 



many years, a leading member and prominent officer 
of the First Presbyterian Church of Beloit, in con- 
nection with the Presbytery of Milwaukee. 

Mr. Waterman was married on the 31st of Decem- 
ber, 1840, to Miss Jennie .A. Hubbell. Of their three 
daughters two are married and living in St. Louis, 
and the other is still at home. 



Such is a brief outline of the life-history which has 
been marked by many and varied experiences, and 
in all a gradual growth. Beginning life with no 
means other than his own native powers, he has, by 
his own effort, built up a successful business, attained 
a worthy place in public esteem and drawn around 
himself a large circle of true and devoted friends. 



JACOB OBERMANN, 

MILWAUKEE. 



THE life of Jacob Obermann is remarkable for 
persevering industry, and an energy which 
has overcome many obstacles, and, after struggling 
against adverse circumstances, has achieved success. 
Such experience is exemplary, as it serves to give 
encouragement to those who have yet to fight the 
battle of life. 

Jacob was the son of John Peter and Magdelena 
Obermann, and was born at Selzen, Province Reihn, 
Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany, March 23, 1819. He 
received an education at the schools of his native 
place, but it was limited, and as soon as he was able 
to work he went to Mayence to learn the shoemak- 
ing trade, where he remained nine years, making 
but little money, although he exercised both indus- 
try and economy. He returned home and started 
business for himself in his father's house, and i« a ■ 
short time had four men at work ; but at the end 
of the year, not finding it sufficiently remunerative, 
he determined to try America, of which he had heard 
so much. 

He embarked April 29, 1843, and after a long j 
and tedious passage arrived in New York, July 14, | 
and thirteen days later reached Milwaukee, where I 
he has since made his home. He sought employ- I 
ment in the boot and shoe trade without success. I 
He offered to work for a month without wages, that j 
he might learn some of the customs of a new i 
country, but everyone was full-handed. The pros- \ 
pects were, indeed, discouraging; he had left his ; 
fatherland, his friends and home, spent more than 
two months on stormy seas, escaped the perils of 
the ocean, was in a strange land among strangers, 
of whom a few seemed to be doing well, but there 
was nothing for Jacob. He did not despair, and 
although he possessed but a few dollars he had \ 
courage and self-reliance, and started a shop for I 
himself. Business grew upon him, and he continued 



with good success ; before long he employed five 
hands, and had enough for all to do, and so he 
continued for six years steadily increasing his busi- 
ness, and making warm friends besides. 

But all his energies and his time were not given 
to his business, he had time to think of those in 
misfortune. The winters were cold ; besought the 
poor of his countrymen and organized relief. His 
deeds to this day are gratefully remembered. 

His hard work, his patient industry was too con- 
fining, and although he was saving money, his 
health failed and a change of occupation became 
necessary. He sold out his stock of boots and 
shoes, and opened a general store. Here he re- 
mained five years, when he was burned out. All 
his savings gone, except an insurance of six hundred 
dollars. His loss was heavy ; but he had won a 
good name. After a while he bought three building 
lots on the corner of Fifth and Cherry streets, upon 
which he built a brewery. It was only a small 
concern, a frame building twenty by forty feet, his 
business increased, and he employed five men. ■ 

In 1864 he associated himself in business with 
Max Fueger, and two years later they built a brick 
brewery, forty by eighty feet, with malt house 
attached. These buildings have also since received 
additions and have been supplied with newer and 
larger utensils and machinery, and from the humble 
beginning has sprung a large well-regulated and 
complete establishment, embracing brewery, malt 
houses, ice houses, and large vaults for stprihg beer. 
His business continued to increase and he has 
grown and is steadily growing in wealth and repu- 
tation. 

In i860 he was elected member of the city council 
and in 1862 was reelected; was a member of the 
legislature in 1865 : one of the founders and presi- 
dent of the Milwaukee Mechanics Mutual Fire In- 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARV. 



197 



surance Company, subsequently, and to the present 
time, its treasurer; was made president of the Brew- 
ers Fire Insurance Company of America : was school 
commissioner, and has held other offices. 

Mr. Obermann was married September 2, 1843, to 
Mary Schmitt, who died September 12, 1852, leav- 
ing five children, one having died previous to her 
death. In January, 1853, he married Barbara 
Schmitt. His eldest son, George, has finished a 
law course, and is now in a mercantile business in 
New York city. Two of his sons are at the present 
time employed in the brewery. It is Mr. Ober- 
mann 's view that every child — boys as well as 



girls — should be taught how to support themselves 
in case of need. 

Mr, Obermann takes a deep interest in the public 
schools, and has been unremitting in his efforts to 
establish free German schools. 

In the year 1846 he, with others, established a 
society to aid the poor of Milwaukee, and during 
the severity of the next two winters he spent a great 
deal of his time in searching out and relieving want. 
No man is more alive to the interests of Milwaukee, 
and none receives or merits greater praise from his 
countrymen, as a true friend and counselor, than Mr. 
Jacob Obermann. 



WILLIAM P. MERRILL, 

MIL WA ITKEE. 



WILLIAM p. MERRILL, son of David and 
Eunice Lord Merrill, was one of the first 
settlers in the eastern portion of Wisconsin. He was 
born on the 12th of March, 1817, in South Berwick, 
Maine, where he spent the first three years of his 
childhood. 

In the autumn of 1820 David Merrill removed 
with his family to Adams, Jefferson county, New 
York, where for about twelve years he was occupied 
with the multifarious duties of a country merchant. 
In 1832 he disposed of his business, and again 
removed his family to Massena Springs, St. Law- 
rence county. New York. Being self-reliant, and 
possessing an adventurous spirit, William was anx- 
ious to quit the humdrum life in which he moved, 
and to carve his own fortune abroad. 

Accordingly, having gained the consent of his 
parents, he left home soon after arriving at Massena 
Springs, and went to Prescott, Canada East, hoping 
to find some congenial employment, but sickness 
prevented the consummation of his plans. 

Returning home, he speedily regained his health, 
and again set forth in search of fortune. This time 
he went to Cleveland, Ohio, which was then " the 
Far West." The only practicable route thither was 
by the way of Ogdensburg up the St. Lawrence 
river, to the mouth of the Glencoe, thence to Roch- 
ester, and by the " raging canal " to Buffalo, where 
a rickety steamboat was found which conveyed him 
to his destination, consuming as much time as it 
now requires to cross the continent. 

Finding but little at Cleveland to engage his atten- 



tion, and still seeking the excitement of travel, an 
opportunity was soon afforded him to make a trip 
to the Ohio river. From this excursion he derived 
but little pleasure or satisfaction, as he speedily fell 
a victim to the disease of the climate, from which 
he suffered for nearly a year. Recovering, he vis- 
ited the more important towns in the State, giving 
his attention particularly to acquiring the carpenter 
trade, but could not make up his mind to settle per- 
manently in Ohio. The fall of 1835 found him at 
Ohio city, where he remained until the following 
spring, when, hearing much of the opening up of 
the vast territories of the great West, he was not 
long in determining to follow the track of the setting 
sun. Securing a passage on the schooner A. C. 
Baldwin, Captain Ben Sweet, master, he left for the 
port of Milwaukee early in March, in company with 
several other passengers, among whom were William 
Longstreet, part owner of cargo, S. R. Freeman and 
Onslow Brown. The passage was long and very 
tedious, owing to the ice which impeded their prog- 
ress. At the foot of an island below Mackinac 
they were compelled to lay by for several days. 
Longstreet, desirous of visiting the nearest settle- 
ment, persuaded Merrill to accompany him. They 
supposed from information gained from the captain 
that they would have to travel only about ten miles ; 
but the captain had purposely deceived them, to 
punish Longstreet, with whom he had had some 
difficulty, as it proved that the settlement was about 
twenty-five miles distant. Starting out without sup- 
plies for a long tramp over the ice and slush, they 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



certainly would have perished had they not met 
some friendly Indians, who, for a nominal reward, 
assisted them in reaching their destination. A sud- 
den change of weather occurred before night, and 
they reached Mackinac in a half-frozen condition. 
They were conveyed to a tavern, where they were 
confined to their beds for three days. Meanwhile 
the schooner came up, and they reembarked, and 
arrived at Milwaukee without further trouble, the 
passage having consumed nearly a month's time. 
Going ashore Mr. Merrill proceeded to the house 
of Sol Juneau, where the principal attraction seemed 
to be dogs and Indian squaws and papooses. His 
first impression was that this would be a good place 
to "get away from," and was about to return by the 
boat and proceed to Chicago, when he fell in with 
J. B. Miller and Samuel Brown, who set forth the 
desirableness of this location for the founding of a 
large commercial town in such glowing terms that 
he was induced to remain. Shortly after this the 
tide of emigration set strongly westward, and this 
Territory received its share of the new-comers, 
many of whom settled permanently in the embryo 
city, which ere long gave tokens of its future great- 
ness. Land was secured by many all around the 
city, at the government price of one dollar and 
twenty-five cents an acre, by those who had been 
farmers and who wished to continue their vocation 
Many of these farmers are still living on the original 
claims, and are among the most prominent and 
wealthy of our citizens. Their farms are now of 
great Value, especially those which subsequently 
were brought within the city limits. Among these 
may be mentioned the estate of Samuel Brown, and 
those of Hon. Horace and Dr. E. Chase. 

Mr. Merrill's fortune on landing at Milwaukee 
amounted to one hundred dollars, a chest of carpen- 
ter's tools, and a good gun. Although he was a 
skillful workman in those days, he did not follow 
the calling he had chosen to any e.xtent, but chose 
in subsequent years to speculate in land — or rather 
city lots — by which he amassed, in time, an inde- 
pendent fortune. 

In the spring of 1838, having a strong desire to 
see more of the great West, Mr. Merrill set out upon 
a journey which proved longer than he had at first 
contemplated. He visited Chicago, and then pro- 
ceeded to Rockford, Illinois. At this place, in 
March, 1838, he, with two others, bought a canoe, 
provisioned it with pork and meal, and with a 
blanket for a sail they set forth down the river, with 



no well defined idea whither they were going or 
where they would stop. At night they camped on 
the river banks, and spent their evenings around the 
cheerful camp fires telling stories and relating their 
experiences. 

About the 20th of March they reached the Mis- 
sissippi, and concluded to take the first boat that 
came along, whether up or down. After a halt of 
nearly two days they embarked on a boat going 
north to Galena. Here Mr. Merrill remained until 
July 4, on which day he left on the steamboat Bra- 
zil, Owen Smith, for Fort Snelling. Boats ran day 
and night as far as Prairie du Chien, but as the 
pilot's acquaintance with the river extended no far- 
ther, they ran only by day above that place, tying 
up at night. This made the trip necessarily slow. 
The principal points of interest were Indian villages. 
At the point where Lake City now stands Mr. 
Merrill went ashore, in company with the captain 
and some others, and visited the bluffs, where he 
planted some white beans which he had provided 
for that purpose before leaving the boat. This was 
doubtless the first planting ever done by a white 
man on the shores of Lake Pepin. 

Mr. Merrill's experience of Indian life and man- 
ners was by no means of an agreeable nature. He 
found them lazy and filthy, the squaws doing the 
drudgery and hard work. Arriving at Fort Snelling 
they found the post garrisoned by about twenty-five 
men. The fort itself was delightfully situated on 
an eminence which commanded an extensive view of 
the river and surrounding country. Mr. Merrill and 
other travelers from the boat helped themselves to 
I Indian ponies, which they found grazing near the fort, 
and explored the country, visiting the Falls of St. 
j Anthony and Falls of Little St. Peter, now known as 
j Minnehaha, and other points of interest, all then in 
j the wild, natural state. Twenty years after he again 
visited the same places with his friend J. M. Stowell, 
whose biographical sketch appears in this book. 
The changes were wonderful. Where before all 
was in repose, as it were, there was now life and 
activity; towns and cities now were speedily cover- 
ing the land where before was a wilderness, peopled 
only with Indians. He returned, by the same boat 
that carried him to the fort, to Galena, where, how- 
ever, he remained but a short time. He then went 
to Comanche, a small town in Iowa, then numbering 
but five or six houses. Here he entered a claim 
adjoining the village plat. In the spring a man by 
the name of Clayborn, who had come from Tennes- 



THE UN/TED STATES BlOdRAPHICAI. DICTIONART. 



199 



see, proposed joining him in building a boat, and 
establish a ferry to be propelled by horse-power. 
He closed with the proposition, and established the 
first permanent crossing of the Mississippi north of 
Davenport, and the only ferry-boat at that time run 
by horse-power and wheels north of St. Louis. 
Emigration was at that time very active, and as the 
boat was in constant demand they were making 
money. But in July Mr. Merrill was taken sick, 
and as he was unable to attend to business for sev- 
eral months affairs were left to his partner, who 
proved incompetent, and by whose carelessness the 
boat was wrecked. 

In the fall of 1839 he returned to Milwaukee, where 
he purchased a stock of dry goods and groceries, 
and took them to Summit, where he opened a store, 
the first one established between Prairieville (now 
Waukesha) and Watertown. He built the first frame 
house in four townships, including Oconomowoc 
(then known as Ba.xter's Prairie). The following 
summer he sold his stock of goods, being convinced 
by the experience of eight or nine months that a 
mercantile life was not his forte. Subsequently, ex- 
changing his property at Summit for eighty acres in 
town of Lake, he settled permanently in Milwaukee 



county. To this he added another eighty, bought of 
the government in 1849 at one dollar and twenty- 
five cents per acre, making in all a quarter of section 
six. Of this property he still owns forty acres, 
which is very valuable, being within city limits. 
Recently he has divided this property and laid it 
out in lots and streets, about twenty acres of which 
he has offered for sale. 

From this record it will be seen that Mr. Merrill 
has done much to improve the city of Milwaukee 
by building stores, residences, etc. He is endowed 
with a very social nature, and is liberal almost to a 
fault. He has been twice elected alderman for the 
fifth ward, and always takes great interest in char- 
itable objects. He was among the most active in 
starting and endowing the Home for the Aged, now 
one of the permanent charitable institutions of Mil- 
waukee. 

He was married in Milwaukee county, on the 26tli 
of August, 1 841, to S. Elizabeth Harris, of Halifax, 
Vermont, by whom he has two sons : David L., who 
is married, and resides in Michigan, engaged in the 
lumber business; and Zachary T., of the firm of 
Kendrick, Merrill and Brand, law and real-estate 
business, in Milwaukee. 



THEODORE L. BAKER, 



MIL WA UKEE. 



THEODORE L. BAKER, cashier of the Mil- 
waukee National Bank of Wisconsin, was 
born in New York city June 6, 1824; son of 
William F, and Maria E. Baker. Mr. Baker comes 
of good old Knickerbocker stock, his mother first 
seeing light on his grandfather's farm, or Bowerie 
as it was called in those days, situated where the 
Astor Library buildings now stand. 

Mr. Baker received a liberal education at the 
Columbia College Schools, New York. Upon leav- 
ing he was placed in the counting house of a dry- 
goods establishment, doing a large southern busi- 
ness, where he remained five years. At the age 
of twenty-two he decided to try his fortune in 
the West, and in the year 1847 came to Milwaukee, 
where, in connection with Henry P. Peck, he 
opened a dry-goods store, under the firm name 
of Peck and Baker. This partnership existed for 
six years, when the firm dissolved, Mr. Peck con- 
tinuing the business. Mr. Baker entered the State 



Bank as teller. In 1863 he was appointed cashier 
and has remained in that position since that time, 
and has always been esteemed as an honorable, 
faithful bank officer and director. The State Bank 
was organized in 1853, and reorganized in 1865 
as the Milwaukee National Bank, with a capital 
of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars. It has 
paid yearly dividends of from ten to twelve per 
cent, and now holds a surplus of something like 
one hundred and fifty thousand dollars. 

In religion Mr. Baker has always been an Episco- 
palian. In politics, a conservative republican. 

He is one of the vice-presidents of the North- 
western National Bank Association, and secretary 
of the Wisconsin National Bank Association. He 
has held the responsible position of manager of 
the Milwaukee Clearing House almost from its 
organization in 1868; after the breaking out of the 
rebellion he was mainly instrumental in giving to 
the State of his adoption a sound circulating 



THE UNITED STATES BKH^RAPHTCAL DICTinNARV. 



medium, by compelling the banks to receive only 
on deposit legal tender notes, and such bank notes 
as were redeemed at par in Milwaukee. During 
the panic that swept over the land in the fall of 



1873, the banks of Milwaukee braved the storm with- 
out suspending currency payments ; the Milwaukee 
National not even losing its legal reserve, or calling 
upon its New York correspondents for currency. 



SOLON MARKS, M.D., 



MILWAUKEE. 



SOLON MARKS was born in Stockbridge, Ver- 
mont, July 14, 1827. Availing himself of the 
opportunities for obtaining instruction in the ele- 
mentary branches of education, which the district 
and private schools of his native town afforded until 
he was sixteen years of age, he then entered the 
Royalton .Academy for a full course of instruction. 

In 1848 he turned his face westward, finding a 
home in Wisconsin. Having decided upon the med- 
ical profession as that best suited to his tastes, he at 
once set himself to the task of providing the means 
for the accomplishment of his wishes in this direc- 
tion ; and, by his own unaided effort and persistent 
will, earned a sufficiency to carry him through a full 
course in the Rush Medical College of Chicago, 
Illinois, where he graduated in the year 1853. Im- 
mediately thereafter he commenced the practice of 
medicine in Jefferson, Wisconsin, removing thence 
to Stevens Point, in 1856, where he had established 
himself in a large and successful practice when the 
war of the rebellion broke out. Full -of patriotism 
he at once tendered his services to the government, 
and was commissioned surgeon of the loth Regiment 
Wisconsin Volunteers, September 27, 1861. This 
regiment left the State November 9, 1861, and he 
had been with it but one month when he was de- 
tailed upon the staff of General Sill as brigade sur- 
geon, which position he held until the capture of 
Huntsville, Alabama, April 11, 1862, when he was 
placed in charge of the military hospitals established 
at that point. Remaining here till about the time 



that Buell's division commenced falling back toward 
the Ohio river, he was then ordered into the field, 
and on 8th of October, 1862, assigned to duty as 
medical director of General Rosseau's division, 
which position he retained until the organization of 
the army of the Cumberland, when he was appointed 
surgeon-in-chief of the ist division of the 14th army 
corps, with which command he remained until the 
expiration of his term of enlistment. Being with the 
army in nearly every engagement, he gained thereby 
extensive practice and large experience in that de- 
partment of his profession, to which by natural incli- 
nation he was especially adapted — that of surgery 
— and to which, in the subsequent years, he has de- 
voted himself with unceasing assiduity, making it a 
specialty. 

On the closing up of the war Dr. Marks returned 
to Wisconsin and settled in Milwaukee, resuming 
his practice. 

In 1873 he made a trip to Europe with the three- 
fold object of rest, relaxation, and the pursuit of his 
favorite study in the hospitals of London, Paris, and 
elsewhere. Returning, lie again resumed his prac- 
tice in Milwaukee. As a practitioner the Doctor 
has unbounded success and unlimited popularity. 
Never sparing himself, he is always " on duty," and 
this ceaseless strain must sooner or later compel 
him to take another season of rest. As a man he is 
upright and honorable, full of tender and helpful 
sympathy toward the suffering and unfortunate, and 
generous to a fault. 



GENERAL GEORGE B. SMITH, 

MADISON. 



GEORGE B. SMITH was born at Parma Cor- 
ners, Monroe county, New York, May 22, 1823. 
His father, Reuben Smith, was a native of Rhode 
Island, but immigrated from that State to Western 



New York. In 1S25 he removed to Cleveland, Ohio' 
where for some two years he carried on an extensive 
business in pork packing. In 1827 he took up his 
residence in the village of Medina, Ohio, as mer- 




^^-^cuiA 



c 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHTCAL DICTIONARV 



chant, where he was aiipointed one of the judges of 
the court of common pleas of Medina county, the 
only office he e\-er held. In 1843 he immigrated 
with his family to Southport, now Kenosha, Wiscon- 
sin. He died at Madison, Wisconsin, in February, 
1874, at the age of eighty years. Judge Smith was 
a man of much ability, and of great enterprise of 
character. General Smith is the only child of Judge 
Smith's first wife, who died when he was but ten 
weeks old. Her maiden name was Betsy Page; she 
was a woman of great strength of character and of 
uncommon intelligence; a graduate of a female 
academy at Hamilton, New York, and previous to 
her marriage was for several years a teacher, in 
which vocation she was very successful. When his 
father removed to Medina, in Ohio, he was but four 
years of age, and the sixteen years spent in this 
locality afforded him all the opportunities he ever 
enjoyed for attending school. In 1841 he began the 
study of law with H. W. Floyd, Esq., in the village 
of Medina, with whom he remained about a year, 
spending the next succeeding year in Cleveland in 
the law office of Messrs. Andrews, Foot and Hoyt, I 
when he accompanied his father to Kenosha, Wis- 
consin, where he continued his legal studies in the ! 
office of the late O. S. Head, with whom he remained | 
until admitted to the bar, on the 4th of July, 1843, at 
Racine, Wisconsin, in the United States district court, 
presided over by Judge Andrew G. Miller. On the 
29th of August, 1844, a little over one year after his 
admission to the bar, Mr. Smith was married to Miss 
Eugenia Weed, at Medina, Ohio. The fruits of this 
union were five children, only two of whom are now 
living, a son and a daughter; the latter, Anna, is I 
married to Robert J. McConnell. James S. Smith, 
the son, and Mr. McConnell, compose the firm of ^ 
McConnell and Smith, booksellers and stationers, at 
Madison. \ 

Returning to Wisconsin after his marriage, he be- 
gan the practice of his profession at Madison in the 
fall of 1845. In January, 1846, he was appointed 
district attorney of Dane county, an office which he 
held by appointment and election over six years, the 
duties of which he discharged with marked ability 
and unquestioned fidelity. In October, 1846, he 
was chosen a member of the first constitutional con- 
vention, and was the youngest member of that body. 
He held no other office except that of court com- 
missioner of Dane county until 1853, when he was 
elected attorney-general of the State, which position 
he held during the years 1854 and 1855, and declined 



a renomination. In the spring of 1858 he was elected 
mayor of the city of Madison, and in the fall of the 
same year was chosen a member of the popular 
branch of the legislature. He held the position of 
mayor for three successive terms. In 1863, and 
again in 1869, he was elected to represent the peo- 
ple of his district in the legislature of the State. 
During the several times in which he occupied a seat 
in the assembly, his party was in the minority. By 
common consent they assigned to him the position 
of leader on all party questions, a position for which 
he was well qualified, not only by reason of his 
talents as a debater, but for his skill as a parliamen- 
tarian and legislator. He was never a great talker, 
but some of his elaborate speeches in the legislature 
commanded admiration at home and abroad. In 
1864, and again in 1872, General Smith was the 
democratic candidate for congress in his district; in 
both instances he stumped the State in advocacy of 
the principles of the party to which he belonged, but 
his party being in a hopeless minority the result was 
a defeat, although in each instance he ran consider- 
ably ahead of his ticket. In 1869 he received the 
unanimous vote of his party as a candidate before 
the legislature for the United States senate in oppo- 
sition to the Hon. Matt H. Carpenter, the successful 
republican candidate. He was nominated as presi- 
dential elector in 1868, and again in 1872. Since 
the memorable campaign of 1872, when General 
Smith took such a prominent and active part for the 
election of Horace Greeley to the presidency, he 
has taken less interest in politics. In every public 
position which he has been called upon to fill, he 
has discharged the trust confided to him with ability 
and unshaken fidelity to principle. In his profession 
he occupies a high position among the ablest lawyers 
of the northwest. His practice has been extensive, 
not only in the State but in the United States courts, 
in which tribunals he has had to deal with a great 
variety of important cases, both civil and criminal. 
He has reached the summit of mature manhood with 
an enviable reputation and a private character on 
which rests no blemish. As an orator, as an advo- 
cate, and as a political speaker, he has but few 
equals in the country. In many of the character- 
istics of successful ora'tory he is peculiarly gifted. 
To the attractions of a fine presence, an easy, grace- 
ful and dignified mien, is added that of a rich, full, 
clear voice, that can be distinctly heard at a long 
distance. His masterly self-reliance is of inestima- 
ble value to him when he rises to address an audi- 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



ence, or pleads the cause of his client before a jury. 
His oratory is characterized by subtle discrimina- 
tion, by logical argument, and by forcible illustration. 
Notwithstanding the fact that he is always calm and 
collected when he rises to speak, he frequently be- 
comes impassioned in his utterances, speaking with 
great energy and rapidity, but without losing control 
of himself. In this as well as in many other respects 
his style of oratory bears a striking resemblance to 
that of the late Stephen A. Douglas. The power of 
an orator to command himself enables him to con- 
trol others. By its exercise he is enabled to lash 
the rowdy element of his audience into silence by a 
few pointed remarks, accompanied by an expressive 
look and gesture. General Smith's mind is also 
enriched with a vein of humor of which he some- 
times makes a very happy use in his public speeches. 
His perception of the ludicrous is quick and keen, 
and by a well-timed joke or repartee he excites the 
applause of an unwilling audience. In power of in- 
vective he has few equals; it is a talent which, how- 
ever, he uses sparingly, and never unless strong 
provocation calls it forth. He has made many polit- 
ical speeches ; they embrace a large variety of topics. 



and discuss all the issues which have agitated the 
public mind during the last twenty-five years. He 
may be deemed in the strict sense of the term a self- 
made man. He commenced his business life with 
a limited knowledge of elementary literature and 
science, and was dependent upon his individual ex- 
ertions for the means of subsistence. He had but 
little leisure for study or reflection, and yet he has 
been a close student and deep thinker. Self-reliance 
is the ground work upon which has been erected an 
intellectual temple of Gothic proportions, although 
not decorated with Corinthian capitals. He has a 
large library of well-selected books, and it has en- 
riched his mind with its treasures. It is the fruit of 
many years of discriminating purchases, and of large 
expense. As a conversationalist he is instructive 
and entertaining, and his social qualities endear him 
to a select circle of friends. Like other men gifted 
with extraordinary mental power, he has also strong 
passions, subject, however, to his stronger will. If 
the greatest conqueror is he who conquers himself, 
then he may aspire to that title. 



A. P. DICKEY, 



NOTHING has added more to the renown of 
American industrial productions than the 
ingenuity displayed in the manufacture of articles 
of utility and labor-saving machines; and among 
these stand preeminently the fanning mills and 
separators now so universally used, and which 
effect with such precision the separating grain 
and seeds, and preparing them for market. One 
of the foremost manufacturers of these ingenious 
devices is A. P. Dickey, of Racine, Wisconsin. 
These machines were much needed. Mr. Dickey 
has devised an excellent machine, and hence his 
success; he has manufactured thousands, received 
prizes in all the principal exhibitions, and the sales 
are still increasing. 

A. P. Dickey was born in Londonderry, New 
Hampshire, March 24, 1818; is a son of John and \ 
Rhoda Dickey. His father was a merchant. 

Young Dickey was educated at Geneseo, New 
York. He worked on a farm, and received a 
common school education, until he was sixteen 



years of age, and then went to work in a fanning 
mill manufactory at Vienna, Ontario county. New 
York. He was one of seven brothers, who were 
all employed in the manufacture of fanning mills. 
He remained at Vienna two years, then moved to 
Sandusky, and after a year went to Pine Hill, 
Geneseo county, where he remained twelve years. 
He made many experiments, and the result of his 
labor and genius is the fanning mill, which is now 
known as the Dickey Fanning Mill, and has gained 
a world-wide reputation. 

He was colonel of the 164th regiment, 6th 
brigade and 27th division of the National Guards 
of the State of New York^ at Batavia. He held his 
commission under Governor W. H. Seward. 

In 1846 he located at Racine, Wisconsin, where 
he has continued the same business up to the pres- 
ent time. 

In 1840 he was married to Miss Sarah Babcock, 
by whom he had three children, all of whom are 
now married and residing at Racine. In 1854 his 




CM&if^e^ 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



203 



wife died. In 1855 he married Miss Lucy Ann 
Patterson : they have had two children — a daughter 
and a son. 

The history of the fanning mills would be the 
history of Mr. Dickey, for these have been his life 
work, and he has accomplished much, and adapted 
his work to all the multifarious uses that can require 
the winnowing and separation of grain and seeds, 
whether on a small or large scale. The capacities 
of these mills are from forty to four hundred bushels 
an hour. The fans excel in the simplicity with which 
they separate the pure grain from every mixture, 
and the ease with which they deliver the several 
grades of wheat by themselves, as well as the rapidity 
of the work. His extensive business has called 
into practice facilities for transportation. His fan- 
ning mills are sold by all the dealers in the West; 
he has filled orders from New York, Massachusetts, 



and even from Germany and Japan. To accommo- 
date this distant trade, they are made in such a 
manner as to be readily taken to pieces, and can be 
set up again in a few minutes by anyone competent 
to use them, so that the freight is reduced at least 
one half No wonder that with such completeness 
and such facilities Mr. Dickey's trade has assumed 
large proportions. But Mr. Dickey's enterprise does 
not stop here, he has added a foundry business, 
also a machine shop. He manufactures steam 
engines and everything connected with farming 

; implements ; his trade has become great and is still 
growing, and does honor to American genius and 

I industry. 

Mr. Dickey, in politics, has been a whig, but has 
voted with the republicans since that party has been 
organized. In religion, he belongs to the Congrega- 
tional denomination. 



HON. ALEXANDER H. MAIN, 



MADISON. 



ALEXANDER HAMILTON MAIN, a native 
of Plainfield, Otsego county. New York, was 
born on the 22d of June, 1824, the son of Alfred 
Main and Semantha Main n^e Stillman. His father, 
a native of Connecticut, removed to New York in 
his youth ; thence, in 1846, to Dane county, Wiscon- 
sin, where he still resides, and has been elected 
sheriff of his county. Mr. Main received his edu- 
cation in the common schools and academies of his 
native State, 'and at the age of nineteen years ac- 
cepted a clerkship in a store in Cuba, New York, 
and subsequently in Little Genesee, New York, 
where he continued as clerk until 1850, when he 
became a partner in the mercantile business, under 
the firm name of Main, Ennis and Co., in the same 
place, conducting the business with reasonable suc- 
cess until 1856, when he removed to his present 
home, Madison, Wisconsin, where, in partnership 
with his brother, W. S. Main, he resumed his 
merchandising, and continued it with varied success 
until i860. In September of that year he became 
cashier of the Sun Prairie bank, in which capacity 
he served until he closed its business in the spring 
of 1863. In the autumn of 1862 he was appointed 
deputy assessor of internal revenue in the second 
district of Wisconsin, and about the same time 
established himself in the insurance business. From 



that time until the present (1876), except during a 
period of six months of President Johnson's admin- 
istration, he has served as deputy assessor and 
deputy collector. In conducting his insurance he 
was alone until the spring of 1867, at which time he 
associated himself with Mr. John P. Williams, under 
the firm name and style of Williams and Main. In 
the fall of 1868 the firm name became Main and 
Spooner, Mr. P. L. Spooner, junior, becoming suc- 
cessor to Mr. Williams, who withdrew from the 
business. In February, 1874, Captain W. K. Barney 
purchased the interest of Mr. Spooner, and Messrs. 
Main and Barney continued the business until the 
death of Captain Barney in February, 1875, at which 
time Mr. Spooner resuming his interest, the old firm 
of Main and Spooner was reestablished. They now 
represent over twenty of the leading and most reli- 
able fire and life insurance companies in the United 
States and Great Britain, and do, probably, three- 
fourths of the fire insurance business for the city of 
Madison and surrounding country. 

Politically Mr. Main is, and always has been since 
its organization, identified with the republican 
party, and in 1855, prior to his removal to the West, 
represented Allegany county in the New York legis- 
lature. 

He is a thorough business man, possessing many 



204 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



superior personal and social qualities, and in his 
varied career has maintained an upright character 
and spotless reputation. 

Mr. Main has been twice married; first, in 1852, 



to Miss Mary Cottrell, of Allegany county, New 
York, who died in February, 1862. He subse- 
quently wedded his present wife. Miss Emma Cot- 
trell, a sister of his former wife. 



FREDERICK WILD, 

RACINE. 



FREDERICK WILD was born in Kinderhook, 
Columbia county, New York State, on the 22d 
of December, 1831. His parents were Nathan and 
Sarah Wild, who, as he grew up, placed him at Col- 
lege Hill, Poughkeepsie, where he went through a 
general course of ordinary English studies in a per- 
fectly satisfactory manner, as may be surmised from 
the fact of his graduating at the early age of eight- 
een. At this time his father, who was a cotton man- 
ufacturer at Kinderhook, placed Frederick Wild 
there for the purpose of learning the business in a 
thoroughly practical style. He accordingly spent 
about three years in the mill working under instruc- 
tions, when he was seized with an attack of the 
Western fever, an epidemic very prevalent at the 
time, and shifted his quarters in 1852 to Kenosha, 
Wisconsin, where he worked in a general hardware 
store as clerk for about eighteen months, giving 
every satisfaction by the faithful performance of his 
duties in that capacity. He then came to Freeport, 
Illinois, where he got an engagement in the same 
business and remained there for the period of two 
years. 

In 1856 he began his career as a railway man by 
being appointed to the position of general western 
freight solicitor by the agent of the New York and 



Erie Railway Company, which post he filled for two 
years, and since that he has been engaged on several 
other railways in different positions, namely : On 
the Detroit and Milwaukee Railway, the Milwaukee 
and Lacrosse (now a branch of the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee and St. Paul), the Ohio and Mississippi, and 
also on the Western Union, where he first engaged 
in the year 1869 as general freight and ticket agent, 
which position he now occupies. 

He attends the Episcopal church. 

In politics he is a republican, and has been so 
ever since the organization of that party. 

He was married on the ist of January, 1854, to 
Miss Eliza M. Ames, and has five children — three 
male and two female — who are all living at the 
present time. 

Mr. Wild's geniality of temper, great social virtues 
and liberality have gathered for him a host of 
friends, not only in domestic and private life, but 
indeed wherever it has been his lot to meet persons 
in business. He has had great experience in rail- 
way matters, and it is well known that wherever he- 
has occupied a position his general good business 
qualifications as well as his civility and kindness to 
those working under him have made him par excel- 
lence the right man in the right place. 



JAMES G. KNIGHT. 

MADISON. 



I AMES G. KNIGHT was born at Rexford Flats, 
J Saratoga county, New York, August 12, 1832, 
third son of James Knight and Margaret Godfrey. 
His father was a prominent local politician. His 
father died in 1855 ; his mother died in 1846. He 
was educated at Albany, New York. His reading 
was various and extensive; his habits were exem- 
plary, and his occupation that of merchant. He 
moved west in 1856, and located in Darlington, 



Lafayette county, then a town of three hundred 
inhabitants. He pursued a general mercantile busi- 
ness until the war. 

He married in 1854, in Clifton Park, New York. 
His progress in business was satisfactory. He is 
liberal in all religious matters, and a generous sup- 
porter in money of churches. He has always been 
a democrat of the Horatio Seymour school in New- 
York, and through the war the same, supporting 



THE UNITED STATES BIOdR APn IC AT. DrCTfONARr. 



205 



McClellan for president. While in the army he was 
elected to all the local town ofifices repeatedly; 
chairman of the town of Darlington for 1871, 1872 
and 1873, and chairman of the county board of 
supervisors the same years; elected superintendent 
of schools of Lafayette county in the fall of 1873, 
and always running far ahead of his party tickets. 
He was a member of the State central committee 
for ten years, and an active reform chairman of 
congressional and county committees for years. 
In 1865 he assumed control of the "Lafayette 
County Democrat," published at Darlington, and 
has since managed the same, the most prominent 
paper in the third congressional district, and recog- 
nized as the leading reform paper in the southwest- 
ern part of the State. Present political views in 
accord with the reform or new democratic party of 
Wisconsin. He was appointed by Governor Taylor 
superintendent of the public property of Wisconsin, 
January i, 1875. When the rebellion was inaugu- 
rated he took the position of Douglas, and assisted 
in organizing the first company from southwest Wis- 
consin, which rendezvoused at Fond du Lac. Join- 
ing the 3d Wisconsin Infantry, he served as lieuten- 



ant until 1862, and was then commissioned by 
President Lincoln, for meritorious services, captain 
and C. S., and assigned to duty with the army of 
the Potomac. He served under McClellan, Meade, 
Hooker, Slocum, Williams, Geary and Ruger, until 
the winter of 1865. He then resigned his commis- 
sion, leaving the army at Atlanta, Georgia. He 
was in the battles of Winchester, Antietam, Chan- 
cellorsville, Gettysburg (as volunteer aid to (ieneral 
Slocum), Dallas, Atlanta, and all minor engage- 
ments. 

He was married December 14, 1854, to Minerva 
Knowlton. 

His grandfather, James Knight, was a soldier of 
the revolution under Gates, at Saratoga, where he 
was wounded. His grandfather, James Godfrey, was 
also a revolutionary soldier, both being originally 
from England. He was first president of the village 
of Darlington, delegate to the democratic national 
convention of 1868, at New York city. 

Mr. Knight's moral and social qualities have com- 
manded for him the respect and esteem of the peo- 
ple with whom he has lived, and is most esteemed 
where he is best known. 



ORIN G. SELDEN, M.D., 



ORIN (;. SRI,1)P:N is a native of Scotland, and 
was born in the city of Perth, April 3, 1817. 
His parents were Robert B. and Louisa (Balfour) 
Selden, the latter being a lineal descendant of John 
Balfour, of Burley, whom Sir Walter Scott immor- 
talizes in " Old Mortality." The Selden is an old 
English family of Kent and Sussex counties, whence 
they fled to Scotland soon after the Restoration. 
When Orin was ten years of age the family immi- 
grated to this country, settling on a farm in the 
town of Bristol, Middlesex county, Massachusetts, 
where the father still lives; he is ninety-seven years 
of age, and justice of the peace, an office which he 
has held for more than forty years. 

Orin had an early and insatiable thirst for knowl- 
edge, and from twelve to nineteen years of age 
attended the seminary at Haverhill, F^ssex county. 
When about seventeen he accompanied his father 
to his native land, visited the home of Robert 
Burns, and had the honor of taking the hand of Sir I 
\Valter Scott, incidents in his boyhood which he ' 
27 



has never forgotten and never recalls except with 
pleasure. 

In 1836 he entered the office of Dr. P'rancis 
Batchelder, of Boston, where he remained, studying 
medicine and attending lectures, until March 9, 1840, 
when he graduated from what is now the medical 
department of Harvard University. The following 
June he opened an office in Dover, Tuscarawas 
county, Ohio, and there d\iring the next thirty-three 
years was steadily engaged in the practice of his 
profession. 

In November, 1873, Dr. Selden removed to Reeds- 
burg, Sauk county, Wisconsin, continuing his med- 
ical practice for three years, and in November, 1876, 
settled in Tomah. His fame had preceded him, 
and he was never more busily employed than at 
present. Indeed it seems impossible for him to 
retire from business, and although just rounding up 
his three-score years he has all the elasticity and 
activity, seeiningly, of middle life. Though a reg- 
ular medical practitioner, he pays especial attention 



2o6 



THE UNITED STATES BlOaRAPHlCAL DICTIONART. 



to surgical cases, of which he has a great many, and 
in which his army experience has essentially aided 
him. 

In 1846 Dr. Selden went into the Mexican war as 
assistant surgeon of the 3d Ohio Infantry, serving 
till the conflict ended. In 1861 he was appointed 
surgeon of the i6th Ohio Regiment three-months 
men, and immediately after the expiration of that 
period was appointed surgeon of the 51st Ohio 
Regiment, with which he served until August, 1862, 
when, by reason of failing health, he resigned. 

Early in 1876, when the State board of health 
was created, he was appointed by the governor as 
one of its members. In September of the same 
year he was appointed a delegate from the Wiscon- 
sin State Medical Society to the International Med- 
ical Congress, which met in Philadelphia on the 
4th of that month, and took quite an active jiart in 
its discussions. 

Though before the world as a medical man, Dr. 
Seldon pays considerable attention to various 
branches of science; geology and natural history 
being among his favorite studies. He is also well 
read in literature, and especially the English classics. 



Though a Scotchman, and having a natural jiartial- 
ity for home authors, he can quote Chaucer, Spen- 
cer and Shakspeare quite as freely and fully as he 
can Burns and Scott. His great familiarity with 
standard authors is almost wonderful, considering 
the close attention which he has paid to medical 
science and the collateral branches, and the amount 
of medical literature of which he is the author. 

He has had the ad eundem degrees of Doctor of 
Medicine conferred on him by Starling Medical 
College, Columbus, Ohio; Miami Medical College, 
Cincinnati ; the Ohio Medical College, of the same 
city, and the medical department of Wooster Uni- 
versity, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Dr. Selden is a Knight Templar in the masonic 
order and a member of the Odd-fellows fraternity. 
In religious sentiment he is a Presbyterian ; in pol- 
itics, a democrat. 

He was married to Miss Catherine Hall, of Tus- 
carawas county, Ohio, on the 15th of August, 1845. 
Mrs. Selden died October, 1876, leaving two chil- 
dren : Robert, a practicing physician at Dover, 
Ohio, the town in which he was born, and Mary, 
who keei>s house for her father. 



HON. WILLIAM R. TAYLOR, 



WILLIAM R. TAYLOR was born in the State 
of Connecticut, July 10, 1820. His mother, 
who was a native of Scotland, died when the subject 
of this sketch was three weeks old. His father, a 
sea captain, was lost at sea with his vessel when the 
son was about six years of age. Thus totally bereft 
of parental care and affection at this tender age, he 
was consigned to the guardianship of strangers, who 
resided in Jefferson county, in the State of New 
York, where he remained during his. boyhood, sub- 
ject to all hardships which characterized pioneer 
life, and the still greater hardships incident to the 
absence of natural care and sympathy. During these 
years he traveled on foot three miles to a country 
school, receiving but little instruction. Falling into 
severe hands, before he was sixteen years of age, 
without money, patrons or friends, he sought a bet- 
ter fortune. The chosen pathway was rugged and 
cheerless, but the spirit which gave force to his 
efforts was undaunted. His immediate object at 
this time was an education, and for many years he 



continued the struggle, alternately chopping cord- 
wood, working in the harvest field, or any other 
manual labor, in the meantime attending school, and 
finally teaching. The result was a good academic 
education, and a certificate of admission to the third 
term of the sophomore year at Union College, in 
Schenectady, New York. But it was not destined 
for him to reap the full benefit of this enterprise. 
On the very day that the class of which he was a 
member left for Schenectady to complete their col- 
legiate course he went into the sugar bush, and with 
his own hands, and a team to haul the wood and sap, 
made eleven hundred pounds of sugar and two bar- 
rels of molasses with which to pay tuition and board 
bills already contracted. Soon after, however, we 
find him engaged in conducting a select school, and 
then an academy. 

In 1840 he moved to Elyria, Lorain county, 
Ohio, where he joined a class of forty-five young 
men preparing for teaching. About this time the 
school authorities at Laporte, in that State, were 



THE UNITED STATES B10GRAPI//CAI. DICTinNAHr. 



207 



offering an extra price for any teacher who would 
assume the charge of their public school, which had 
become a terror to all candidates for the place be- 
cause of the reputation of the jjupils for disorder 
and violence. The previous winter no less than 
three excellent teachers had undertaken the task of 
teaching there and failed, so that the school was 
entirely broken up. It was an opjjortunity young 
'I'aylor coveted. During the third winter under his 
management it became the premium scliool of the 
country. We next find him running a grist mill, 
saw mill and cupola furnace, and regarded as the 
best moulder in the factory; but failing in health 
from overwork he devoted his spare time to reading 
medicine, and in the winter of 1845-6 attended a five 
months course of lectures and clinical instruction in 
the medical college at Cleveland, Ohio. During his 
residence in Ohio he was elected a captain, receiving 
every vote in the company, and then a colonel, in 
tile Ohio militia. 

During the fall of 184S he came to \Visconsin 
and settled on the farm at Cottage Crovc, in Dane 
county, where he now resides. His life for many 
years was one of great activity and unceasing toil. 
Not content with the ordinary labors of the farm, he 
resorted to the pineries in the winter months and 
became identified with the hardships of the enter- 
prising class of our population who have contributed 
so much to the wealth of the State. The result of 
the severe experience we have narrated is manifest 
in the whole character of the man. In every respect 
the architect of his own fortunes, he is necessarily 
self-reliant, independent, energetic, practical, honest 
in purpose, kind in heart, methodical and thoroughly 
systematic in business. During his boyhood and 
early manhood a pujiil, teacher, miller, foundryman, 
raftsman and lumberman by turns, and for twenty 
years a practical farmer, his sympathy for self- 
dependent laboring men and his interest in the 
prosperity of the industrial classes are intuitive and 
sincere. Full six feet in height, with every muscle 
of his frame educated to its natural power, he is in 
person the embodiment of physical energy and 
strength, and a noble representative of the royal 
class of pioneer workingmen to which he belongs. 
In manner, as in mental disposition, though consti- 
tutionally diffident and reserved, he is plain, digni- 
fied and sincere. Hypocrisy, affectation and deceit, 
in all their phases, whether social, financial or politi- 
cal, are to him extremely obnoxious. Honest and 
unaffected himself, he cannot tolerate others devoid 



of those qualities. His hard experience in life has 
taught him to be mistrustful of others, yet he is 
naturally confiding in those he deems worthy of his 
confidence and respect. Though practical and 
economical in the expenditure of money, he is liberal 
to the poor and unfortunate. No one in distress 
ever appealed to him in vain. Conciliatory and 
forgiving to enemies, he never forgets acts of kind- 
ness to himself Like Franklin, he has aided many 
young men in the commencement of their business 
career, and has been gratified with their success. 
He is an acute observer of things and of passing 
events; with broad and comprehensive views he has 
accurate knowledge of men, has sound judgment, 
comes slowly to conclusions, but is firm in his con- 
victions, and energetic and thorough in execution. 
He is reticent, thoughtful and conscientious, hence 
rarely disappointed in residts. Honest, he naturally 
exacts honesty in others ; kind to the weak and the 
good, but bold and daring in opposition to the 
vicious and to whatever he believes to be wrong. 
Retiring and diffident in deportment, he yet seems 
to have a reserved force equal to all emergencies. 
It is no mystery that this man has become the leader 
of the masses of the peoiile in their struggle for 
political and financial reform in the administration 
of the affairs of government. He entered upon his 
present position with a large experience in public 
affairs. In fact, he has never been permitted to 
remain long in private life. He has been called to 
fill various town, county and State offices; has re- 
peatedly received every vote cast for chairman of 
the board of his town ; has been superintendent of 
schools; has been twice chairman of the Dane 
county board of supervisors, consisting of forty-one 
members; has been county superintendent of the 
poor seventeen years ; was trustee and many years 
vice-president and member of the executive com- 
mittee of the State hospital for the insane at Madi- 
son, from its reorganization in i860 until 1874. In 
these various positions, in connection with his asso- 
ciates, he has handled hundreds of thousands of 
dollars of public funds, without suspicion of ever 
having abused the confidence reposed in him. He 
has been a member of both branches of the State 
legislature ; served seven years as president of the 
Dane County Agricultural Society; was chief mar- 
shal of the State Agricultural Society seven or eight 
years, and twice its president. During the war of 
the rebellion he was the first man in Dane county 
to offer a public bounty for volunteers, which action 



208 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARV 



led to the offer of other bounties and induced many 
enlistments. 

Gov. Taylor was married in 1842 to Catharine 
Hurd, a most excellent and intelligent lady, by 
whom he has had three children, all daughters. 
One of these died at the age of four years, the others 
are both married, and live with or near their parents 
in Dane county. One of these graduated at our 
State University with high honors. 

In 1873 William R. Taylor was by acclamation 
placed at the head of the reform ticket and elected 
governor of the State, receiving 81,635 votes against 
66,224 for his opponent in Gov. C. C. Washburn. 
His career in the executive chair has been marked 
by the same practical ability and integrity that have 
characterized all the acts of his earnest and business 



life. He has enforced economy, honesty and effi- 
ciency in the administration of State affairs. That 
there have been rumors and complaints by disap- 
pointed aspirants to office excites no surprise or dis- 
affection on the part of the liberal and the just. On 
the contrary, his official conduct thus far has com- 
manded the respect of the good men of all parties, 
and contributed to the contentment of the people 
and the prosperity of the State. If popular govern- 
ments in the American Union are to be preserved 
to the people in their original purity, that end will 
be best attained by elevating to high official positions 
self-made men, whose lives, like that of Governor 
Taylor, furnish a noble example of honorable enter- 
prise and unselfish devotion to every public and pri- 
vate duty. 



EDMUND BARTLETT, 



FEW men have had a more varied and adven- 
turous experience than the subject of this 
sketch, and the necessarily condensed and incom- 
plete record of the leading events of his life read 
more like fiction than a chapter from real life. 
Aside from the thrilling character of its personal 
narrative, the sketch possesses peculiar interest and 
value, as furnishing, incidentally, an authentic history 
of the rapid rise, the reckless and depraved charac- 
ter of the class of men and women wlio throng to 
the frontier settlements of the West. The moralist 
and future historian may herein find much material 
on which to employ their respective vocations. 

Edmund Bartlett was borti in Northampton, 
Massachusetts, October 4, 1822, and is the son of 
Edmund Morris and Laura (Randall) Bartlett, the 
former a native of the same town, the latter of 
Worthington, Berkshire county, Massachusetts. His 
father was born July 25, 1795 ; was a soldier of the 
war of 1812, entering as private and passing through 
the intermediate grades to the rank of first sergeant. 
He subsequently took much interest in military 
matters, became an enthusiastic student of military 
tactics, and was afterward colonel of a regiment of 
Massachusetts Light Infantry, at the head of which 
he escorted General Lafayette into Northampton 
in the last visit of the distinguished nobleman to the 
United States (1824). He was a very active, con- 
sistent and useful member of the Congregational 



I church from boyhood till his death, and was 
] recognized by all classes as a leader in every good 
j work. He was a diligent reader of history, and, 
I with a tenacious memory, acquired an extensive 
knowledge of its general details. He was also a 
I man of remarkable industry and enterprise, and 
I generous and noble in all his impulses. In 1832 he 
j removed with his family to Ohio, and settled in the 
j townshi]) of Brecksville, Cuyahoga county, some 
1 twelve miles south of Cleveland — at that time a 
j wilderness — and known as the " Western Reserve ; " 
i but Colonel Bartlett was a strong and resolute man, 
and with his ax he soon subdued the forest, and 
made his farm of one hundred and eighty acres one 
of the best and most highly cultivated in that section 
j of the country, with an orchard of over one thousand 
of the choicest varieties of apple trees, besides 
smaller fruits in abundance. He was for several 
years president of the County Agricultural Society, 
and was well known throughout the region for his 
valuable efforts to advance the agricultural and 
horticultural interests of his neighborhood. His 
I intimate friends and associates included such men 
, as Hon. Louis P. Harvey, late governor of Wiscon- 
sin; Professor E. H. Nevin ; Hon. E. S. Hamlin; 
Hon. John C. Vaughan, editor of the "Cleveland 
Leader;" Professor Jared P. Kirtland, Cleveland 
Medical College, celebrated as a lecturer on agri- 
cultural chemistry and as a scientist ; and others. 



THE UNITED STATES BWCRAPIIICAL DrCTIONARV. 



209 



In politics he was raised a whig, but on the 
dissokition of that organization affiliated with the 
free-soilers ; and later became identified with the 
republican party. 

On the 6th day of December, 182 1, he married 
Miss Laura Randall, a lady of superior education 
and many accomplishments, who was born July 2, 
1795. Before her marriage she moved in the society 
of which WiUiam Cullen Bryant was a member, and 
was well acquainted with that distinguished poet; 
many of whose youthful sayings and doings she well 
remembers, and can at this period (December, 
1876) relate in the most intelligent and interesting 
manner. The fruit of this marriage was two 
children — Edmund, the subject of this sketch, and 
Lucy B., wife of W. W. Wright, Esq., of Monroe, 
Wisconsin. Colonel E. M. Bartlett and wife follov/ed 
their children to Wisconsin, where the former died 
at Monroe, April 24, 1868; the latter, at the age of 
over eighty-one years, is in good health and in full 
possession of all her mental faculties. 

Mr. Bartlett claims lineal descent from Adam 
Bartlett, a Norman gentleman and an officer in the 
army of William the Conqueror, who accompanied 
that monarch to England, fought under him at 
Hastings, and was subsequently granted a large tract 
of land (entailed estate) in Stopham, Sussex county, 
England, which remains in the possession of his 
descendants to this day, having passed to them in 
the regular order of primogeniture ; the present head 
of the family being Col. Walter Bartlett, a member of 
the British parliament. Robert Bartlett, a younger 
scion of that family, sailed from England in the ship 
Ann, in the year 1623, and landed at Plymouth, Mas- 
sachusetts, in July of that year. 

He subsequently married Mary Warren, daughter 
of Richard Warren, and from that union our subject 
is descended. John Bartlett, a member of the Sus- 
se.\ family, received distinguishing honors from the 
"Black Prince," for liis capture of the castle of 
Fontenoy in France at the head of the Sussex troops. 
Josiah Bartlett, one of the signers of the Declaratioii 
of Independence, was from the same ancestry, as 
was also Richard Bartlett of Newburyport, Massa- 
chusetts, a representative in the Colonial legislature 
1679-80-1-4. The grandfather of our subject was 
Preserved Bartlett, also a native of Northampton, 
Massachusetts, who married Mary Parsons, from 
whose family sprung Theophilus Parsons, LL.D., the 
author of " Parsons on Contracts," and other valu- 
able standard law books. 



Until ten years of age Edmund Bartlett enjoyed 
all the educational advantages of his native New 
England village, was a good reader and declaimer, 
and had made considerable proficiency in Murray's 
grammar and other studies; but for several years 
after his removal to the wilds of the then " Far 
West," he had very few educational advantages. The 
schools of that day in the "backwoods" were generally 
presided over by incompetent teachers, while their 
terms were limited to three months in the winter. 
During one of those terms the "master" each day 
detailed a squad of the boys to practice the manly 
art of " self defense," wrestling and other physical 
exercises, which, rude and barbarous though they 
may seem to the present generation, were not with- 
out beneficial results to the muscular system. The 
other exercises consisted of reading, spelling and 
declamation. The schools, however, improved with 
the country, and subsequent teachers were generally 
more competent ; but the only academic advantages 
our subject enjoyed were about six months' attend- 
ance at an institution presided over by the Rev. 
Samuel Bissell at Twinsburg, in Summit county, 
Ohio. But he was a^diligent student and delighted 
in literary pursuits, and studied at home, aided by 
his parents, especially his mother. At the age of 
sixteen he procured elementary works in the Greek 
and Latin languages, which he studied with great 
avidity under the direction of the Rev. Newton Bar- 
rett, a learned Congregational minister of his town. 
He studied in the field and in the forest ; wherever 
he went, or in whatever labor engaged, a book was 
liis constant companion. At the age of eighteen he 
commenced teaching school, and for twelve consec- 
utive years taught not less than three months each 
year, and became one of the most thorough and ac- 
complished scholars of his day, whose talents would 
have shed luster upon any profession or avocation 
upon which they might have been concentrated. 

On May 23, 1844, he married Miss Catherine A. 
Righter, and turned his attention to farming, an oc- 
cupation at which he continued for ten years. 

In the spring of 1854 he removed with his family 
to Monroe, Wisconsin, where he still resides, ex- 
pecting to continue farming, but being governed by 
circumstances, he clerked for a time in the office of 
the registrar of deeds, and in the year following be- 
came deputy clerk of the circuit court, and in the 
fall of 1856 was elected to the position of clerk of 
the circuit court, which office he filled till the end 
of 1858. He next served two years as cashier of 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARV. 



the Monroe Banking Company, and in 1861 was ap- 
pointed postmaster of Monroe by Abraham Lincoln, 
his commission, which was signed by Montgomery 
Blair, bearing date April 15 of that year. 

Having devoted his spare time to professional 
reading while clerk of the circuit court he was, on 
March 6, i860, admitted to the bar of the State and 
subsequently licensed to practice in the United 
States courts. 

In January, i86i, Governor A. W. Randall, in 
anticipation of the threatened rebellion, commenced 
organizing the militia of the State, and presented to 
Mr. Bartlett a colonel's commission ; and in the latter 
part of that year, and during nearly all of 1862, he 
canvassed the counties of southern Wisconsin, mak- 
ing patriotic speeches, and under a recruiting com- 
mission enlisting men in the service, until the work 
of obtaining recruits became difficult, and men ex- 
pressed a strong repugnance to the being asked to 
enter the service by those who were themselves 
staying at home. Colonel Bartlett then pledged 
himself to enlist as a private soldier, and at once 
wrote the following patriotic and self-sacrificing let- 
ter to the postmaster-general : 

Su{: I have long chafed under the restraints of liomo 
and official responsibilities, and desired to be among the 
number ot" tliose who are plucking honors from the points 
ot" rebel bayonets. 1 can endure it no longer. I therefore 
respectfiiHy tender to vou my resignation of the office of 
postmaster at Monroe, and recommend the appointment of 
D. W. Ball as my successor. 

His resignation was accepted and the appointment 
made as recommended, and on February 17, 1863, 
he enlisted as a private soldier in Company B, 31st 
Wisconsin Volunteers, and on March i, 1S63, 
marched with his regiment into Di.xie's land. He 
served faithfully and well to the close of the war and 
was honorably mustered out of the service in May, 
1865, never having been home during the entire 
period. He was appointed and served for several 
months as captain of Company L, 3d United States 
Heavy Artillery. 

After his return from the war he was employed as 
bookkeeper for a large commission house in Chicago, 
which position he had held but a short time when 
he was induced "to take the stump" in behalf of 
General Ed. W. Salomon, republican candidate for 
the office of clerk of Cook county, and addressed 
the people on the political issues of the day in every 
ward and precinct of the city of Chicago. General 
Salomon was elected and our subject became his 
chief clerk. About the same time, however, he re- 



ceived overtures from the quartermaster and com 
manding officer of the troops stationed at Julesburg 
in Colorado, to accept the position of chief clerk of 
the quartermaster's department at that post, and 
being fond of adventure, and desirous of seeing the 
country, he accepted the flattering offer, and in 
November, 1865, removed to Fort Sedgwick, a mili- 
tary post just established on the south bank of the 
I'latte and adjacent to the " ranch " of Jules Bernard, 
in Colorado, and named Julesburg. The original 
town consisted of only three or four sod houses, 
used as telegraph offices and stables of the Overland 
Stage Company. He entered at once uijon his du- 
ties in the quartermaster's dejjartment, where he 
continued for about a year and a half; and during 
that time he traveled more than two thousand miles 
on horseback, — his only companion being a scout in 
the employ of the government — through a country 
swarming with hostile Indians, visiting nearly every 
military post between Idaho and the Missouri river, 
and collecting material for reports required by the 
government. These journeys were full of wild ad- 
venture and hairbreadth escapes from the Indians. 
He traveled nearly all the summer of 1866 with his 
single companion, stopping occasionally at ranches 
or military posts over night, but generally camping 
out. It had been customary to accompany such 
e.xpeditions by a military escort of twenty-five men, 
but his experienced scout considering that they 
would be safer alone, dispensed with the escort. 

In July, 1867, when the Union Pacific railroad 
had arrived within four miles of Fort Sedgwick, Mr. 
Bartlett left the quartermaster's department for the 
purpose of embarking in trade in the new and noto- 
rious city of Julesburg — where in the preceding 
April he had killed the timid antelope, and where 
no signs of human habitation appeared — now a 
city of over twelve hundred houses, with a popula- 
tion of six thousand inhabitants. It was the ter- 
minus of the Union Pacific railroad, and there all 
goods in transit for the Pacific States and territo- 
ries, military posts and mining points west of that 
place, must be unloaded from the train and trans- 
ported to destination by mule and ox teams. The 
business transacted was innnense. Hundreds of 
portable buildings were brought from Omaha ; many 
were of adobe, many of sod, and scores of people 
carried on an extensive and profitable business 
under canvas tents. There were no family resi- 
dences, as few men would dare to take a family to 
such a place. There were many high-minded, hon- 



THE UNITEP STATES niOtiRM'II [CM. DrCTIONART. 



orable men engaged in legitimate business, but the 
city was crowded with saloons, gambling-houses and 
bagnios and pickpockets, thieves, murderers and des- 
peradoes of the worst kind flocked there from every 
part of America. The original ranch of Jules Ber- 
nard was known to be in Colorado, but near the line 
separating that territory from the State of Nebraska, 
but it was not at this time known to any one in 
which territory the present Julesburg was located. 
h was at first a city without a government, laws or 
officers to jjrotect those engaged in business, and it 
was found absolutely necessary to adopt some meas- 
ures of safety and protection. The business men 
of the town therefore held a meeting and adopted 
ordinances for the government of the city and reso- 
lutions ijledging themselves to submit to such taxa- 
tion as should be necessary to sustain an efficient 
city government. They elected a mayor and a 
council of five members, a clerk and treasurer. A 
vigilance committee of one hundred and fifty mem- 
bers was also organized. The mayor was empow- 
ered to appoint such number of policemen as he 
might deem necessary and draw ai/ li/ntum upon the 
treasurer for their payment, amenable only to the 
people /or an abuse of his jiower and punishable by 
removal. He was also declared ex-officio judge of 
the police court. The first mayor was a gentleman 
named Cook, but he soon retired from the office, 
and Mr. Bartlett, who had become conspicuous 
among the " Vigiiants," was appointed his successor. 

An arrangement was effected with the command- 
ing officer at Fort Sedgwick by which, in the event 
of resistance to the constituted authorities, the aid 
of troops could be procured. But the military 
authorities, while sustaining the city government in 
the protection of business and in maintaining order, 
would permit the exercise of no civil function by 
that organization : hence there were no means of 
enforcing contracts or collecting debts if the parties 
concerned refused to pay. 

Mr. Bartlett at once entered upon the duties of 
his office, increased the police force to twenty-five — 
agreeing to pay each man one hundred and twenty- 
five dollars per month, and otherwise improved the 
apparatus of government. He caused a log jail to 
be erected, and kept a well-armed guard around it 
day and night. Rioting and murder were of daily 
occurrence, and he was compelled to hold court 
seven days of the week. The punishment of all 
but capital offenses was by fine and imprisonment, 
but in cases of murder the culprit was ordered to 



be imprisoned till the United .Stales marshal at 
Denver or Omaha could be notified; the "Vigi- 
iants," however, generally disposed of him the first 
night, so that the marshal was in a great measure 
relieved. By fines the mayor collected money 
enough to defray nearly all the expenses of the 
city government, so that resort to taxation was sel- 
dom necessary. A single case will suffice as an 
illustration of the character of those brought before 
him for trial and his manner of administering jus- 
tice. His court-room was a rough board building 
fifty by twenty feet. Behind a rough table sat the 
judge upon a rough bench. Around his waist was 
a belt, hanging from which were two heavy Colt's 
revolvers. Two desperadoes, named Jack Hayes 
and " Shorty," arrived in the city from Cheyenne, and 
soon made their presence known by rioting among 
the saloons and gambling-houses, destroying prop- 
erty, discharging their revolvers, threatening life, 
and assaulting and maltreating several persons, and 
swearing that they would kill any man who at- 
tempted to arrest them. The two roughs were 
soon brought before the mayor, however, in charge 
of half a dozen stout policemen ; they had a large 
number of friends and sympathizers in the city, over 
fifty of whom were in the court-room, each heavily 
armed with knives and revolvers; threats were 
freely made that the prisoners should never pay a 
fine nor go to jail. The " Vigiiants " were also 
present in considerable force and well armed. The 
judge summoned a jury of business men, permitted 
the defendants to be heard by counsel, examined a 
large number of witnesses, and gave them a fair 
trial. The jury returned a verdict of guilty, where- 
upon the judge arose, with a cocked revolver in 
each hand, and proceeded to render the judgment 
of the court, which was that each pay a fine of two 
hundred and fifty dollars, and be imprisoned until 
the fine and costs were paid. Revolvers were 
drawn all over the room, but the judge coolly 
added : " I have heard your threats and understand 
your intentions, and if you are disposed to resist 
the execution of the sentence the best time for you 
to commence is now, and the best place is here, 
and I give you notice that there is room enough in 
tlie sand-hills to bury every man of you. Police, 
remove these prisoners to the jail." Over two hun- 
dred revolvers were in the hands of those present, 
but not a shot was fired, and the prisoners were 
removed to jail. In less than two hours they had 
paid their fines and were at large again. In a 



THE UNITED STATES PTOGRAPHrCAL DICTIONART. 



short time they returned to Cheyenne, and were 
soon after hung by the " Vigilants " for murdfr. 

The mayor did not often find it necessary to 
telegraph to the fort for troops. On one occasion 
a detachment of cavalry dashed into the city and 
reported to him for orders within half an hour from 
the time he dispatched for them. At another time 
a company of infantry in army wagons drawn by 
mules reported within an hour. 

In November, 1867, Mr. Bartlett, having received 
intelligence of the dangerous illness of his father, 
hastily returned to Monroe, and in the following spring 
opened a law office, and continued in the successful 
practice of his profession until the autumn of 1869, 
when he received a flattering offer to edit a republican 
newspaper at Thibodeaux, the capital of Lafourche 
Parish, in the State of Louisiana, which he accepted, 
repaired to the place and entered upon his labors. 
A Republican Press Association was organized at 
New Orleans, while he was editing the " Lafourche 
Republican " — the first organization of the kind in 
Louisiana — of which he was made secretary. In 
April, 1870, he resigned the editorial chair to accept 
a situation in the New Orleans Custom House, but 
during the summer, his health failing, he resigned 
his position, returned to Monroe, and after a season 
of sickness, resumed the practice of his profession. 
In 1874 he ■was' again elected clerk of the circuit 
court of Green county, and reelected in 1876, and 
now holds that office. 

In January, 1857, he received the first degrees in 
Masonry, by dispensation, and soon after took all the 
chapter degrees. He has several times been elected 
master of Smith Lodge, No. 31, F. and A. M., located 
at Monroe. He is also an Odd-Fellow. Received the 
degrees of the subordinate lodge in 1855, and has 
passed all the chairs in Monroe Lodge, No. 72. He 
also received the encampment degrees in Odd- 
fellowship. He is not a member of any church 
organization, but holds to the orthodox faith, and is 
generous in his contributions to religious and benev- 
olent objects. 

In personal appearance Mr. Bartlett is what may 
be called a fine looking man. Fair complexion, 
sanguine countenance, with brown hair and hazel 
eyes, five feet nine inches in height, good breadth 
of shoulders, measuring forty-two inches around the 
chest, and weighing one hundred and eighty-five 
pounds. Reared, as he was, in the backwoods, he 
excelled in all atliletic sports; he was swift of foot, 
and found but few equals at wrestling, and all the 



I various muscular efforts to which youth is addicted' 
He is a superb horseman, and most fearless and 
daring rider; an unerring marksman with rifle and 
pistol. His skill with the former weapon was well 
known to many of the hostile Indians of the plains, 
not a few of whom he sent to the happy hunting 
grounds of their fathers. He killed more than fifty 
buffaloes from the saddle during the season he 
remained on the plains. 

i As a writer and public speaker he has few supe- 
riors. His pen is trenchant and graphic. His letters 

i from the seat of war during the rebellion were of the 
most thrilling and vivid character — his descriptive 

j powers being of the highest order, while his style is 
scholarly and ornate. He is also favorably known 
in the regions of fictitious literature, and as a poet 
has produced a volume of verse, which, for brilli- 

I ancy of conception, beauty of language, depth of 
thought, and fineness of fancy, is excelled by few of 

j the laureates of these days, and which is destined to 
perpetuate his name for all time. As a fluent and 
ready speaker, graceful, complacent, and command- 
ing an exhaustless flow of language, he is the peer 
of any "stump" orator in the country. 

His marriage with Miss Righter — still, in the 

I prime and grace of womanhood — was blessed with 
a family of four children, two of whom, Edmund 
Morgan, born April 8, 1849, and Ellen L., born 
October 16, 1846, survive. The sun studied law in 
the office of Judge Dunwiddie, of Monroe, was 
admitted to the bar of the State at the age of 
twenty-one, and three years later to that of the 
United States courts. He subsequently attended 
the law school at Albany, New York, one year, and 
graduated from that institution. On September 14, 
1875, he married Miss Lida L. Filkins, a beautiful 
and accomplished lady of that city, and entered into 
partnership with the Hon. A. J. Colvin, one of the 
oldest and best lawyers of Albany. Miss Bartlett, 
the only daughter, is a young lady of rare beauty of 
person, amiable and engaging manners, of the high- 
est mental endowments, and superior culture and 
refinement. 

A volume of one hundred and fourteen pages just 
issued by Dr. Levi Bartlett, of Warner, New Hamp- 
shire, contains the pedigree of the Bartlett family 
for the last eight hundred years, down to 1875. 

The Bartlett " arms," which are now in some of 
the families in America, is a device consisting of 
three open gloved hands on a shield, gold tassels 
pendant from the wrists, a swan couched, with wings 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONAliV. 



213 



extended. In the English branch of the family \ in the iimle lim 
these " arms " have been " quartered " with some [ whom have inter 
eight other noble families who have become extinct 1 Bartiett family. 



• the female representatives of 
rried with male members of the 



HENRY SOUTHARD HOWELL, 

WATERTO.WiY. 



HENRY S. HOWELL was born in Sussex 
county, New Jersey, November 6, 1819, his 
parents being Walter and Sarah C. (Lewis) Howell. 
During his boyhood and youth he enjoyed good ed- 
ucational facilities, and passed the greater part of 
his time in school, and during his fifteenth and six- 
teenth years gave special attention to the study of 
surveying and civil engineering. KX. the age of sev- 
enteen he joined a surveying party, and, going to 
Mississippi, spent a winter in the cane brakes on a 
branch of the Yazoo river. In May, 1837, going up 
the Mississippi river, he stopped at Davenport, Iowa, 
and was there for a time engaged in government 
surveys. Tw^o years later, returning to New Jersey, 
he studied law with an elder brother, George Howell, 
and was afterward admitted to the bar, although he 
never engaged in actual practice, but instead went 
immediately to Carthage, Tennessee, and there taught 
in an academy for about three years. He next went 
again to Davenport, Iowa, and after spending two 
years there, in 1848 removed to Wisconsin and set- 
tled at Milford, Jefferson county. Here he engaged 
once more in his early and favorite pursuit, and sur- 
veyed the famous Dalles of the Wisconsin river, a 
most delightful task, which employed his attention 
for about six months. 

Subsequently we find Mr. Howell a third time in 
Davenport, where he was engaged two or three years 
in the banking house of Cook and Sargent. In 1855 
he returned to Milford, and engaged in mercantile 



business, and soon afterward spent a winter at St. 
Anthony, Minnesota. Settling in Watertown in 1858, 
he resumed the mercantile business, to which he has 
given his constant attention for nearly twenty years. 
He has built up an extensive and prosperous trade, 
which is now (1877) conducted under the firm name 
of H. S- Howell and Co., and recognized as one of 
the leading and most successful mercantile enter- 
prises of the city. 

In 1868 Mr. Howell was a member of the legisla- 
ture, representing the first assembly district in Jeffer- 
son county. He has always been a democrat, but 
never has allowed political matters to interfere with 
his legitimate business. 

He is a royal-arch mason, and belongs to \Vater- 
town Chapter, No. 11, and in his religious commun- 
ion is identified with the Episcopal church. 

In March, 1861, Mr. Howell was married to Miss 
Ann Jennette Nute, of Milford, Wisconsin, and by 
her has one child, Helen Nute, now thirteen years 
of age. 

Like most of the early settlers of Watertown, Mr. 
Howell has shown a public-spiritedness and an en- 
terprise to which the prosperity of the city is largely 
due. He is, however, unostentatious and unassuming 
in his manner, and while engaging heartily in what- 
ever [jertains to tlie welfare of his city and com- 
munity, takes no honor to himself, feeling that in 
thus doing he has done simply his duty as a true 
citizen. 



AMASA WILSON, 



NEW LISBON. 



AHLESSINC on the bold frontiersman, who, 
with ax on his shoulders, plunges into the for- 
est, among savage beasts and red men, and prepares 
the way for the hand of husbandry and the arts of 
civilized life, .\masa Wilson made the first im])rove- 
ment on the i)resent site of New Lisbon, Juneau 

2S 



county, Wisconsin. Reared on a farm among the 
mountains of Vermont, in a section of country where 
the hardest labor was retjuired to make the land 
fruitful, and being early taught the strictest habits 
of industry and economy, the influence of his train- 
ing has had its effect iq)on all liis subsecjuent life. 



214 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARV. 



He was born in Windsor, April i6, 1817. His 
father, Hiram Wilson, moved to the West with his 
family, in 1837, and settled near Galena, Illinois. 
There Amasa worked on a farm for a time, and in 
1839 removed northward into Wisconsin, to the spot 
where the city of Portage now stands. A year later 
he pushed a little farther into the wilderness and 
spent the winter at the Dalles, engaged in the pine 
ries. In 1842 we find him in Juneau county, ten 
miles northwest of the site of New Lisbon, on the 
Lemonweir river, where he was engaged in the lum- 
ber business for one year; at the expiration of which 
time he built a saw-mill where New Lisbon now 
stands, platted the town, and broke the first ground 
in the county. This section of country at that time 
presented no marks of civilization — not even a log 
hut. Deer, wolves and bears were abundant. The 
Winnebagoes had sold their lands but had not va- 
cated them. They were, however, very peaceable, 
rarely even pilfering from Mr. Wilson. Once an ax 
disappeared; he informed the chief, who said it 
should be returned, and the next morning he found 
it standing near his log cabin. 

After operating his saw-mill for three years he 
rented it, and in 1846 returned to Portage, where he 
remained until 185 1. During this year he fixed 
upon New Lisbon as his permanent home, and upon 
returning hither erected a new saw-miH on the site 



of the old one, and operated it for about twelve 
years. About 1850 he built a mill on Yellow river. 

During the last few years he has divided his at- 
tention between the lumber trade and real-estate 
operations, and met with a fair degree of success, 
and lives now in the enjoyment of a liberal com- 
petence. 

About the year 187 1 Mr. Wilson became very 
much afflicted in his eyes, and lost the entire sight 
of one of them, and it is with great difficulty that he 
can see to read with the other. 

In his political opinions Mr. Wilson was formerly 
a whig, but since the organization of the republican 
party, in 1856, has been identified with that body. 
Although tendered official honors, he has steadily 
declined them, and taken no active interest in polit- 
ical affairs more than to perform his duties as a 
faithful citizen. 

On the 6th of October, 1871, he was married to 
Miss Harriet Colvin, then of New Lisbon, but 
formerly of Brookfield, Madison county. New York. 

Mr. Wilson is a stout-built man, weighing two 
hundred pounds. He has a robust, healthy appear- 
ance, and, considering the inevitable hardships of a 
frontier life, we must say that time has, on the 
whole, dealt gently with him. As the oldest land- 
mark of civilization in New I,isbon, he is held in the 
highest esteem by its citizens. 



ADOLPH MEINECKE, 



MILWAUKEE. 



ADOLPH MEINECKE, the eldest son of Dr. 
Itl. Ferdinand Meinecke and his wife Sophia, was 
born August 15, 1830, in Burhave, a small country 
town on the border of the German Sea, in the 
Grand Duchy of Oldenburg. He lost his mother 
at the time of his birth, and his little twin brother j 
followed the mother in the first year of his life. His [ 
father was married again to Miss Meta Bollenhagen 
when Adolph was in his fourth year. 1 

Up to his thirteenth year he had as good an 
education as a small country place could afford, 
besides the lessons of his learned father. In his 
hoys' days he already had his eyes toward the New 
World, and his heartiest wish was to be once a 
citizen in the great Republic. His father was also 
fond of America, and he spoke of emig-ating every 
year, hut could only accomplish his heart's wish in 



later years. In his thirteenth year his father sent 
him to the high school in Oldenburg, and in the 
following year he was confirmed in the Protestant 
church. After he had studied the higher classes, 
he went to the commercial college at Osnabruck. 

In the spring of 1848, when the whole of France 
and Germany were in revolutionary war, Adolph 
sailed in the good Irish ship Belinda, Captain 
Kelly, to America, and landed in New York on 
the loth of June. What a sight for a young boy! 
what enchanted scenes! — the beautiful Narrows at 
Staten Island at the finest season of the year, and 
in front of the gigantic metropolis, surrounded by 
a forest of shipmasts! — then the landing and 
entrance into the gotham of New York ! This all 
made the boy's heart beat, who, with twenty-six old- 
fashioned Mexican dollars in his pocket, stood alone ; 




<:z.^ <?- L-^^ (3- 



-A^ 



THE UNITED ST, VIES HIO< iRAPIIH AI. DICTION ART. 



215 



but what cares the young, strong and liopeful? Tlie | 
twenty-six dollars were a burden, and ^twenty-five 
of them were lent to a friend in the first week, and 
gone forever. Next thing was to get a situation 
and earn money. After many disappointments he 
succeeded in getting a place as an errand boy at 
the worsted and fancy store of J. M. Peyser and 
Co., on Broadway. It was a hot summer, and 
not used to the climate his health gave out, and 
Adolph had to stay at home ; being restored to 
health he had the lucky chance to get a situation 
at the store of Mr. Edward Hen, 18 Liberty street, 
at that early day one of the largest importers of 
German and French fancy goods, although his 
whole store consisted of two ordinary rooms in the 
third story. Adolph was clerk, boy and porter, all 
in one person. He had a chance to learn, because 
being next to the chief he was intrusted with a 
good deal of business which in a large house would 
have been transacted by older clerks. Adolph had 
ambition enough not to stand back of any work, 
and he did all he could for the interest of his 
employer, .\fter a couple of years the rooms and 
locality were too small, and Mr. Hen rented a 
regular store, the whole building, at No. 23 Liberty 
street, and of course wanted more help. Adolph 
kept his place next to the chief. In 1850 Mr. Hen 
went to Europe for seven months, and business and 
power of attorney were intrusted to Adolph, although 
he was a mi-nor for the first three months of his 
absence. Mr. Hen returned ; business doubled 
since that time. Adolph received higher wages. He 
slept in the store, and by great economy saved as 
much from his salary as he could, depositing his 
money at the Merchants' Clerks' Saving Institution. 
When he deposited the first five dollars he thought 
himself equal to Jacob Astor. 

In 1850 he got acquainted with a newly emi- 
grated family from Heilbronn, in Wurtemberg. The 
head of the family, George Krafft, Esq., was one of 
the leading revolutionists of southern Germany in 
1848, and when the whole movement proved to be 
a failure, nothing was left further than to go into 
exile, like so many others, first to Paris, then to New 
York. He was lucky to escape the sentence of his 
trial, which was twenty years' imprisonment. The 
youngest daughter of this gentleman, Maria Louisa, 
enchanted Adolph 's innocent heart so much that 
they had their first love and the only one, for they 
kept the engagement for about four years, and on 
February 25, 1854, they were married. Their resi- 



dence was a nice little house on DeGraw street, ] 

Brooklyn. Adolph, of course, having now his own j 

home, wanted his own business, and in the Far West ' 

he thought to find it. In traveling for Mr. Hen's \ 

business he took a great fancy for the growing, ' 

thriving place Milwaukee, which at that time j 

numbered twenty-five thousand inhabitants. Mr. 
Hen, who had real paternal love for Adolph, 
promised his help. 

In the spring of 1S55 the household was broken 
up, and the young married couple separated, Maria 
following an invitation of Adolph's father to Ger- 
many, and the steamer Herman took the dear love 
east across the big ocean ; while Adolph traveled 
west to find his Eureka, and he found it. With 
about one thousand dollars, which he had saved, 
and the personal credit and good will of Mr. Hen, 
he started his business on the 12th day of July, 1855. 
He opened with a small stock of toys and fancy 
goods, a store twenty by sixty feet, on East Water 
street. Market square. Late in the fall his wife 
returned home from Germany, and found the little 
nest built. The first year the whole business did 
not amount to twelve thousand dollars, but great 
economy and constant attention to business, and 
his frank and upright dealing with everybody, made 
him friends. September 11, 1856, his eldest son 
Ferdinand was born; and on the 9th of June, 1858, 
the second son, named after his father. 

In 1856 his parents emigrated and made their 
home in Milwaukee. The old gentleman followed 
his profession for twelve years; he died October 28, 
i858, mourned by many friends. His brother 
Edward was clerk in his store for a number of years, 
until he started in the produce and commission 
business for himself. Things went on well until 
1857, when the panic came. His business was too 
small at that time to be much affected by direct 
losses, but it threw him back, and only in 1859 he 
began to feel better times. His store became too 
small ; he rented the old post-office in Prentiss 
block; his business grew larger, and in i860 he 
imported the first German goods direct. As busi- 
ness kept on growing he was obliged to rent all the 
upper rooms in Prentiss block, and the frame build- 
ing opposite. In the yard of this store he com- 
menced his factory, in 1864, of willow and wooden 
ware in a small shanty, fourteen by forty, which 
he built himself. 

In 1866 he went with his wife to Europe, the 
first time leaving their two boys, Ferdinand and 



2l6 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTlONAIiV. 



Adolpli, on their farm five miles from the city, in 
care of Professor Walther, an old gentleman, as 
their teacher. On his trip to Europe he made 
profitable engagements, and his localities became 
too small for the business; so he rented in 1867 
the large warehouse, No. 93 Huron street, and 
from that time his business was strictly wholesale. 

In 1867 he took in his house and family Charles 
Penshorn, an orphan from his native village. 
Charley went to school with his boys and proved 
to be of very good character; was kept as a son 
in the family. He is at present his first hand in 
business. 

The factory was removed into the old Horning 
mill on Front street, which was bought with forty 
feet front in 1866. In 1869 the adjoining sixty feet 
were purchased and the present large factory was 
erected in 1870, being eighty by one hundred and 
forty feet in size. In 1871 business being in two 



different places, became too large for one head to 
control. Mr. Meinecke took a partner in his whole- 
sale fancy goods business, his cousin, Mr. Theodore 
Luebben, who had served for him as clerk a number 
of years. 

In 1871 he sent his two boys to a high school in 
Germany. They returned in 1874. Ferdinand, 
the eldest, having studied the higher classes in the 
Polytechnical College in Hanover, took his place in 
the factory ; being acquainted with all parts of 
machinery, and to make drawings for new patterns, 
etc. Adolph is serving his apprenticeship in a 
wholesale fancy goods house, Ramin, Bro. and Co. 

Mr. Meinecke never meddled with politics ; before 
the war he was a strong democrat, but became a 
republican. He was not a soldier, but did all he 
could for the army; sent ten men from his shops. 
He was appointed by Gov. Taylor one of the Centen- 
nial commissioners for the State of Wisconsin. 



E L I P. MAY, 



FORT A TKINSON. 



ELI P. MAY was born May 26, 1825, at Oneida, 
Oneida county. New York, his parents b'eing 
Chester May and Hannah Damuth May. His ma- 
ternal grandmother was captured by the Indians 
during the war for independence, and taken to Can- 
ada, and subsequently rescued. His father was a 
soldier in the war of 181 2. He cleared a farm in 
Oneida, and subsequently had contracts on the Erie 
canal and the Croton water-works. In 1839 he 
removed to Wisconsin, reaching Milwaukee on the 
3d of July, and the next day broke the ground for 
the Rock River canal, of which he had the contract, 
but which was never completed. " Prior to coming 
west Eli had received a common-school education, 
and soon after reaching Wisconsin attended an acad- 
emy at Beloit for a short time. In his sixteenth year 
he began teaching school, which vocation he followed 
during the winter months for about four years, work- 
ing the rest of the time on a farm one and a half 
miles south of Fort Atkinson, which his father had 
purchased and settled upon in 1839. In 1847 Ches- 
ter May built a mill in Dodge county, seven miles 
from any house, on the west branch of Rock river. 
Here, one mile from Mayville — which place was 
named in honor of him — he discovered iron ore; 
some of which Eli, at his request, took to a blast 



furnace in Indiana, tested and had a stove cast from 
it. It was the first stove ever made of Wisconsin 
iron, and is still in the possession of the subject of 
this sketch. 

At the age of twenty-three he began the study of 
law with Emmons and Van Dyke, of Milwaukee; 
but upon the death of his father, which occurred 
February 18, 1849, his elder brother being away 
from home, he was compelled to abandon his studies 
and take charge of the farm. About three years 
later he moved into Fort Atkinson, and with his 
brothers, George W. and Chester, built a saw-mill 
on Rock river. He soon afterward opened a store, 
and continued in trade about ten years, his brother 
Chester being in partnership with him part of the time. 

After discontinuing the mercantile business Mr. 
May spent some time dealing in stock and wool and 
in real-estate operations, usually with good success, 
and during the last three or four years has been 
j engaged in the manufacture of flour, as a member 
of the firm of May, Waterbury and Co. Besides, 
he is interested in various other enterprises in Fort 
Atkinson. He is a stockholder in the Northwestern 
Furniture Company, also in the Foundry and Ma- 
chine Company, and likewise a director and stock- 
liolder of the First National Bank. 



THE UNITED STATES HIOCRAE 11 KM . n[(TI()lSlAin\ 



Just prior to the close of the civil war Mr. May 
received a commissary's commission from President 
Lincoln, with the title of captain. Going to St. 
Louis he arrived just before the President's death, 
and immediately resigned and returned home. Dur- 
ing the whole period of the war he was active in 
the cause of the Union, and very generous to the 
families of those who had enlisted and gone to the 
field. 

In politics he lias been a republican since the 
party was organized. In 1S70 he was a candidate 
for State representative, and although his district 
was democratic lacked but five votes of being 
elected. 

Mr. May is a Universalist in religious sentiment, 
and one of the pillars of the Fort Atkinson society. 
Generous and charitable, he gives liberally to the 
support of all worthy objects. 

He has been twice married : on September i, 1853, 



10 Miss Harriet K. Vosburg, of Fort Atkinson, who 

j died May 24, 1855 ; on December 23, 1856, he mar- 

[ ried Miss Ann Curtis, daughter of Cyrus Curtis, an 

j early settler in Jefl"erson county, and an enterprising 

man. Mr. May had one child by his first wife, and 

has four children by the second. He lives in one 

of the finest brick houses in the village, its location 

being on the site of the old fort. 

Mr. May is one of the foremost men in all local 
enterprises, and imjjortant responsibilities in this 
respect have been put upon him. When the Chicago 
and Northwestern railroad — (Ireen Bay and Lake 
Superior line — was built through Fort Atkinson he 
was chairman of the board of supervisors, and signed 
the bonds given by the town to that company, and 
did his full share in encouraging this great enterprise ; 
and to a iftw such men as he the town is largely 
indebted for its manufacturing interests, its growth 
and its prosperity. 



MILO JONES, 



EORT ATKINSON. 



AMONG the early settlers in Jefferson county, 
. Wisconsin, was Milo Jones, a man of great 
courage, coolness, and decision of character. He 
came of good fighting stock, more than one of 
his kinsmen having aided in gaining the independ- 
ence of the colonies. His parents, Edward Jones 
and Lucy ne'e Farnsworth, were industrious farmers, 
living at the time of his birth, February 16, 1809, at 
Richmond, Chittenden county, Vermont. Milo re- 
mained at home until 1828, receiving such education 
as a farmer's son could gain at the common school. 
At that time, entering the surveyor-general's office 
at IJurlington, he spent about four years in study, 
])aying particular attention to surveying and civil 
engineering. At the expiration of this time he 
started for the growing West, where much govern- 
ment surveying had to be done, and many towns 
platted, and reached Michigan in June, 1832, when 
the Black Hawk war was at its height; there he 
spent the winter shaking with ague, and in the fol- 
lowing year returned to Vermont, and again worked 
his way to Michigan, passing through Ohio early in 
1834. Spending that summer and autumn in sur- 
veying, he, just before winter set in, fitted out a 
party and started for the then territory of Wisconsin, 
where, in company with another gentleman, he had 



a contract for government siirvexs extending over 
several counties. He was employed in this work 
about two years, and in 1837 took a government 
contract in what is now the State of Iowa. 

In 1838 Mr. Jones, having selected the beautiful 
spot where Fort Atkinson, a village of twenty-five 
hundred inhabitants, now stands as his future home, 
there built him a log cabin, and on that identical 
spot we find him to-day. There were then only two 
families on the present site of the village, though 
Charles Rockwell, a pioneer, was only a short dis- 
tance away. Without any legal rights here, Indians 
had entire possession of the country, and called the 
place Koshkonong, because of the lake of that name 
in this township, a name which some of the early 
settlers were disposed to adopt. The post-office, 
however, had always been named Fort Atkinson, in 
honor of General Atkinson. Here Mr. Jones opened 
a farm, and from time to time, as occasion recjuired, 
engaged in surveying. 

In 1839 he started a dairy on what would now be 
regarded a small scale, and considers himself as the 
pioneer cheese manufacturer of the State. Among 
the experiences of those early times might be men- 
tioned the following : 

Early in the spring of 1840 or 1841, some of the 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGHAPHJCAL DICTIONART. 



families near Mr. Jones had a terrible fright caused 
by the Indians. A fur trader had given them some 
diluted whisky, and in a half into.xicated state they 
entered two or three cabins of the whites in the 
night, hooted and danced, and pillaged and fled. 
Some of the old women in great fear found shelter 
at Mr. Jones', where they said they should be safe. 
Mr. Jones, who subsequently received a colonel's 
commission from General Dodge, wrote to the Gen- 
eral the particulars in regard to the Indians, and 
received orders to remove them from the locality 
alive or dead. He summoned thirty or forty men 
from the surrounding country, who all came with 
guns and ammunition. Having interviewed the 
chief, on the shore of the lake, Mr. Jones gave him 
fifteen minutes in which to fold up his tents and 
depart, and before that time had expired every red 
man was making rapid strides in a westward direc- 
tion. On the same day, and at the same hour, an 
Indian trader came along in a canoe to negotiate for 
pelts, having whisky in his trunks. This Mr. Jones 
destroyed, talked seriously of an extemporaneous 
gallows, upon which the fur dealer paddled his 
canoe away as though racing with death himself 

On another occasion Mr. Jones met a large body 
of Indians returning from Milwaukee, where they 
had been to receive their government supplies. 
Seeing that they were partially intoxicated, he gath- 



I ered from their looks, their movements, and their 

language, that they meant mischief, and when he 

1 started to leave them made quick steps for twenty 

or thirty feet, then turning suddenly, he saw half a 

! dozen guns about to be pointed at him, and in a 

moment more was among the Indians cuffing their 

ears, and showing them that he understood them. 

He started off a second time, keeping an eye on 

them until he had passed over a knoll, and then 

disappeared at a rapid pace. 

] On July 4, 1849, Mr. Jones opened the Green 

I Mountain House, and continued its proprietor for 

several years, and during the administration of 

President Pierce, was postmaster, having his office 

' in the hotel. 

In 1848 he was a member of the constitutional 
( convention, and had the satisfaction of seeing carried 
j through that body nearly every measure which he 
. advocated. In politics he was a democrat until 
! 1861, since which time he has voted with the repub- 
lican party. 

In April, 1832, Mr. Jones was married to Miss 
Sarah Crane, of Richmond, Vermont, who died in 
1872. Of the eight children born to them, five are 
now living, of whom four are married. Milo C. 
Jones, one of the sons, manages the home farm, 
consisting of five or six hundred acres, and has one 
of the largest private dairies in this part of the State. 



GOV. JOHN E. HOLMES, 

JEFFERSON. 



JOHN EDWIN HOLMES, the first lieutenant- 
J governor of the State of Wisconsin, was born 
December 28, 1809, near Hartford, Connecticut, his 
parents being Solomon and Ann (McKee) Holmes. 
The family moved to the State of New York when 
he was in his fourth year, and both parents dying 
before he was nine he went to live with his grand- 
father in the same State. He early exhibited a 
strong love for books, in which, however, his grand- 
father did not encourage him. At twelve years of 
age he left home, and going to Hamilton, Madison 
county, there partially learned a trade. During his 
leisure hours he applied himself to study, and thus 
gained an education sufficient to enable him to 
teach a common school. Later he attended an 
academy in the place where he resided, and event- 
ually prepared himself for the Universalist ministry. 



After preaching for a time in Chautauqua county. 
New York, and adjacent parts of Pennsylvania, he, 
in 1836, settled at Ann Arbor, Michigan. Here he 
was engaged in preaching for nearly a year, and 
upon his removal, which was before the close of that 
year, settled at Roscoe, Illinois, and began tJ»e study 
of law. At the end of two years he went to Lock- 
port, in the same State, exchanged his theological for 
a law library, and was there admitted to the bar. 
Removing to Savanna, in Carroll county, he was 
there engaged in the practice of law for about two 
years, and in 1843 pushed northward into Wiscon- 
sin, and settled at his present home in Jefferson, 
where he practiced law in the State and United 
States courts until his death. 

When Wisconsin became a State, in 1848, Mr. 
Holmes was chosen lieutenant governor, and served 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 



in that capacity for two years. In 1832 we find him 
in the State legislature, in which body he rendered 
valuable, efficient and lasting service. 

In August, 1862, Mr. Holmes went into the army 
as quartermaster of the 2 2d Regiment of Wiscon- 
sin Infantry. He remained with the regiment un- 
til March 25, 1863, when he was taken prisoner, at 
Brentwood, Tenn., and sent to Libby prison. He 
was there confined until the 5th of the following 
May, when he was exchanged. Two days later he 
was sent to Annapolis, where he died the next 



day. His remains were brought to Jefferson, and 
there buried according to the rites of the Masonic 
order. 

In early life Mr. Holmes was a democrat, but 
acted with the republican jjarty after its organiza- 
tion in 1856. 

In 1836 he married Miss Ruth A. Hawley, of 
Milan, Ohio, by whom he had four sons, who are 
still living. Mrs. Holmes and three of her sons are 
living in Nebraska, while the other son, Edwin F. 
Holmes, is a merchant in Jefferson, Wisconsin. 



CHARLES ROCKWELL, 



FORT ATKINSON. 



EMIGRATION, it is said, tends to barbarism. 
If this be true, the rule has it exceptions. 
There are men who have taken their christian vir- 
tues and their consciences with them into the wil- 
derness, and there strengthened both. Charles 
Rockwell was the second man to pitch his tent on 
the present site of Fort Atkinson ; and whether liv- 
mg among savages or civilized men, whether deal- 
ing with red men or white men, his dealings and 
actions have always been those of an honorable, 
upright business man. He is a native of Oneida 
county, New York, and was born May 11, 1810. 
His parents, Thomas B. Rockwell and Mary nee 
Dunham, were from New England. His father 
moved from ( )neida county to Stockbridge, Mad- 
ison county, when the son was seven years old. 
Here Charles lived during the next twenty years, 
dividing his time between farm-work and study in 
the district school until he was seventeen, when he 
learned and worked at the joiner's trade. 

In 1837 Mr. Rockwell removed to the West, 
reaching Fort Atkinson in June of that year, and 
for a short time occupied a stable owned by Mr. 
Dwight Foster, the original settler of the place. 
There were few other families in the vicinity, but 
Indians, by the leniency of the government, were 
still very numerous. The land had not yet come 
into market, but Mr. Rockwell made a claim of one 
section and three fourths, upon which he performed 
a certain amount of work to prevent its being 
"jumped," and at the same time built him a log 
cabin one and a half miles east of the Fort, on Bark 
river. Soon afterward he built a free ferry at what 
was known as Rockwell's Crossing, keeping a scow 



for teams and two or three canoes for footmen, 
every man doing his own paddling. In 1838, hav- 
ing made an addition to his cabin, Mr. Rockwell 
opened a store, a brother living in New York State 
furnishing the goods, which he shipped by water to 
Milwaukee, whence they were taken by ox teams — 
the journey of fifty miles occupying a week for the 
round trip. About 1841, not having the means to 
enter the land when it came into market, Mr. Rock- 
well resigned his claims to his brother, and, moving 
to Fort Atkinson, erected a house, and during the 
next thirty years was engaged at his trade. At 
first he used to lumber in the winter and fill con- 
tracts for building during the rest of the year. He 
built the first store in the place, which is still stand- 
ing on the northeast corner of Main and Milwaukee 
streets. He also built the first school house, a sub- 
stantial and well-finished frame building, twenty- 
three by thirty feet, at a cost of one hundred dollars 
— a building which could not now be built for three 
hundred dollars. The house, for a time, was used 
for both school and church purposes. Mr. Rock- 
well was anxious to have some respectable place in 
the little village for Sunday worship, and, for the 
sake of securing the job and hurrying the work, 
took the contract at a low figure. 

He has been a member of the Congregational 
church since seventeen years of age, and is now the 
only surviving constituent male member of the Fort 
Atkinson body. He has always maintained a con- 
sistent christian character. 

He is also a member of the Royal Blue in the 
Odd-fellows order. 

In politics Mr. Rockwell was a democrat until 



THE UNITED STATES BIOdRAPniCAL DICTIONARY. 



1856, since which time lie has voted with the repub- 
lican party. 

He has been married three times: first, in 1S33, 
to Miss Ann Maria Farrington, of Augusta, New 
York, who died one year later; July 4, 1835, he was 
married to Miss Caroline L. More, of Augusta, by 
whom he had three children, and who died in 1873; 
April 2, 1874, he was married to Miss Maggie Tel- 
fer, of Fort Atkinson. W. Adelbert Rockwell, the 
only surviving child by his second wife, is a joiner ; 
he is married, and resides near his father. When 
Mr. Rockwell settled at Fort Atkinson he purchased 
land, which he still works. 

As showing the patriotism of Mr. Rockwell, the 
following incident may be related. Most of the cit- 
izens of Fort .Atkinson made arrangements to ob- 
serve the " Centennial Fourth " at larger towns in the 
vicinity, but Mr. Rockwell thought some notice 
should be taken of so important a day at home. 
Since the local band had an engagement to leave 
town durina; the forenoon of the fourth, he sent 



out an invitation to all its members and to several 
families in the village to take breakfast with him. 
He built a large bower the night before, after the 
neighbors had retired, and prepared a sumptuous 
feast. The band came early and marched through 
the streets summoning the guests, and at a season- 
able hour all sat down to breakfast, while over their 
heads waved a flag made years before by Mr. Rock- 
well's second wife, the faithful Caroline, who accom- 
panied him to his wilderness home nearly fifty years 
ago, and who was foremost in every patriotic and 
benevolent movement. 

No man in the village has struggled harder or 
done more for the educational, moral, religious and 
general interests of the place, or is held in higher 
esteem by his neighbors. He was one of the first 
justices of the peace in the place, and tried the first 
case; was a supervisor for several years, and during 
one term chairman of the board, and has, in short, 
been honored by his townsmen with every office 
within their gift. 



JOSEPH DORR CLAPP, 



FORT ATKINSON. 



AMONG the prudent business men and success- 
. ful financiers of Jefferson county, Wisconsin, 
is Joseph D. Clapp, a native of Westminster, Wind- 
ham county, Vermont. He is a son of Caleb and 
Nancy (Dorr) Clapp, and was born on the 31st of 
December, 181 1. His father, a carpenter and 
builder, and later in life a woolen manufacturer, 
owned a small farm, on which the son worked until 
his seventeenth year, at which time he became a 
salesman in a West India goods store in Boston, 
Massachusetts, where he remained until he attained 
his majority. About two years later, in connection 
with an elder brother, Mark R. Clapp, he bought a 
part of the old homestead, and remained upon it a 
year or two. Selling his interest, he removed to the 
West, and settled at the place which he afterward 
named Milford, in Jefferson county, Wisconsin, in 
the autumn of 1839. Here he entered lands and 
bought claims in connection with his elder brother; 
built a log dwelling-house and a frame barn, and 
opened a farm, which he cultivated until 1857, when 
he sold out, removed to Fort Atkinson, and engaged 
in the banking business with his brother-in-law, 
Hon. 1,. H. Caswell, member of congress from this 



district. The institution was called the Koshkonong 
Bank, and was organized under the State law. In 
1864 Messrs. Clapp and Caswell sold their interest 
in this institution, and organized the First National 
Bank of Fort Atkinson, Mr. Clapp taking the posi- 
tion of president, which he still holds. 

By upright dealing and careful management he 
has attained a good degree of success, and lives in 
the enjoyment of a liberal competence. Public 
spirited and generous, he takes an active interest in 
all that pertains to the welfare of his \illage, and 
with wise planning, in an unostentatious manner, 
aids from time to time in carrying forward important 
local improvements. 

In ] 863 he was elected to the State senate for a 
term of two years, and during that time rendered 
valuable and efficient service on several important 
committees, and was known as one of the working 
members. (His brother Mark, who still lives at 
Milford, has also been a member of the legislature.) 

Mr. Clapp has always been identified with the 
democratic party, and during the civil war was 
known as a "war democrat," and contributing liber- 
ally of his means in putting down the rebellion. 



THE UNITED STATES lUOCRAPIIICAL DICTIONARY. 



221 



Mr. Clapp has been twice married : first to Zida 
Ann May, of Fort Atkinson, August 21, 1841, and 
the second time to Mrs. S. C. Weld, of Freeport, 
Illinois, September 23, 1869. The first wife died 
February 14, 1867. He has no children by either 
marriage. 

In his religious views he is a llniversalist. 



Mr. Clapp is of a ruddy complexion ; is five feet 
seven and a half inches high, and weighs one hun- 
dred and sixty pounds. He has always been a man 
of temperate and in all respects excellent liabits, 
and although sixty-five years old would pass for a 
much younger man, and gives every evidence of 
further years of usefulness. 



PATRICK H. O'ROURK. LL.D., 



MILWAUKEE. 



PATRICK HENRY O'ROURK, son of Michael 
and Elizabeth O'Rourk, was born in Granville, 
Milwaukee county, Wisconsin, August 28, 1847. 

When but two years of age his parents removed to 
Lyndon, Sheboygan county, where he grew up on a 
farm, working hard for his father until he reached 
the age of sixteen, meanwhile improving every op- 
portunity for education that offered itself in the inter- 
vals of his labor. This routine of farm life, though 
hard and homely in its details, was productive of 
most beneficial results, and — as is usually the case 
— he acquired "a sound mind in a sound body," 
invaluable to his future advancement. He after- 
ward read law with Stephens and Flowers, at Madi- 
son, Wisconsin, and subsequently pursued a course 
of study in the law department of the ITniversity of 
Wisconsin, from which he graduated with the mer- 
ited degree of LL.D. 

He was admitted to the bar in 1869, b\- Hon. 
Alva Stewart, presiding judge of the circuit, and 



afterward of the supreme court of Wisconsin and 
the United States circuit court. In 187 1 he was 
elected to the assembly from Sheboygan county, 
having an unprecedented majority, nearly equal to 
the full vote cast for his opponent, and found him- 
self, at the age of twenty-four, the youngest member 
of the house. In 1872 he was elected to the State 
senate from the first district by a handsome majority. 
In 1S74 he settled in Milwaukee, and opened there 
an office for the practice of his profession. 

In the same year he was married to Miss Frances 
A. Titus, of Wisconsin, an educated and highly 
accomplished lady, who as a wife is eminently fitted 
to exercise an influence for good over the fortunes 
of the rising young lawyer. 

Mr. O'Rourk is yet in the morning of his career, 
but has already distanced many older competitors 
on the upward road to renown, and seems destined 
to rival the fame of the illustrious statesman after 
whom he was named. 



HON. DANIEL HALL, 



W ATEHTOnN. 



DANIEL HALL, a native of Greenwich, Wash- 
ington county, New York, was born November 
'20, 1819, and is the son of Titus Hall and Sarah nc'c 
Sybrandt. His parents were farmers by occupation, 
a class from whom spring three-fourths of our dis- 
tinguished men. The subject of this sketch aided 
his father on the farm until he was eighteen years of 
age, at which time he entered the seminary at Lima, 
Livingston county. New York, and prepared for col- 
lege. In 1842 he entered the sophomore class of 
Union College, from which he graduated in [845. 
Later he studied law at Lockport, Niagara county, 
29 



in the ofi^<es of Woods and Bowen, and of Judge 
(Gardner. He afterward removed to Wisconsin and 
was admitted to the bar in Milwaukee in August, 
1851. During the next month he settled in Water- 
town, Jefferson county, where he has since been 
steadily engaged in the practice of his profession, 
and is known as a wise counselor and skillful attor- 
ney, and where his legal services and ability are 
thoroughly appreciated by his fellow-citizens. 

Although in politics he was formerly a whig and 
is now (1877) a republicnn, and although living 
in a district four-fifths deuwcratic, he has been 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTION ART. 



repeatedly elected to office — not, however, of his own 
seeking. 

Mr. Hall was elected district attorney of Jefferson 
county for 1857 and 1858, and was a member of the 
legislature in 1870, 1871 and 1872, and speaker of 
the house during the last-named year. His record 
as a legislator is one of marked success and useful- 
ness. He was usually chosen to further some im- 
portant measure, and always accomplished the pur- 
pose of his constituents. 

Mr. Hall attends the Congregational church. He 
is a liberal supporter of the gospel, and of all worthy 
benevolent enterprises. 

He has been twice married: first, in June, 1846, 
to Miss Elizabeth T. Flagler, of Lockport, New 



York, wlio died. May 24, 1S47. On September i, 
1852, he was married to Miss Lucy B. Newhall, also 
of Lockport, and by her has had two children, one 
of whom, Arthur D. Hall, is now living. He is in 
the junior class of the Wisconsin State University, 
and is a promising young man. 

Mr. Hall started life to become a lawyer and noth- 
ing else, and to this end has employed all his time and 
energies. At the urgent solicitation of his fellow- 
citizens, as is seen in this sketch, he has stepped 
aside on two or three occasions, for a short time, to 
attend to some important legislative matters, but 
when such labors have terminated he has gladly re- 
turned to his chosen profession, in which he is an 
eminent success. 



GEORGE B. MINER, M.D.. D.D.S. 



MIL WA UKEE. 



GEORGE BARBER MINER was born in Og- 
den, near Rochester, New York, March 10, 
1818. He was the son of Dr. Amos and Alcy Case 
Miner. His father was a physician, as were many 
of his ancestors, and owned and resided ujjon a fine 
farm near Toledo, Ohio, to which he removed when 
George was fourteen years old, which his sons were 
trained to till while they lived at home. George 
Barber was selected as the son who should study his 
father's profession and succeed him in his practice. 
Accordingly, ere he had concluded his common 
school education, he was taught to compound medi- 
cines, and commenced the study of the theory and 
practice of medicine at the age of seventeen. While 
thus engaged in study, he for a year and a half had 
charge of the farm work, when he was sent to Ober- 
lin, Ohio, to pursue the regular collegiate classical 
course of study, but more especially to take advan- 
tage of the facilities afforded in the well appointed 
laboratory of Professor Doscone, the eminent sur- 
geon, for the study of practical surgery. He remained 
at Oberlin three years and a half, completing his 
studies at the age of twenty-three. Suffering from 
impaired health, instead of entering upon the 
practice of medicine he turned his attention to the 
subject of dentistry and joined Dr. Meacham, a 
skillful dentist, in a tour through the South ; while 
with him he perfected his knowledge in practical den- 
tistry, graduated regularly and received a diploma 
at the Cincinnati Dental College. He traveled in 



the South in all about two years. In 1844 Dr. 
Miner removed to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where he 
entered upon the practice of his profession, opening 
an office on the northeast corner of Main, now Broad- 
way and Wisconsin streets, where now stands the 
North-Western Insurance Company's building, with 
Dr. Fanies as partner, which partnership continued 
until 1850. He soon became known e.xtensively as 
a skillful dentist, and his business steadily increased, 
receiving no inconsiderable patronage from distant 
towns. His increasing business demanding more 
commodious offices, he erected the building formerly 
occupied by the First National Bank, on the site 
now occupied by that bank. In i860, having sold 
his building on Wisconsin street, he removed to East 
Water street, and continued there until 1870, when 
he gave up his offices and partially retired from 
practice, other interests demanding his attention. 
Yet his many friends and patrons, unwilling to re- 
linquish their claims upon his professionaL services, 
he consented to continue his practice on a limited 
scale at his private residence on Wisconsin street. 

From 185 1 to 1859 he was a director of the North 
Western Life Insurance Company, was one of its 
charter members, and a prime mover in [)resenting 
the advantages and claims of this now great corpo- 
ration before the public. His religious views are 
those of-the Congregational church, in which he was 
raised. In politics he was an old-line whig, and 
subsequently a republican. He assisted in raising 




^£J,- 



'-^^-i-cx^L*- 



THE UNITED STATES lilOCRAPrirCAL TJICTrONART 



225 



men for the army of the rebellion and in ec|uii)])ing 
them for the field. 

He married in Milwaukee, July 3, 1S48, Marinda 
Seymour, a native of Batavia, New York. He has 
one daughter, wife of F. T. Day, Esq. 

From ancient records we find that the first one 
who bore the name of Miner was Henry, who lived 
in the age of one of the Edwards of England, at 
Mendip Hills, in Somersetshire. The name of the 
armorial bearings was given by king Edward in 
acknowledgment of his services in providing an 
escort for the king on his way to embark for France. 
The king in giving him a coat-of-arms honored his 



vocation by bestowing upon him the name of his 
trade as a sirname. His ancestors in this country 
were among the first settlers in Connecticut, one of 
whom became governor of tlie colony, and many of 
whom were active in the early Indian war, and sub- 
sequently in the great war of the revolution. 

Dr. Miner's grandmother was the sister of the 
celebrated John Brown. Dr. Miner is a gentleman 
of highly respectable abilities in his profession, of 
e.xemplary morals and habits, and scrupulously exact 
in the discharge of his public and private duties. 
His virtues are most conspicuous in his social and 
domestic relations 



REV. SAMUEL E. MINER, 



SAMUEL ELBERT MINER, whose name will 
be connected in history with the " electrical 
hyijothesis of creation" — of which he claims to 
be the discoverer — was born ia Halifax, Windham 
county, Vermont, December 13, 1815, and is the son 
of Samuel Holnian and Anna (Avery) Miner, of pure 
New England Puritanic stock. He is descended 
from an' ancestry of singular probity of character 
and remarkable vitality — living to great age, and 
transmitting family traits of character through a 
long line of descendants, commencing with Henry 
Miner, who came from England and settled in New 
London, Connecticut, upon a farm that has remained 
in the family name for some eight generations. 
They were all men of singular purity of character; 
not one of them ever having been accused of crime. 
Their honorable English ancestry is attested by a 
coat of arms preserved in the family. 

The father of our subject was remarkable for his 
breadth of character, great judgment and extensive 
information, and held a most honorable rank among 
the fathers of New England society, and was the 
trusted counselor and adviser of his neighbors and 
townsmen in all important matters. He was one of 
the pillars of the church, and was born in 1776 and 
died in 1862, in Smithfield, Pennsylvania. 

His motherwas the daughter of Captain Samuel 
Avery, a revolutionary hero, justly proud of his fam- 
ily name and of his honorable wounds in the cause 
of his country. She lived to the age of ninety years, 
and was wont, in her age, to tell the story of her 
father's wounds in battle, and of her thirteen other 



relatives who were killed at the storming of Fort 
Griswold by the British under Arnold in 1781. She 
was a mother worthy of her noble parentage, and 
protested against the usage requiring women to 
"keep silence in the church," by leaving the Con- 
gregational and uniting with the .Methodist church, 
where she could express her views in class and 
prayer meetings. The ancestors of the Miner family 
for many generations have belonged to the Congre- 
gational church, and the titles of Deacon and Rev- 
erend seem to be hereditary in the family. 

The early life of S. E. Miner was spent upon a 
farm, where he learned by experience to eat bread 
" by the sweat of his face," and employed his leisure 
hours in picking up stones, hoeing in the garden, or 
killing Canada thistles. 

At the age of seventeen he went to Troy, New 
York, to learn the carpenter trade with a brother-in- 
law. Prior to the expiration of his apjirenticeship 
he united with the Presbyterian church, and under 
a sense of duty, began a course of preparatory study 
for the ministry; entered the Oneida Institute, 
VVhitestown, Oneida county, New York. Here lie 
entered upon the great moral battle-ground of his 
life. The institution was established as a protest 
against American slavery, and the curriculum of 
studies was arranged with a view to qualifying its 
students for fighting Christian battles with bible 
weapons. Hebrew and Greek were made the prom- 
inent classic studies, and the Old and New Testaments 
were its text books. An institution so much at 
variance with the animus of the times, could hardly 



226 



THE UNITED STATES BrOGRAPIirCAJ, DICTIONARY. 



expect exemption from opposition and obloquy. 
The American Education Society withdrew its aid 
from the students, while the State refused a college 
charter. Hundreds of young men were thus made 
to feel more intensely the curse of slavery, and be- 
came the life-long persistent enemies of that institu- 
tion. After quitting Oneida College he supplemented 
its course by a year at the Burr Seminary at Man- 
chester, Vermont, which was devoted to the study of 
Latin. He entered the Auburn Theological Semi- 
nary in 1840, from which he graduated in 1843. 
During his entire course of study he found his trade 
a resource of great value, being often under the 
necessity of paying his way in school by the labor of 
his hands. 

He was licensed to preach by the Presbytery^ of 
Cayuga in the spring of 1843, and in the employment 
of the Home Missionary Society, commenced his 
labors at Madison, Wisconsin, in October of the 
same year, and was ordained to the Congregational 
ministry by the Presbyterian and Congregational con- 
vention of Wisconsin in 1844. The capital of the 
Territory of Wisconsin was then a village of three 
hundred inhabitants — but with surroundings of I 
wild and varied beauty. Here he labored earnestly 
for three years, and under his ministry the first 
ecclesiastical edifice of the place was erected at a 
cost of two thousand dollars — a sum equal to the 
entire wealth of the membership of the congrega- 
tion. In 1844 he was elected chaplain of the terri- 
torial legislature, and in 1846 was elected, with Rev. 
Thomas M'Hugh, of the Episcopal church, chaplain 
of the first constitutional convention of Wisconsin. 
At the adjournment of the convention he accepted 
a call from the Congregational Church of Elkhorn, 
Walworth county, where he labored with marked 
success for six years. During this period the slave- \ 
holding power in both church and state reached the j 
apogee of its arrogance, and threatened to subordi- 
nate the whole nation to its influence. Our subject's 
training had fitted him for this emergency. He en- 
tered with all his strength and soul into the struggle, 
and wielded an influence second to none in the 
State, and to few in the country in crystallizing the 
then rapidly forming anti-slavery sentiment, which 
in r86o swept the nation. He exchanged frequently 
with brother ministers, and in every pulpit and on 
every platform he earnestly preached an anti-slavery 
gospel. He had also some memorable encounters 
with temporizing and timid brethren of the ministry. 
These were by far the most important, though not 



the most popular, years of his ministry. He next 
labored for six years as a missionary in Wyocena, 
Columbia county, where he gathered a congregation, 
erected a church of fine appearance at a cost of two 
thousand dollars, and also built a select school-house 
at his own expense — for which he secured an excel- 
lent eastern teacher — and was a member of the 
school board of the district and town superintendent 
of schools, and by his energy infused life and vigor 
into the people, which told powerfully on their insti- 
tutions ; so that on retiring he left the schools and 
churches of the village comfortably housed and 
firmly established. In 1858 he became pastor of 
the Congregational church of Monroe, where he 
labored ane year with great success, erected a house 
of worship and strengthened the congregation. This 
closed his labors in the active ministry. 

During the preceding four years of his life his re- 
ligious views had been gradually lapsing from the 
severe orthodoxy of the Presbyterian and Congrega- 
tional churches to broader conceptions of the divine 
love and of human duty. The fatherhood of God 
and the sonship of Christ seemed to him to include 
the whole human family, and he felt that he could 
not set bounds to the grace of God. If Moodys 
and Sankeys can bring the love of Christ to the out- 
casts of our cities and save them by hundre"ds, there 
is strength enough in that same love to envelop the 
world in its snowy robe of redemption, — the hem 
of the garment that can by a touch heal one diseased, 
has a virtue equal to the healing of all diseased 
ones. To refer this infinite power and love to the 
arbitrament of human wills and human opportunities 
seemed to him at variance with reason and revela- 
tion. The hmi' of the great consummation of hu- 
man redemption he could not fathom, and feeling 
that he was no longer in sympathy with the leading 
tenets of his church, he retired from the ministry, 
and has since been devoting himself to business. He 
is a finished scholar, a profound thinker, and an in- 
exorable reasoner. For some years past his studies 
have been devoted to the subject of " Primary Forces," 
and have resulted in the promulgation of the '" Elec- 
trical Hypothesis of Creation," of which he claims to 
be the discoverer, which is based upon the principle 
of evolution, commencing with the primary electrical 
currents of space. His views were brought out with 
great clearness and demonstration in a course of 
lectures delivered in Monroe in the winter of 1876. 
His theories are adequately set fortli in the follow- 
ing extract from his introductory lecture which his 



THE UNITED STATES H/OGRAPt/rCAL DICTIONARY 



227 



subsequent discourses, supported by such an array 
of facts and illustrations, as renio\e tliem-altogether 
from the range of the improbable : 

The first step in the Evolutionary process is the produc- 
tion of light, which is simply the magnetization of Elec- 
trical currents, and furnishes the basis of all aggregations 
and all control of matter. Polarized light is simply the 
Electrical Currents of Space prepared to enter into combi- 
nations of material structure. - The primary molecules of 
matter are here revealed in their pei t'cction, possessed of 
the two governing forces of all material change and all me- 
chanical motion — vV/..,attyactwii and npiilfioii. Of these 
molecules science teaches that they are perfect magnets, 
liaving ends, sides and an equatoria"l center, and that they 
pass into the combinations of matter, mider the control of 
their polar attiactions. In such molecules there must be a 
metallic basis, with a treasured-up Electrical force. This is 
the Creative energy that Jehovah called to his aid in the 
beginning, when He "created the Heavens and the Earth;" 
and it is adequate to produce all the evolutionary forms of 
matter and of life, and all orders of growth are carried for- 
ward by the guiding presence of the attractions and repul- 
sions of magnetization. Thus we find currents of electricity 
compassing all space, and currents of magnetism filling all 
body, and light — the great agency that carries molecule 
and power over from the metallic force currents of space 
and building them into matter. Across this line — between 
body and space — which the light traverses, magnetic and 
electrical forces work as the balancing line of their diverse 
and yet correlate forces. When we carefully note the dif- 
ference between electricity and magnetism we shall find 
that electricity represents the currents of force that move 
through space, and that magnetism represents the currents 
of force that move through body. Electricity may be gath- 
ered upon the surface of body, while Magnetism takes pos- 
session of every molecule of matter in body. 

Another property of magnetism is that it always imparts 
polarity to matter, by means of which it becomes a great 
working power, revealing its attractions and repulsion at the 
most distant and opposite leverage points of the body, and 
that its attractions and repulsions are an exact balance that 
fix an equator of rest, from which currents move with equal 
resistance toward the opposite poles; and hence a body of 
matter constantly encircled with passing electrical currents, 
and thereby saturated with a constant supply of magnetic 
strength, that is delivered in polar a// niclions and refiilsions, 
fulfills the true idea of a planetary body. Sun and planets 
are conceded by astronomers to be vast revolving magnets. 

By referring to the law of magnetic control we learn 
that every magnet establishes around it a magnetic field 
commensurate Avith its size and strength. Such a body as 
the sun, revolving at the rate of four thousand miles per 
hour, with its polar forces discharging their oppositely mov- 
ing force currents into space eight hundred and eighty 
thousand miles apart, furnish a conception of mechanical 
power and motion that is adequate to the control of the 
mechanical order of the entire solar system. Add to this 
the conception of all the planets of the system with their 
poles in reverse order to that of the sun, also surrounded 
with their electrical circles commensurate with their mag- 
netic strength, with pivotal centers of motion, resting within 
the equatorial plane of the sun's oppositely revolving posi- 
tive and negative fields ot circles, all moving in systematic 
order, and there is revealed to the mind a system of worlds 
and world-tbrces, mutually sustaining and controlling each 
other, that furnish a perfect ideal of perpetual mechanical 
power and order ol motion. With such an arrangement of 
living globes and living forces the work of creation must 
go forward from its beginning so long as attractions and 
repulsions are supplied with their life throbs from the elec- 
trical strength of universal power. The mutual relations 
of sun and planet, together with their wonderful upholding 
power and sublime velocities, all find an explanation in the 



electrical currents of space and the magnetic force currents 
of body. 

This hypothesis represents light as a purely electrical 
illumination of magnetic bodies and as the active agency of 
magiitlizalioii. It regards all growing organizations of 
body lis I \i>K<.d iiiidii the play of electrical and magnetic 
forces, I Diistiiulini; carli growing body a magnet. It also 
funiislus the p.i-sinj; step between the inicroscopic cells 
and tlie /'ii/'l,isiii { ':) of the scientists and the true beginning 
of lite. Positive and negative magnetic forces seek an 
attracti\e unity in matter that generates life. And in all 
this there is no rejection of the liigher conceptions of Crea- 
tive energy that rest in such power. Magnetism is the 
working agency and the obedient servant of will-power. 
Neither Scientist nor Religionist can measure a soul or 
weigh a thought; and yet the human organism is a soul- 
ometer that gives to us constant exhibitions of iini'^intude of 
soul iind zveijiht of thoiiiiht. Both l)i\iTic:nul human will 
are exalted to a throne of dominion w here tlie swiftly mov- 
ing magnetic currents of body become their |)lodding ser- 
vants and their swift-winged angels. 

The political views of our subject are governed 
by his religion ; hence he has always acted with the 
republican party, except in 1874-5, when he sup- 
ported the reform ticket. 

In July, 1843, he married Miss Maria C. Kelley, 
of Oneida county, New York, by whom he had four 
sons and four daughters. One son died in infancy. 
His eldest son, Charles E., born June 4, 1844, was a 
' student of Oberlin College, Ohio, in 1862, a youth 
1 of great promise, and enthusiastically devoted to the 
cause of freedom. Entered the army after the 
proclamation of emancipation, as a private in the 
1 7th Michigan Cavalry, in which he was soon after 
protnoted to the rank of sergeant and charged with 
important military trusts by his colonel. At the 
battle of Gettysburg, on the last day of that fearful 
I struggle, in leading a cavalry charge to dislodge 
I some sharpshooters, he was shot from his horse, 
his last act being a wave of his sword, emphasizing 
the command, " Forward, boys ! " Thus gloriously 
fell one of the bravest soldiers and noblest patriots 
of the army. His body was identified and buried 
in the soldiers' cemetery at Gettysburg. His second 
son, Edgar S., at the age of sixteen, enlisted, in the 
spring of 1873, in the 7th Wisconsin Battery of 
Artillery ; was captured by the enemy at Humboldt, 
on the Mississippi, paroled, and soon after discharged 
from the service, being under age. He subsequently 
enlisted in the ist Wisconsin Cavalry, in which he 
served honorably till the close of the war. He is 
now inarried and settled in Monroe. His eldest 
daughter, Ellen M., a young lady of excellent edu- 
action and great promise, died at the age of seven- 
teen years. The three remaining daughters, Fanny 
M., Anna Mary and Ellie Alice, and the youngest 
son, William Avery, are still living at home. 



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



In July, 1861, Mrs. Miner died. She was highly 
esteemed and loved by all who knew her ; possessed